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T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 



The Ackhenza Bust 

Supposed by some in he a portrait of Julian 

This bust, slightly more than life size and made of the local 

limestone, stood for many years on the gable of the cathedral of 

Acerenza (Aceruntia), near Horace's birthplace ; it is now preserved 

in the sacristy of the chinch. It was formerly regarded by the 

natives as an image of St. Peter. That it might represent Julian 

was first suggested by Lenormant in 1883; his opinion was accepted 

by some, but is now generally rejected by the best authorities; for 

although the bust is probably a work of the foiu-th century, it 

' does not at all correspond with Ammianus' description of Julian 

(xxv. 4, 22), or with the coins and a sardonyx gem, which seem to 

give the only authentic portraits of the emperor.^ 

1 1 am indebted for a full account of the literature on tlie subject to 
Dr George M. A. Hanfmann, Kesearch Fellow of Harvard University, 
and Professor David M. Kobinson, of Johns Hopkins University. 

A M M I A N U S 










Printed in Oreal Britain 


Except for some of the reviews of my previous 
contributions to the L.C.L. it would be superfluous 
to say that this is a translation and not a critical 
edition. Every serious student of the text must 
use the standard edition of C. U. Clark (Berlin, 
vol. i, 1910 ; vol. ii, part 1, 1915). The translator 
has, however, attempted to examine all the available 
critical material, and has deviated in a number of 
instances from Clark's text, always with hesitation, 
except in the way of filling out lacunae. To shorten 
and simplify the critical notes (which are perhaps 
still too numerous) all instances have been omitted 
in which the earlier editions have made corrections 
of Codex V which are generally accepted. 

Clark's punctuation according to the metrical 
clausulae (see Introd., p. xxii) is regarded by Novak 
[Wiener Studien 33, p. 293) as no less important in 
establishing the text than the discovery of a new 
and valuable manuscript. Although this punc- 
tuation diff"ers from the usual system, especially in 
the case of some relative clauses and in a more abxm- 
dant use of commas, it has seemed best to follow 
it except in a few instances, where it might be mis- 
leading. It frequently throws light on the writer's 

My obligations to Professor Clark are not confined 
to the use of his edition. He generously placed at 


my disposal the first draft of his translation of Books 
xiv-xvii, 11, 4, which has been of great service. C ' 
My translation, however, must not be supposed 
to reflect his final version. He also loaned me his 
copy of the somewhat rare translation of Holland. 
Anyone who is at all familiar with the constant 
problems presented by the text of Ammianus, and by 
his Latinity, will view with indulgence an attempt 
to render him into English and to retain so far as 
possible something of the flavour of the original. 


Philadelphia, June, 1935. 





The LrFE of Ammianus .... 

His History ...... 

His Style ...... 

Roman Officials in the Time of Ammianus 
Mantjscripts and Editions 
Bibliographical Note .... 

SiGLA ....... 

Book XIV 
Book XV 







Book XIX 

Index I 

Index I] 










at the end of the volume 



The Life of Ammianus 

Our knowledge of Ammianus is derived almost 
kvhollv from his own writings. He was born about 
\.T). 330 in S^Tian Antioch, of a good Greek family,^ 
and probably received his early education in his 
native city. Antioch at that time was one of the 
principal cities of the Roman Empire, orientis apex 
oulcher,^ and Ammianus took just pride in its material 
prosperity.^ He was not, however, equally proud 
jf his fellow citizens, a mixed population of Greeks, 
Jews, Svrians, and other peoples,^ united only in 
:heir devotion to luxury and the pursuit of pleasure, 
rhe historian makes no reply to the criticisms 
aassed upon them by Julian,^ except to characterize 
them as exaggerated. But Greek still maintained 
!ts intellectual leadership, and the opportunities 
For education were good.^ The city produced other 
men of distinction, notably Libanius and Joannes 

Ammianus spent his active life during the reigns 
if Constantius II, Julian, Jovian, Valentinian, 
and Valens, in the second half of the fourth century, 
when, in spite of some memorable victories, the 

^ Cf. ingenuiis, xix. 8, 6, and xxxi. 16, 9. ^ xxii. 9, 14. 

» xiv. 8, 8 ; xiv. 1, 9. 

* Mommsen, Rom. Gesch. v. 456. 

5 xxii. 14, 2-3 ; xxiii. 2, 3-4. * Mommsen, I.e. 


prestige of the empire was on the wane. The turning- 
point in its history was the disastrous defeat of t 
Valens by the Goths at Adrianople in 378, in which 
the emperor himself met his death, and at that date 
our direct knowledge of Ammianus comes to an end. 

At an early age the future historian was made one 
of the protectores domestici,^ a select corps of the 
imperial bodyguard, which is further testimony to 
his good birth. In 353 he was attached by the 
emperor's order to the staff of Ursicinus, commander- 
in-chief of the army in the East, and joined him at 
Nisibis in Mesopotamia.^ He accompanied his 
general to Antioch, where Ursicinus was entrusted 
by Gallus Caesar with the conduct of trials for 
high treason. Ammianus' early life is closely 
connected with the career of Ursicinus, to whom he 
was strongly attached, and with whom he shared 
prosperity and adversity. Incidentally, he immor- 
talized his chief, of whom little or nothing is known 
from other sources. 

In 354 Ursicinus, who had become an object of 
suspicion to the emperor, was summoned to the 
court at Mediolanum,^ accompanied by Ammianus. 

There palace intrigues caused Ursicinus to be 
still more distrusted by Constantius, who accordingly 
assigned to him the difficult task of suppressing the 
revolt of Silvanus, who had assumed the purple 
at Cologne ^ ; but although the mission was success- 
ful, Ursicinus not only received no commendation 

^ See pp. xlii f., below. Their full title, protector lateris 
divini Augusti nostri, appears in an inscription in Ephem. 
Epigr., v. 121 (no. 4). 

2 xiv. 9, 1. ^ xiv. 11, 4 f. * XV. 5, 21 ff. 


from the emperor, but was even accused of embezzling 
some of the Gallic treasure^ Aramianus remained 
with his chief in Gaul until the summer of 357, 
and hence was in close touch with the exploits of 
Julian, the newly appointed Caesar. Ursicinus 
was next summoned by the suspicious emperor 
to Sirmium in Pannonia, and from there, because 
of the danger which threatened from the Persians, 
was once more sent to the East,^ still accompanied 
by Ammianus. But when the Persians began 
hostilities in 359, Ursicinus was again recalled to 
court, but on reaching the river Hebrus received 
orders to return to Mesopotamia, which had already 
been invaded by the enemy .^ 

Since Sabinianus, who in the meantime had been 
appointed commander-in-chief of the army in the 
East, took no action, Ursicinus with his staff went 
to Nisibis, to prevent that city from being surprised 
and taken by the Persians.'* From there he set 
out for Amida, to keep the roads from being 
occupied, but immediately after leaving Nisibis 
sent Ammianus back to the city on an errand.^ 
In order to escape the hardships of the siege with 
which Nisibis was threatened, Ammianus after 
hastily carrying out his orders tried to rejoin his 
general. He was all but captured on the way, but 
finally came up with Ursicinus and his following 
at Amudis, warned them of the approach of the 
Persians, and accompanied them in their retreat.^ 
By a clever stratagem they misled their pursuers 
into taking the wrong direction, and finally reached 

1 XV. 5, 36. 2 xvi. 10, 21. * xviii. 6, 5. 

* xviii. 6, 8. 5 xviii. 6, 10 ft". « xviii. 6, 12 f. 


Amida.^ There by a eipher message from Procopi 
who had gom; to the Persians as an envoy and 
detained by them, they were informed that i 
enemy's main body had crossed the Tigris, a; 
Ursicinus sent Ammianus, accompanied by a faith^ 
centurion, to the satrap of Corduene, who was secret 
a friend of the Romans, in quest of more defini*^' 
information.- From a rocky height Ammiaj' 
saw the advance of Sapor's army, witnessed tb. 
crossing of the river Anzaba, and reported what } 
had learned to Ursicinus. He, on hearing of tl 
enemy's advance, resolved to go to Samosata a. 
destroy the bridges by which the Persians wei 
planning to cross the Euphrates ^ ; but through tL 
negligence of the Roman cavalry outposts L 
forces were attacked and scattered."* Ammiani 
after several narrow escapes was forced to retu: 
to Amida,^ where he took part in the stubbo' 
resistance of the city to the Persian attack.^ Wl 
Amida finally fell, he succeeded in making t. 
escape under cover of night and after many i 
ventures met Ursicinus at Melitene in Armeu 
Minor and with him returned safely to Antioch.' 
After the deposition of Ursicinus in 360 we he. 
little definite about the historian's career. He toe 
some part in Julian's Persian campaign of 36? 
but in what capacity is uncertain ; he apparentl- 
joined Julian with the arrival of the Euphrates fleet 
since it is after that point in his narrative that wt 
find him using the first person.^ After the return 

1 xviii. 6, 14 ff. 2 xviii. 6, 20 f. ^ xviii. 8, 1. 

* xviii. 8, 2 ff. 5 xviii. 8, 11. " xix. 1-7. 

'xix. 8, 5-12. * xxiii. 5, 7, profecti . . . venimus. 


,60f the Roman army to Antioch on the death of 

;.l^lian and the accession of Jovian he seems to have 

r;i*mained in his native city for a considerable time, 

b since his account of the trials conducted there for 

(ihigh treason in 371 reads like that of an eye-witness.^ 

/tie probably made his home in Antioch until the 

^defeat and death of Valens, but his residence in the 

t^ifity was interrupted by journeys to Egypt - and to 

lijjjreece after the great earthquake of July 6, 366.^ It 

tjiKas doubtless in Antioch that he did some of his ex- 

lifensive reading in preparation for the writing of his 

'.>H'istory. His military career occupied a compara- 

^vely brief period of his life,"* the greater part of which 

■^^^fas devoted to study and writing. 

• After the events of 378 Ammianus went to Rome 

>y way of Thrace, where he seems to have inspected 

ae battlefields,^ choosing the land route rather than 

ue more convenient trip by sea in order to get 

ferial for his History. At any rate, he seems to 

• ve taken up his residence in the Eternal City 

fore 383, and his bitter language about the ex- 

•Ision of foreigners at that time because of 

ireatened famine ^ has led some to infer that he 

fgas one of those who was forced to leave. The 

y^ords of Symmachus,' defectum timemus annoiiae, 

^ulsis omnibus quos exserto et pleno ubere Roma 

^usceperat, imply that the expulsion was general, 

e 1 xxix. 1, 24 ff. ^ xvii. 4, 6 ; xxii. 15, 1. 

3 xxvi. 10, 19. 

* Apparently not more than fifteen years; cf. Klein, 
pp. 9 f. (For this and similar references see Bibliographical 
Note, p. xlix). 
5 xxxi. 7, 16. « xiv. 6, 19. ' Epist. ii. 7. 


and Ammianus' unfavourable opinion of the Anicii, 
who at that time were a powerful family at Rome, 
may have some bearing on the question.^ Others 
believe that his rank as a former protector domesticus, 
which carried with it the title of perfectissimus,^ 
would have spared him such an indignity. If he 
was driven out, it seems probable that the hope of 
Symmachus,^ quam primum revocet urbs nostra quos 
invito dimisit, was fulfilled, for Ammianus wrote 
his History in Rome, and acquired a certain position 
in the city, numbering among his friends Symmachus 
and Praetextatus,^ although apparently some circles 
of distinguished Romans did not admit an Jwnestus 
advena to intimacy.^ 

That Ammianus was not a Christian is evident 
from many of his utterances, for he speaks of 
Christian rites, ceremonies, and officials in a way 
which shows a lack of familiarity with them.' 
At the same time he was liberal in his attitude td"^ 
wards the Church ; he twice censures the closiuu.' 
of the schools of rhetoric to Christian teacheriss? 
praises the simple life of the provincial bishops,^ au' 
in general favours absolute religious toleration. 
He often refers to a supreme power (numen), will 
such adjectives as magnum, superum, caeleste, divi- 
num, sempiternum, and others of the same kind, and 
he sometimes speaks of this power as deus,^^ but in 

^ xvi. 8, 13. ^ See pp. xxviii and xliii, below. 

3 I.e. 4 xxi. 12, 24 ; xxvii. 3, 3 ; 9, 8. 

5 xiv. 6, 12. 

« xiv. 9, 7 ; XV. 5, 31 ; xxvi. 3, 3 ; xxvii. 10, 2 ; etc. 

' xxii. 10, 7 ; xxv. 4, 20. * xxvii. 3, 15. 

» XXX. 9, 5. i» xvii. 13, 33 ; xxiv. 1, 1 ; etc. 


\o different sense than the word is used by Horace ^ 
nd other pagan writers. He indicates a belief in 
strology, divination, dreams, and other super- 
stitions of his time, and he speaks of Fortuna and 
fatiim as controlling powers, but shows that they 
aay be overcome or influenced by man's courage 
and resourcefulness.- The view of Dill ^ that " his 
real creed was probably a vague monotheism with 
a more decided tendency to fatalism " is rightly 
questioned by Ensslin,^ who says that Ammianus 
was a determinist, but not a passive fatalist, one who 
in inactive quiet awaited what might come. 

When Ammianus died is quite uncertain. The 

'atest allusion in his History is to the consulship of 

\eotherius in 391.^ In the same year the Serapeum 

it Alexandria was burned, but the historian refers 

o the building as if it were still standing ; ^ other 

idications are his references to Probus and 

r-iieodosius.^ He was certainly living in 391, but 

"•w much longer his life was prolonged cannot be 


His History. 

. Ammianus set himself the vast project of succeed- 
ing Tacitus as an historian, and might have entitled 
his work Res Gestae a fine Corneli Taciti ; but the 
title which has come down to us is simply Res Gestae.^ 

1 Odes, i. 3, 21 ; i. 34, 13. 

* xviii. 1, 1 ff. ; xxiv. 3, 6 ; 4, 1 ff. ; xxxi. 5, 14 ; ef. 
xxiii. 5, 5. * p. 101. 

* p. 81. 5 xxvi. 5, 14. « xxii. 16, 12. 
' xxvii. 11, 1 ; xxix. 6, 15. 

« Priscian, ar. Lat. ii. 487, 1, Keil. 



( It covered the period between the accession of" Nerva 
i in A.D. 96 to the death of Valens in 378, and was 
I divided into thirty-one books, of which the first 
I thirteen are lost. Since the surviving eighteen 
j books deal with a period of twenty-five years, from 
I 353, the seventeenth year of the reign of Constantius 
f II, to the battle of Adrianople, the lost books must 
have given a brief account of the two hundred and 
fifty-seven years to which they were devoted. In 
_- 391 Libanius implies ^ that Ammianus published, and 
probably recited parts of his work at Rome with great 
success. Seeck thinks that the part which was pub- 
lished in 390 or 391 ended with the tw cnty-fifth book : 
that this was his original plan, and that he was en- 
couraged to go farther by the favourable reception 
given to a public recitation ; that he intended to con- 
tinue beyond the death of Valens is indicated by his 
promise to tell of the fate that overtook Maximinus 
and Simplicius,^ but his failure to do so may possibly 
have been an oversight. That the work was pub- 
lished in instalments seems to be indicated by the 
prefatory remarks at the beginning of Books xv. 
and xxvi. 

There can be no doubt that Ammianus took his 
I task seriously and made careful preparation for 
it, reading extensively in Latin literature and mak- 
ing copious notes of what he read. He natur- 
ally gave special attention to Tacitus, in particular 

^ J!j}}ist. 983, CLKOVU) 8e TTjv 'Puiixrjv avrrjv are(f>avovv aoi tov 
TTOVov Kal Keladai t/j7J(f)ov avTjj, twv fiev ce KexpaTrjKevai, twv Se 
ovx -f)Trf\adai. " I hear that Rome herself lias crowned your 
work, and that her verdict is, that you have surpassed some 
and equalled others." 

- xxviii. 1, 51. 


to the Histories, and imitated him so far as he could. 1 
He also read Livy and sometimes attempts to use { 
his periodic structure, occasionally with success.'- ^ 
He also seems to have read Sallust, although the\, 
traces of the Amiternian's diction may be due to ) 
the latter's influence on Tacitus. It is perhaps 
significant that he nowhere mentions either Tacitus 
or Livy in his work. To perfect his Latinity he 
read Cicero, whom he quotes more than thirty times ; 
partly for the same reason and partly for information 
about Gaul, he read Caesar. In addition to these 
conspicuous examples he shows acquaintance, not 
only with such prose writers as Gellius. Valerius 
Maximus, the elder Pliny, Florus, and others, but 
also with the poets ; for example, Plautus and 
Terence, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan. Of 
later writers he used the Annales of Virius Nico- 
machus Flavianus, and the work of an anony- 
mous Greek writer who followed the Thucydidean 
chronology by summers and winters ; Ammianus 
shows in this respect a mixture of the annalistic and 
the Thucydidean method. He depended also for 
historical information on the Diary of Magnus of 
Carrhae ; ^ and in his excursuses he made use of 
Seneca, Naturales Quaestiones, Solinus, Ptolemy, 
and others, as well as of the official lists of the 
provinces (Notitiae). 

In addition to his literary sources Ammianus 
relied for a considerable part of his work on his own / 

^ At the beginning of Books xiv. and xxiv. ; see Mackail, 
Class. Studies, -p. 163. 

2 On this complicated question see especially Klein, 
who also reconstructs the fragments of Magnus of Carrhae. 



observation and personal experiences, and it is 
these that give his work its greatest charm. It is 
evident that he wished to write a history, rather than 
follow the biographical treatment which had been 
popular since the time of Suetonius ; he speaks with 
scorn of those who, detestantes ut venena doctrinas, 
read only Juvenal and Marius Maximus.^ Yet he 
could not wholly escape the influence of the fol- 
lowers of Suetonius ; he has a biographical sketch 
of each of the emperors and Caesars included in 
his History, besides an encomium of the eunuch 
Eutherius,- but be did not follow any fixed form of 
biographical composition."* He also disapproved 
of the epitomes which were fashionable in his day, 
yet he did not hesitate to draw on Eutropius, Rufius 
Festus, and Aurelius Victor. 

Ammianus aimed at strict truthfulness * w^ithout 
suppressing anything that was well authenticated 
or indulging in deliberate invention,^ faults which 
he censiires in his criticism of the official reports of 
the emperor Constantius ; ® and he avoided exaggera- 
tion.' Although he recognised the danger of speak- 
ing freely and frankly of recent or contemporary 

1 xxviii. 4, 14. Mentioned as authors of gossipy works, 
contrasted with those of solid learning. Marius Maximus 
(circa a.d. 165-230) wrote Lives of the Caesars, in continua- 
tion of Suetonius, from Xerva to Elegabalus. His work is 
lost, but was used by the Scriptores Historiae_ Augustae. 

^ xvi. 7, 4 fi. ; his account of Julian also has character- 
istics of the enconiutn ; see M. J. Kennedy, The Literary 
Work of Ammianus, Univ. of Chicago diss., 1912. 

' See Leo, Die griechisch-rbniische Biographie, pp. 236 ff. 

* See e.g. xv. i. 1 ; xvi. 1, 3 ; xxxi. 5, 10. 

' xxix. 1, 15. « xvi. 12, 69. ' xviii. 6, 23. 


personages and events,^ he does not profess to write 
sine ira et studio," but gives free expression to praise 
or blame ; he did not hesitate to censure where 
censure was due, and he more than once finds faults 
even in his hero Julian.^ In the historical part of 
his work he may fairly be said to have attained his 
ideal of truthfulness ; that he was less successful 
in his numerous excursuses was due in part to lack 
of knowledge, and to some extent to an apparent 
desire to conceal the extent of his dependence j 
upon literary sources. If he had heeded Livy's 
warning about digressions,^ his work would have 
been more uniformly successful. They could be 
omitted without interfering with the course of the 

Ammianus wrote for Roman readers, and in 
particular for the leading literary circle of the 
Eternal City, of which Symmachus was a prominent 
member. It was for that reason, and not merely ,' 
because he was continuing the narrative of Tacitus, j 
that he wrote in Latin and not in his native language, j 
His readers and hearers were of course utriusque 
linguae periti, but they knew their Roman literature 
and could appreciate and applaud his echoes of . 
Livy, Cicero, and other greater writers of the ' 

In modern times Gibbon found him sincere, modest, 
loyal to his superior officers, copious and authentic, 
an accurate and faithful guide. ^ Mackail calls him 
an officer and a gentleman, worthy of a place among 

^ xxvi. 1, 1 ; xxvii. 9, 4. - Tac, Ann. i. 1. 

3 xxii. 9, 12 ; 10, 7 ; etc. * ix. 17, 1. 

^ Passim ; see Mackail, Class. Stud., p. 164. 


the great Roman historians.^ Seeck ^ praises his 
ability in depicting character, all but unexampled 
in ancient literature, and ranking him with the first 
historians of all time. In ancient times his work 
was little known ; it is cited only once, by Priscian,^ 
who seems to have had no more of the History 
before him than we have to-day. Cassiodorus is 
said to have written out the entire work and to have 
imitated its author's style.* 

His Style 

That Ammianus gave great attention to the style 
of his work is evident. Klein's idea of the manner 
in which he composed the History seems plausible,^ 
namely, that he wrote his first draft in his natural 
Latin, using also from memory expressions which 
he had met in his wide reading. When he wished 
to publish, or recite, a part of it, he worked it over 
with particular attention to stylistic effect, drawing 
heavily on the results of his reading from the notes 
which he had collected. Being a soldier, he knew Latin 
as the official language of the army ; he could speak, 
read, and write it, but he did not acquire a thorough 
mastery of it, the Sprachgefiihl of a native Roman. 
As Pliny aptly says,^ inienire praeclare. enuntiare 
magnifice interdum etiam barbari solent ; disponere 

^ I.e. - Paully-Wissowa, Real Enc. i., p. 18.52. 

^ Gr. Lat. 2, 487, 1 f., Keil, ut " indulsi indulsum " vel 
" indultum,'" unde Marcellinus rerum gestarum xiiii . . . 

* Teuffel, Romische Literatur, 6th ed., p. 299. 

* I.e., p. 9. « Epist. ill. 13, 3. 


apte, figurare varie nisi eruditis negatum est. It was 
in particular Ammianus' attempt to decorate his 
style with ornaments of all kinds, drawn from 
every source, combined with his imitation of Tacitus, 
that produced his very extraordinary Latin ; in the 
words of Kroll,^ " sein taciteisches Latein ist schwer 
zu verstehen, unleidlich geziert und uberladen, eine 
Qual seiner Leser," a verdict in which the present 
translator would take exception only to the last 
clause. Some of his peculiarities are an unnatural 
word-order, attempted picturesque and poetic forms 
of expression, and a general striving for effect, due 
in part to the general taste of the time in which 
he lived, and in part to the custom of public recita- 
tions. There are colloquial features : the use of 
the comparative for the positive, of quod with the 
indicative for the accusative and the infinitive, of 
the present for the future, the imperfect for the 
pluperfect, and the pluperfect for a preterit ; also 
improper uses of the subjunctive, and a disregard of 
the sequence of tenses. Naturally, characteristics of 
his native language appear ; some of the peculiarities 
already noted may be traced to that source, as well 
as his extensive use of participial constructions. - 

In spite of all this, when we consider the high 
value which the Romans, even of late times, set 
upon form and rhetoric, it does not seem possible 
that the success of his public recitations was due 
solely to the content of his History, or that his style 

^ Teuffel, Rumische Literatur, 6th ed., p. 297, repeated 
from earlier editions. 

^ Norden, Die Ant i fee Kunstprosa, pp. 648 S., who sees 
also influence of the Asianic oratorical style. 


could have been as offensive to his hearers as it is 
to the modern reader of his work. 

Ammianus' attention to form is further shown 
by the rhythmical structure of his prose ; for it 
has long since been observed that he regularly 
ended his sentences with metrical clausulae. These 
have recently been made the object of special 
study by Clark ^ and Harmon, ^ with the result that 
they have been found to be based upon accent and 
not upon quantity. The system which he uses 
was a simple one : between the last two accents of 
a phrase two or four unaccented syllables are placed, 
never one or three. Quantity makes no difference 
and final vow els are never elided ; Greek words as 
a rule retain the Greek accent ; i and u may be read 
either as vowels or as consonants. Of course it is 
possible that in some instances the arrangement of 
syllables may be accidental, but the number of 
clausulae is too great to be other than designed. 
In spite of the simplicity of his system Ammianus 
has considerable variety in his endings, as is illus- 
trated by Clark ^ in the following scheme : 
Cursus planus : expeditionis eventus, xiv. 1, 1. 

illuc transitiirus, xiv. 6, 16. 

Aegyptum petens, xxii. 5, 5.* 

regna Persidis, xxiii. 5, 16.* 
Cursus tardus : partium animis, xiv. 1, 1. 

instrumenta non levia, xiv. 6, 18. 

^ Ed. of Ammianus, vol. i., Berlin, 1910, pp. vi. S. 
^ Trans. Conn. Acad, of Arts and Science, 16 (1910), 
pp. 117 ff. 

* I.e., p. vii. For the value of the daiisidae for the 
interpretation of the text, see Preface. 

* Greek accent retained. 



Cursus lelox : fregerat et laborum, xiv. 1, 1. 

relatiiri quae audiret, xiv. 1, 6.^ 
obiecti sunt praeter morem, xiv. 2, 1. 
Aegypto trucidatur, xiv. 11, 32.* 
graminea prope rivum, xxiv. 8, 7. 
nomine allociitus est, xv. 6, 3. 
incensas et habitacula, xviii. 2, 19 

Roman Officials in the Time of Ammianus. 

The transformation of the Roman Empire into 
an oriental monarchy began in a.d. 284, when 
Diocletian became sole ruler. He abandoned all re- 
publican traditions and undertook the reorganisation 
of the ci\'il and military administration. The pro- 
cess was continued by Constantine and his successors, 
until the government became a bureaucracy in the 
hands of a limited number of high officials. The 
powers and rank of these ministers varied during this 
period, and involve a number of difficult problems. 
For the sake of reasonable brevity the offices are 
described so far as possible as they were in the time 
of Ammianus. 

Diocletian, realising that the rule of the vast 
empire was too great a task for one man, took 
Maximianus as his colleague, sharing with him also 
the title Augustus. The authority of the two Augusti 
was equal and all laws and edicts were issued in their 
common name, but practically the empire was 
divided into two parts, Diocletian ruling the East, 
with his headquarters at Nicomedia, Maximian 

^ Qtiae read as cUssy liable. 


the West, at Mediolanum. The Augusti were not 
accountable to any legislative body or magistrate. 
They wore the imperial diadem and a robe trimmed 
with jewels, and an elaborate ceremonial was re- 
quired of all who approached them. Everything 
connected with the emperor was called sacer, sanc- 
tissimus, or divinus. 

Nine years after Diocletian became emperor he 
and Maximian chose two Caesars, who stood next 
to themselves in rank and dignity ; they were, 
however, dependents of the Augusti, having no 
authority except what was conferred upon them by 
their superiors, and recei\'ing a fixed salary. The 
administration of the empire was then divided into 
four parts ; Diocletian took Thrace, Egypt, Syria, 
and Asia Minor, and assigned to Galerius, the 
Caesar whom he had nominated, the Danubian 
provinces, Illvricum, Greece, and Crete ; Maximian 
governed Italy and Africa ; Constantius, his Caesar, 
ruled Gaul, Spain, and after 296 Britain. This 
di^'ision was only for administrative purposes ; 
the empire in reality consisted of two parts, of which 
the two Augusti were the supreme rulers. 

The main purpose of the institution of the Caesars 
was to provide for the succession, and it was a part 
of the plan that when one of the Augusti died or 
resigned, his place should be filled by one of the 
Caesars, who at the time of their appointment were 
adopted by the Augusti. When Diocletian and 
Maximian retired in 306, a series of wars followed 
among the Caesars and the Augusti. In that year 
Constantine I, later surnamed the Great, assumed 
the title of Caesar, which was acknowledged by 


Galerius ; in 308 he was declared Augustus along 
with Galerius, and Severus and Maximinus were 
chosen as Caesars. Maxentius, son of Maximian, 
was proclaimed Augustus by the troops at Rome, 
but was not acknowledged by the other Augiisti and 
Caesars ; he defeated and slew Severus in Italy, 
whereupon Licinius was made an Augustus by 
Galerius. In 308 there were four Augusti : Con- 
stantine, Galerius, Licinius, and Maximinus, in 
addition to the usurper Maxentius. A series of 
wars followed. Maximinus was defeated by 
Licinius and died shortly afterward ; Galerius died 
in 311. Constantine defeated Maxentius at Saxa 
Rubra in 312 and reigned for a time with Licinius. 
After two wars, with a brief interval of peace. 
Constantine defeated Licinius at Adrianople and 
Chalcedon in 323. In that year he became sole 
Augustus, with his sons Crispus, Constantine and 
Constantius as Caesars ; in 335 Delmatius and 
Hannibalianus were added to the list of Caesars, 
making five in all. 

Constantine ruled alone until his death in 337, when 
his sons Constantinus II, Constantius II, and Constans 
were declared Augusti ; Crispus had in the mean- 
time fallen victim to the jealousy of Fausta, his 
stepmother, and Delmatius and Hannibalianus 
were now put to death. In 340 war broke 
out between Constantinus II and Constans ; the 
former was defeated and slain, and Constans be- 
came sole emperor in the West. In 350 Constans 
died, and three usurpers appeared : Magnentius 
in Gaul, Neopontianus at Rome, and Veteranio at 
-\Iursa in Pannonia. The last two were quickly 


disposed of ; Nepontianus was killed in less than 
a month after his elevation to the supreme rank, 
and Veteranio was defeated and deposed by 
Constantius after ten months. The contest with 
Magnentius, who had appointed his brother Decentius 
to the position of Caesar, lasted for three years ; 
Constantius defeated the usurper at Mursa and 
drove him into Gaul, where Magnentius was again 
defeated and took his own life. Constantius ruled as 
sole Augustus until 361 ; in 351, while the war with 
Magnentius was still going on, he had conferred the 
rank of Caesar on his cousin Gallus and sent him to 
the East, to carry on war against the Persians. 
With Gallus' arrogance and cruelty at Antioch the 
extant part of Ammianus' narrative begins. 

After Constantius became sole emperor his autho- 
rity was supreme, but the four-fold administrative 
division of the empire into the East, lUyricum, 
Italy, and Gaul was continued ; ^ the divisions 
were called prefectures, and were governed by 
praetorian prefects, resident at Constantinople, 
which Constantine had made the capital of the em- 
pire in 330 ; at Sirmium ; at Mediolanum (Milan) ; 
and at Trivicum (Treves) or at Eboracum (York). 
The prefectures were divided into dioceses, and the 
dioceses into provinces ; the provinces were under 
the charge of a governor called consularis, corrector, 
or praeses.^ There were thirteen dioceses and 101 

^ The development of the administrative system was 
a gradual one from the time of Constantine until the fifth 
century, and the exact date of the various changes is in 
many instances uncertain. 

^ See note ], p. 143. Ammianus often uses the word 
index of governors of provinces and other high officials 


provinces (compared with 45 in Hadrian's time), 
a numFer which was later increased to about 120. 

The purpose of these divisions and of the conse- 
quent increase in the number of these and of other 
officials ^ was to prevent any officer from becoming 
powerful enough to start a revolution and interfere 
with the regular succession to imperial power. The 
same end was sought by a sharp division between 
civil and military authority,^ and by the fact that 
the competence of the various official groups was 
not always clearly defined, which led to jealousy 
and rivalry among the officers. Also the subordinates 
of the higher officials were appointed by the emperor, 
and the conduct of their superiors was besides watched 
and reported to the Augustus by a corps of secret 
service men, the agentes in rebus.^ The eflFect of 
all this, and the elaborate ceremonial required in 
order to approach the emperor, removed him from 
contact with his subjects and enhanced his dig- 
nity and majesty ; at the same time he was unable 
to hear the complaints of the people, since the 
officials, who often enriched themselves at the ex- 
pense of the provincials, concealed one another's 

(xviii. 6, 12 ; xx. 5, 7; xx. 8, 14; xx. 9, 1), and transfers 
it to similar officers among foreign peoples (Quadri, xvii. 
12, 21 ; Goths, xxvii. 5, 6) ; sometimes he uses iwdea; in its 
usual sense of " a judge " (xiv. 9, 3). The two meanings 
are combined in xvi. 8, 6. 

^ See below under the various officials. 

^ These were never held at the same time by the same 
official ; the place of the senatorial and equestrian cursus 
honorum was taken by careers that were mainly civil or 
mainly military. 

* See note 2, p. 98, and Index II. 


misdemeanors. In fact, the emperor, although in 
theory all-pow(!rf"ul, was actually a tool in the hands 
of a hierarchy of powerful ministers ; the real con- 
trol was exercised by the highest civil and military 
officers, and those in charge of the affairs of the 
imperial household. 

The entire body of officials was divided into a 
number of grades, each with its own title. All 
officers who held positions of sufficient importance 
became members of the senatorial order, with the 
title clarissimi, which was also held bv the two 
higher grades. A smaller group of higher officials 
had the title spectabiles, and a third body, including 
only the heads of the various administrative de- 
partments, made up the illustres. The title nobilis- 
sirnus was reserved for the members of the imperial 
family. Two classes ranking below the clarissimi 
were the perfectissimi and the egregii ; these in- 
cluded only a small number of officials, and the titles 
gradually went out of use. 

Two other orders of a somewhat different character 
were created by Constantine. A purely honorary 
title, patricius, was open only to those who had held 
the positions of praetorian prefect, city prefect, 
commander-in-chief of the army, or consul ordinarius. 
It was held for life and its possessor took precedence 
of all officials except consuls in office. 

To the comites, originally merely the companions 
of an emperor or high official on his travels,^ Con- 
stantine gave importance by making comes (count) 
a title of honour conferred upon the holders of some 
public offices, or conferred as a reward for service. 

1 Horace, Epist. i. 3. 


The counts were attached to the emperor avd the 
ruHug house/ but it was a natural and easy step 
to assign them various duties as the emperor's 
deputies," both in a civil and in a military capacity. 
There were three grades (comites primi, secundi, et 
tertii ordinis),^ and counts appear among the illustres, 
the spectabiles, and the clarissimi. Like other 
officials, they were variously designated as in 
actual service {in acta positi) ; as vacantes, men of 
inferior position who on retiring from office were 
given the rank and insignia of counts as a reward 
for good service ; and as honorarii., who received the 
title by imperial favour or bv purchase, but did not 
have the right to wear the insignia.^ 

The emperors gathered about them a body of 
advisers, which entirely superseded the senate in 
importance.^ It was first called the auditorium or 
consilium principis, but Constantine gave it the title 
of consistorium principis or sacrum consistorium ; ® 
consistorium does not appear in inscriptions until 
353, and Ammianus seems to be the first writer to 
use the word. There is difference of opinion as to 
its membership. It was composed mainly of the 

1 Comes doniini nostri Constantini Aug., Dessau, 1213 ; 
C.I.L. vi. 1707 ; comiti dorninorum nostrorum Augus- 
torum et Caesarum, Dessau, 1223 ; C.I.L. x. 4752. 

^ Comes et quaestor. Cod. Theod. i. 8, 1, 2 ; comes et 
magister equitum, ibid. vii. 1, 9. 

' A similar division by Tiberius (Suet., Tib. 46) seems to 
have been made for a special occasion only. 

* See also Index II. 

* The senate and the senatorial order retained their 
dignity, but the power of the senate was purely local. 

* On the use of sacer, see p. xxiv, above. 


heads of the various departments of administration, 
certainly of those most intimately connected with 
the imperial household {dignitates palalinae) : the 
Minister of Finance {comes sacrarum lagitionum.),^ 
the Minister of the Privy Purse {comes rerum priva- 
tarum,), the Quaestor {quaestor sacri palatii), who was 
the emperor's legal adviser, and the Master of the 
Offices. The prefect, whose seat of government was 
at the capital {praefectus praetorio praesens), was 
probably a member, as well as the Grand Chamberlain 
{praepositus sacri cubiculi), and some officials of the 
grade spectabilis. The members of the council were 
called comites consistoriani or simply consistoriani.^ 
It was presided over by the emperor, or in his absence 
by the Quaestor, who was obliged to give his de- 
cisions in writing ; the proceedings were taken down 
by secretaries and stenographers {notarii).^ 

Since the consulship was often held by the emperor, 
that office was one of high honour and the consul in 
office ranked next to the emperor himself, above the 
patricii and the prefects. The consuls, however, 
had little actual power. On the day of their acces- 
sion to office they held a procession, which the 

^ For an account of these high officials see below. 

2 XV. 5, 12. 

* Notarii were of varying ranks ; those who attended 
the meetings of the consistory were tribuni et notarii prin- 
cipis, where tribuni is merely a designation of rank, given 
to the secretaries in the service of the emperor and the 
praetorian prefect. Besides their clerical duties they were 
sometimes sent abroad on confidential missions, to keep 
an eye on suspected persons (xvii. 9, 7 ; xxi. 7, 2) ; and 
they were often promoted to high positions (xx. 9, 5 ; 
xxviii. 1, 12 ; xxviii, 2, 5). See also Index II. 


emperor himself attended, exhibited games, and 
freed slaves. The title consularis, which was the 
highest title held by the governors of the provinces,^ 
did not necessarily imply that its holder was an 

The Praetorian Prefect {praefectus praetorio) in 
the tinie~ of Augustus was a military officer, the 
commander of the praetorian cohorts in Rome, 
which formed the emperor's body-guard. It was 
the highest grade in the equestrian cursus honorum, 
and its holder gradually acquired great power. 
Sejanus was practically the ruler of Rome during 
the absence of Tiberius, and Titus, although of 
senatorial rank, assumed the office in order to 
increase his authority and to have a freer hand.^ 
There were ordinarily two prefects, although 
occasionally there was only one, and in the latter 
part of the reign of Commodus there were three. 

This official, as time went on, became more pro- 
minent as a judge and in a civil capacity, and under 
Septimius Severus and Gallienus he was practically 
a civil minister, although he retained some vestiges 
of military authority even under Diocletian. When 
Constantine abolished the praetorian guard and 
replaced it by the scholae Palatinae,^ the dignity and 
rank of the prefect survived and he became the 
highest civil servant of the emperor, without any 
participation in military affairs. He was appointed 
for an indefinite period, but because of his great 

^ E.g. Pannonia, xvi. 8, 3 ; Picenum, xv. 7, 5 ; Syria, 
xiv. 7, 5 ; etc. On consularis, corrector and praeses, see 
p. 143, note 1. 

2 Suetonius, Titus, 6. •'' See below, p. xliii. 

c xxxi 


power he was seldom kept in office for more than 
a year. Constantine also appointed a praefectus 
per Gallias and a praefectus per Orientem, and to 
these a praefectus per Illyricum was later added, so 
that each of the four grand divisions of the empire 
was governed by a prefect. The prefect had a 
number of vicarii, each of whom governed one of 
the dioceses into which his prefecture was divided.^ 
In spite of various restrictions ^ the power of 
a prefect was very extensive. His office, like that 
of the other illustres, was large and well organized, 
with assistants, recorders, clerks, shorthand writers 
and mounted messengers. From the time of 
Alexander Severus he was a member of the senate. 
He had complete control of the general tax ordered 
by the emperor (indictio), and through his subordi- 
nates took part in levying it ; he held court as the 
emperor's representative ; he issued edicts, which 
had the same force as those of the emperor, unless 
they were annulled by the Augustus ; he supervised 
the governors and judges of the provinces, proposed 
their names, and paid their salaries ; and he had 
a general supervision of the grain supplies, manu- 
factures, coinage, roads and courier-service {cursus 
publicus).^ His insignia were a lofty chariot, a 
golden pen-case, a silver inkstand, and a silvei" 
tripod and bowl for receiving petitions. He wore 
a cloak like that of the emperor, except that it 

^ E.g. vicarius Asiae, xxvii. 9, 6. 

* Especially the transfer of some of the prefect's powers 
to other officials. 

^ This last, with the right of granting free conveyance, 
he shared with the emperor and the magister officiorum. 


reached to the knees instead of to the feet ; as a 
mark of his former military rank he carried a sword. ^ 
Of the four praetorian prefects one who was resident 
at the court of an emperor or a Caesar seems to have 
been called praesens or praesentalis, if the number 
o{ Augusti and Caesars was less than four.^ 

The Prefect of the City {praefectus urbis) in early 
times had charge of the city of Rome during the 
absence of the king or the consuls. His duties and 
powers were gradually taken over by the city 
praetor {praetor iirbanus), until Augustus revived 
the office, in order to provide for the government of 
Rome during his absence. Under Tiberius, because 
of his long stay at Capri, the office became a permanent 
one, and it increased in power and importance until 
the City Prefect ranked next to the Praetorian. He 
had command of the city troops [cohortes urbanae) 
and general charge of the policing of the city. In 
addition to this he had a number of officers under 
his supervision, through whom he managed the cen- 
sus, the markets, and the granaries, and had power 
over all the corporations and guilds which carried 
on business in the city. Within the hundredth 
milestone he had supreme judicial, military, and 
administrative power. He convoked and presided 
over the senate, and made known its wishes to the 

' Cassiodorus, Variae, Books vi. and vii., gives the 
formulae for conferring the various offices, with a summary 
of their duties ; for the Praetorian Prefect, see vi. 3 ; 
tliere is a condensed translation by T. Hodgkin, London, 

2 See xiv. 1, 10. note ; xxiii. 5, 6 ; cf. xx. 4, 8. If the 
Augusti and Caesars were four in number, each had his 
own prefect, and no such designation was necessary- 


emperor. His insignia were twelve fasces, he wore 
the toga, and shared with the praetorian prefect- 
alone the privilege of using a chariot within the city. 
There was also a city prefect at Constantinople 
(xxvi. 7, 2) with corresponding powers. 

In very early times the Master of the Horse 
(magister equitum) was an assistant of the dictator, 
and was appointed by him ; he played a particularly 
important part between 49 and 44 B.C., because of 
the frequent absence of the dictator Caesar from Italy. 
Augustus transferred the powers of this official to ' 
the praefectus praetorio, who exercised them for a 
long time. Constautine in the early part of his 
reign, for the purpose of limiting the powers of the 
praetorian prefect, revived the office by appointing 
two commanders-in-chief of the military forces of 
the empire, one of the cavalry [magister equitum), 
the other of the infantry [magister peditum). From 
the middle of the fourth century these two officers 
began to be called magistri equitum et peditum, or 
magistri utriusque militiae, and finally, magistri 
militum. Ammianus uses both titles, as well as 
magister armorum,^ magister rei castrensis '^ and 
pedestris militiae rector.^ Constantius added three 
more magistri militum, for the Orient, Gaul, and 
lUyricum, and in the Notitia Digiiitatum we find 
five in the Eastern, and three in the Western Empire. 

With the appointment of these officers the organi- 

1 XV. 5, 36 ; xvi. 7, 3 ; xx. 1, 2. « xxvii. 10, 6. 

* XV. 5, 2. In spite of his experience as a soldier, 
Ammianus is somewhat loose and inexact in his use of 
military titles, although some at least of his terms were 
probably clue to a desire for variety. 


sation of the army was changed. The limitanei, 
who guarded the boundaries of the empire, were 
rliminished in number, while the comitatetises, or 
liekl-troops under command of the several mngistri 
nilitum, and the palatini,^ attached to the court 
and commanded by the Master of the Offices, were 
increased. The magistri militum were the judges 
af the army under their control, and had the power 
af jurisdiction even in some civil cases involving 
their soldiers ; but their civil powers were very 
strictly limited, and in civil matters the decision 
ordinarily rested with the provincial judges ; an 
appeal from their decision went to the praefectus 
oraetorio, and not to the magister militum. The 
nagistri m.ilitum were judges over their subordinates, 
the comites rei castrensis and the duces, but not 
iver the subordinates of the comites and duces. 
rhey could not move troops from one part of the 
empire to another, without the emperor's order, 
except in case of a very great emergency. 

Next in rank to these three officials was the Grand 
Ilhamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi). Chamber- 
ains are first mentioned in connection M-ith Julius 
Caesar's capture by the pirates ^ ; four years later 
Hicero alludes to them in such a way as to imply 
;hat they were regular members of the families of 
he wealthier citizens ^ ; they had considerable 
mportance as personal attendants of the governors 

^ The Scholae Palatinae consisting of five corps of o(K) 
nen each at Rome and at Constantinople, to which two 
)thers were later added at Constantinople ; see note 3, 
). 56. Besides these there were the protectores and 

^ Suetonius, Jul. 4, 1. ' Verres, ii. 3, 4, 8. 


of provinces, but wore not members o( llicir oUicial 
staff.^ When Augustus reorganized the palaec 
service, the chamberlains formed a corps under the 
headship of an officer called a cubiculo,^ who was in 
close touch with the emperor, later sometimes his 
companion ^ and confidant, and hence gradually 
acquired wide influence. Another official of the 
corps is perhaps the decurio cubicularioriun, men- 
tioned by Suetonius in connection with the murder 
of Domitian.^ The praepositi of the time of 
Ammianus were eunuchs, and as constant com- 
panions of the emperor they had great power ; 
in one instance a praepositus who confessed that he 
had taken part in a conspiracy escaped punishment 
through the intervention of his fellow eunuchs,^ 
and Ammianus ironically says ^ that the emperor 
Constantius had considerable influence, if the truth 
be told, with Eusebius, his Grand Chamberlain. 

The Grand Chamberlain had a considerable body 
of subordinates, all of whom were employed in the 
personal service of the emperor ; the primicerius 
sacri cuhiculi was the head of those who served as 
the chamberlains of the emperor's apartment, and 
the comes castrensis sacri palatii of all who were not 
chamberlains, such as pages, and the throng of 
palace servants ; other subordinates, with appro- 

1 Cicero, Ad Att. vi. 2, 5 ; Digest, 1. 16, 203. 
- Dunlap, pp. 169 ff. ; see note 4, p. xiii. 
' Philo, Legatio ad Gaium, 27. 

* Suet., Dom. 17, 2. ^ xv. 2, 10. 

* xviii. 4, 3 ; so Dunlap, }>. 181, but as Ammianus is not 
often, if ever, humorous, the conjecture of posuit for potuit 
is a reasonable one, with the meaning that Constantius 
depended greatly on Eusebius. 


priate titles, had charge of the royal wardrobe, of 
necessary repairs in the palace, and the keeping of 
any noise from reaching the imperial apartments 
(the silentarii). 

Another important official in close contact with 
the imperial household was the Master of the Offices 
{magister ojfficiorum). In 321 and 323 we hear of a 
tribuniis et magister officiorum,^ so that the office 
goes back at least as far as Constantine, although the 
earliest magister who appears in inscriptions held 
office in 346.^ Since tribunus implies military service, 
the office is supposed to have originated when 
Diocletian organized the officiates of the palace on 
a military basis and chose the senior tribune of the 
praetorian guard to take charge of the various 
corps of palace attendants, and also to command 
the soldiers attached to the court. ^ As one of the 
dignitates palatinae the functions of the Master of 
the Offices came in conflict with those of the Prae- 
torian Prefect, whose power he still further curtailed, 
and to some extent with those of the Grand Chamber- 
lain. Besides being in command of the five scholae 
of the palace guards,* he had supervision over the 
chiefs of the four imperial scrinia, or correspondence 
bureaus, and over the schola of the agentes in rebus,^ 

1 Cod. Theod. xvi. 10, 1 : xi. 9, 1. 

2 Dessau, 1244: C.I.L. vi. 1721. 

» Dunlap, pp. 2fi f. ^ Note 3, {). .56. 

' See p. xxvii. above, and note 3. This was a large corps, 
numbering 1174 in the Orient in 430, and increased to 
1248 by the emperor Leo (4.57-474). They were divided 
into five grades, and from the two higher classes chiefs 
of bureau for the I'icarii were recruited, as well as comites, 
duces and even governors of provinces.' 


and he also harl charge of the cursus publicus, 
or state courier-service. The management of this 
was at first in the hands of the Praetorian 
Prefect, but was transferred under Constantine to 
the Master of the Offices. This control of the means 
of conveying state dispatches and persons travelling 
on state business throughout the empire was a 
very important one, since it included the right to 
issue passes giving the privilege of using the cursus. 
It brought the Master into frequent collision with 
the Praetorian Prefect, but the Master had the 
superior supervision. 

The Master of the Offices also had control of 
the great arsenals and manufactories of arms of 
Italy, and in particular it was through him that 
imperial audiences were obtained, and that the 
ambassadors of foreign powers were received and 
introduced. Actual entrance into the audience- 
chamber was under the direction of a magister 
admissionum, and a corps of admissionales ; in the 
cases of distinguished applicants for audience the 
magister admissionum functioned ^ and in very 
exceptional cases the magister officiorum himself, 
regularly in the case of women of distinction. He 
had a very large corps of assistants and subordinates ; 
his duties were very complex and important, and 
he was one of the most powerful officials. 

The Quaestor Sacri Palatii was also numbered 
among the dignitates palatinae and was in close 
touch with the emperor. In the days of Augustus 
the quaestorship was the lowest office that gave 

^ See note, p. 144. 


admission to the senate. It was given additional 
prestige by the arrangement by which some of its 
occupants were selected by the emperor himself 
(called quae.stores candidati or quaestores Augusti, 
or principis), and because one of them was regularly 
attached to the person of the ruler, to read his letters 
and other communications to the senate.^ As the 
emperor's letters came more and more to have the 
force of laws and edicts, the Quaestor was considered 
a legal officer connected with civil jurisprudence, 
and ranked as one of the highest officials of the 
court. He had the rant of Count and at the end 
[)f the fourth century became an illustris. His 
duties required him to be the mouthpiece of the 
?mperor, and to suggest to the ruler anything that 
kvould be for the welfare of the state. He had the 
right to suggest laws and to answer petitions ad- 
dressed to the emperor. It was therefore necessary 
that he should be a trained jurist, in order to be 
in exact and just interpreter of the law. He also 
iad the supervision of every one who entered the 
capital ; he made inquiries into the character of 
ill who came from the provinces, and found out 
Tom what provinces they came and for what 
reasons, the purpose being to prevent worthless 
nen from taking up their residence in the city. 

Theodoric wrote to the senate with regard to the 
jffice of Quaestor : - "It is only men whom we 
consider to be of the highest learning that we raise 

1 Suet., Aug. 65, 2 ; Nero, 15, 2 ; Titus, 6, 1. 

^ Cassiodorus, Varia, v. 4 (Hodgkin) ; vi. 5 ; viii. 19 : 
he Varia contain valuable information about all these 
ligh officials. 


to the dignity of" the quaestorship, such men as 
are fitted to be the interpreters of the laws and 
sharers of our counsels," and Claudian said of that 
official ^ " thou comest to give edicts to the world, 
to make reply to suppliants. A monarch's utter- 
ance has won dignity from thine eloquence. ' 

The Count of the Sacred Largesses {comes sacra- 
rum largitionum) was the Minister of Finance, who 
controlled the revenues of the state, except those 
which passed into the hands of the prefects, the 
Count of the Privy Purse {comes rerum privatarum).- 
the Quaestor, and the Master of the Offices. He had 
supreme charge of the sacrum aerarium, or state 
treasury, including the former aerarium and fiscus,^ 
exerting it in the provinces through his subordinates, 
the comites largitionum, of whom there was one for 
each diocese. The latter had subordinates called 
rationales summarum, each of whom collected the 
money and taxes either of his whole diocese or of 
a great part of it. 

The Comes Sacrarum Largitionum also had under 
his supervision numerous direct and indirect taxes, 
and the revenues from the provinces were sent to 
him by the first of March. Through subordinates 
he had control of the sea-coasts and of merchants, 
who could not go beyond certain cities prescribed 
by law ; and the trading in salt, which was a govern- 
ment monopoly, was under his direct supervision, 

^ Panegyr. dictus Manlio Theodoro, 34 ff. [L.C.L. ii., 
p. 341.) 

^ See below. 

' That is. the aerarium, Saturni, or public treasure, and 
the emperor's privy purse. 



including the granting of licences for the working of 
the public salt mines, the revenues from which were 
under his control. Through other subordinates he 
had charge of the banks in the various provinces, 
in which the money that was collected was kept 
until it was sent to him. He controlled the other 
mines and those who worked in them, the coinage, 
and the mints. He was general superintendent of 
the imperial factories, the employees in which could 
not engage in private work and were hereditarily 
confined to their special trades ; they were under 
the direct charge of procuratores. 

He also had judicial control over his subordinates 
and the power of confirming the appointments of 
some judges in the provinces. As his title implies, 
he administered the bounties of the emperor (the 
largitiones). The disposition of the money under 
his charge was entirely dependent on the good will 
of the emperor, either in meeting the demands of 
the various necessities of state, or in giving presents, 
or in conferring rewards. 

Like the other high officials he had in his office a 
great number of bureaus of correspondence (scrinia) 
consisting of officials who received the payments 
made each year by the provinces ; kept accounts 
of the sacrae largitiones through tabularii ; made out 
the fiscal accounts and supervized the largitiones ; 
had charge of all the expenditures for clothing 
needed in the palace and for the soldiers, whether 
they belonged to the palace troops or not, of the 
silverware of the palace, and the like. 

The Count of the Privy Purse {comes rerum priia- 
Itiritm) had charge of the aerarium privatum, con- 



eisting both of the res privatae, the inalienable crown 
property, and the patrimonium sacrum, the private 
and personal property of the emperor, which could 
be inherited by his family. His subordinates were 
at first the magistri (later the rationales) rei privatae, 
one for each diocese or province, who took care of 
all finances within their province, including lands 
belonging to the temples, and kept a record of the 
income. He had the superintendence through his 
rationales of the government estates, both at home 
and in the provinces, as well as of the revenues from 
estates which were especially assigned to the imperial 
house. The res privatae at this time included also 
the confiscated property of men who had been 
condemned or proscribed, which before Tiberius 
had gone to the state treasury {aerarium), as well 
as all deposited money which because of long lapse 
of time had no claimant, and property for which 
there were no heirs. 

The Count of the Privy Purse also superintended 
the collectors of the rents of the imperial property 
in the provinces, and of the gifts of silver or gold 
demanded in time of need from those to whom the 
emperors had made presents of real estate, which was 
free from taxation. 

To the dignitates palatinae, or offices whose duties 
did not call their holders away from the capital, 
might be added the Counts of the Body Guard 
{comes domesticorum equitum and comes domesti- 
corum peditum), who are placed in the Notitia 
Dignitatum immediately after the Comes rerum 
privatarum, although thev were not always illustres, 
but sometimes held that rank. With the domestici 



the protectores are sometimes coupled,^ and when 
Constantine in 312 disbanded the praetorian troops, 
he gave their rank and duties to the protectores et 
domestici. Thus we have two kinds of palace troops : 
the scholae palatinae '^ under the command of the 
Master of the Offices, and two corps of protectores et 
domestici, who ranked higher than the members of 
the scholae palatinae and were commanded by the 
comites domesticorum. Ammianus is the first to 
refer to the protectores and domestici as also divided 
into scholae.^ These consisted of ten divisions of 
fifty men each, commanded by decemprimi, of the 
rank clarissimus, and these were under the super- 
vision of a primicerius,'^ of the grade spectabilis ; the 
protectores themselves ranked as perfectissimi. 

In addition to accompanying the emperor when 
he went abroad, the protectores and domestici were 
sent to the provinces to perform various public 
services, although a part had to be always in prae- 
senti, or at court. Sometimes, as in the case of 
Ammianus, they were sent to a magister militum 
and placed under his orders. Whenever they were 
sent abroad, their pay, which was already large, 
was increased. 

Trihunus is a title of various military officers in 
connection with the domestici, the armaturae, 
the scutarii, and the protectores ; also of officers in 
charge of manufactories of arms ^ and of the imperial 
stables.^ As has already been noted, the title was 

^ xiv. 10, 2, protector domesticus ; ci. xviii. 8, H- 
^ See above, p. xxxi. ^ xiv. 7, 9, note ; xxvi. 5, 3. 

* xviii. 3, 5. ° xiv. 7, 18 ; xv. 5, 9, at Cremona. 

«xiv. 10, 8 ; XXX. 5, 19. 



given also to civil officials, such as the higher in 
rank of the notarii.^ Tribuni vacantes had the title 
and rank of tribuni without a special assignment.- 

For further information see Index II, which sometimes 
supplements also the notes on the Text. 

Manuscripts and Editions. 

There are twelve manuscripts that contain all 
the surviving books of Ammianus. Two break off 
at the end of Book xxvi. (PR), and one ends abruptly 
at XXV. 4 (D). There are besides six detached sheets 
which once formed part of a codex belonging to 
the abbey of Hersfeld ; these are now in Marburg, 
and the manuscript to which they belonged is 
designated as M. Of the other fifteen manuscripts 
seven are in Rome (VDYEURP), one each in 
Florence (F), Mutina (Q), Cesena (K), and Venice (W), 
and the remaining four in Paris (CHTN). V and M 
are of the ninth century, the rest of the fifteenth. 
A full description of all these and their relations to 
one another is given by Clark,^ who has convincingly 
shown that of the existing manuscripts only V has 
independent value. To this are added the readings 
of M, so far as that manuscript has been preserved,* 
and so far as the readings of its lost part can be 
restored from the edition of Gelenius, who professed 

1 Note 3, p. 339. ^ xvi. 12, 63 ; xviii. 2, 2. 

3 The Text Traditio?i of Ani7nianus Marcellinus, New 
Haven, 1904. 

•• Fragments of Books xxiii., xxviii. and xxx. ; see 
H. Nissen, Fray. Math., Berlin, 187G. 



to follow M, but made extensive emendations of his 

Clark reconstructs the history of the text as follows. 
4 capital manuscript, presumably of the sixth 
:;entury, was copied, probably in Germany by a 
rtTiter using the scriptura Scottica. In the early 
Caroline period a copy was made from this insular 
manuscript, which is the parent of V (Fuldensis). 
and of the one of which the Hersfeld fragments 
^ormed a part (M). No copy of the Hersfeldensis 
exists, but many of its readings are found in the 
edition of Gelenius. Every other manuscript is 
copied from the Fiddensis (V), four directly (FDN 
and E), and the other nine through F, including 
&ardthausen's codices inutili (P and R), which are 
copies of V at two removes at least. ' 

Since the text of V is in bad shape, with numerous 
'acunae, some of the readings of the early editions 
ire of value. The first printed edition (S) was that 
af Sabinus, Rome, 1474, containing Books xiv.- 
fcxvi. ; it is a reprint of R, the poorest manuscript 
in existence, and hence of little or no value. The 
next (B), that of Petrus Castellus, Bologna, 1517, 
was a reprint of S, in which the text was further 
debased by irresponsible emendations, which vitiated 
all the subsequent history of the text of Books 
xiv.-xxvi. A pirated reprint of B by Erasmus (6) 
was published at Basle in 1518. 

The first improvement dates from the edition 
of Accursius (A), Augsburg, May, 1533, who used 
a manuscript copied from V and corrected from 
a copy of E, which is itself a transcript of V emended 
by a humanist. A still greater improvement was 



made by the edition of Gelenius, Basle, July, 1533, 
who also was partly dependent on the copy of E,- 
but had access besides to the purer tradition of M. 

Subsequent editions were those of Gruter, 1611, 
who corrected his text from V ; of Lindenbrog, 
Hamburg, 1609, who made use of F and first pro- 
vided the text with explanatory notes ; of Henricus 
Valesius, Paris, 1636, whose annotations formed the 
basis of all later commentaries, while his brilliant 
scholarship and critical acumen led him to make 
numerous correct emendations, with the help of N 
(his codex Regius). He also recognised the existence 
of metrical clausulae, and says three or four times ^ 
that certain emendations do not correspond with 
these. His punctuation also seems to take account 
of the clausulae, and hence is often the same as that 
of Clark. ^ Also important are the editions of Wagner 
and Erfurdt, Leipzig, 1808, with a collection of the 
best material in previous commentaries, and of 
Ernesti, Leipzig, 1773, with a useful index verborum, 
which, however, is not Complete, and gives only 
the numbers of the chapters, without those of the 
sections, a practice especially exasperating in the 
long chapters. 

The critical study of the text begins with the 
edition of Henricus Valesius. His younger brother 
Hadrianus in his edition (Paris, 1681) had the use of 
two additional manuscripts, C and the codex 
Valentinus, which is now lost. Later editors were 
content with the readings of these editions until 

^ E.g. at the end of the annotations on Book xiv. 
- See Preface. 



1871, when Eyssenhardt published his text at Berlin, 
^vhich was followed in 1874-75 by that of Gardthausen 
(Leipzig). The latter was the first to use the 
Petrinus (P), which he thought was written before 
V came into Italy, from an archetype on a plane 
with V, and that a copy of V, corrected from M, 
was the archetype of E and of Accursius' codex. 
His readings of P are often erroneous, and it is now 
recognized, as already said, that P does not represent 
a tradition independent of V. The standard critical 
edition is that of C. U. Clark, of which volume one, 
containing Books xiv.-xxv., and volume two, part 
one, containing xxiv.-xxxi., were published at Berlin 
in 1910 and 1915 respectively. The second part of 
volume two, the indices, has not yet appeared.^ 

1 A complete Sjirachlicher u. Historischer Kommentar 
is planned by P. De Jonge, who published the notes on 
xiv, 1-7, as his doctoral dissertation, Groningen, 19.*)"). 



1'HERB is no commentary in English on Ammianxis, and 
no full and satisfactory one in any language.' He has 
Vjeen translated into English by Philemon Holland, London, 
1609, and by C. D. Yonge, London, 1862; into German 
by C. Biicliele, Stuttgart, 1827 {reprinted 1853-r)4 ; a 
second edition by L. Tross, Ulm, 1898, seems never to 
liave gone beyond Vol. I, containing Books xiv.-xv.) ; 
into French by T. Salvcte, with the Latin text, Collection 
Nisard, Paris, 1849. All these are based upon texts which 
differ from the present standard editions. 

Papers and monographs dealing with various phases 
of Ammianus and his work are very numerotis. On the 
text may be mentioned in addition to those cited by 
Clark in his Compendia : R. Novak, Kritische Nachlese 
zu Ammianus Marcellinus, Wiener Studien, 33 (1912), 
pp. 293 ff. ; P. H. Damste, Adversaria critica, Mnemosyne, 
Iv. (1927), pp. 2-41-259; Iviii. (1930), pp. Iff.; G. B. A, 
Fletcher, Notes on Ammianus Marcellinus, Classical 
Quarterly, xxiv. (1930), pp. 193 ff. ; J. P. Pighius, Studia 
Ammianea, Milano, 1935.- On the officials : M. Cosenza, 
Official Positions after the Time of Constantine (Columbia 
Univ. dissertation), Lancaster, Pa., 1905 ; A. E. R. Boak, 
Ronum Magistri in the Civil and Military Service of the 
Empire, Harvard Studies in Class. Phil., xxvi. (1915), 
pp. 73 ff., and The Master of the Offices, Univ. of Michigan 
Studies, xiv., pp. 1-160, New York, 1924 ; J. E. Dmdap, 
The Grand Chamberlain, ibid., pp. 161-324. General : 
Klein, W., Studien zu Ammianus Marcellinus, Klio, 
Beiheft 13, 1914 ; Ensslin, W., Zur Geschichtsschreibuntj 
und Weltanschauung des Ammianus Marcellinus, Klio, 
Beiheft 16, 1923 ; T. R. Glover, Life and Letters in the 
Fourth Century, Camb. Univ. Press, 1901 ; R. B. Steele, 
Ammianus Marcellinus, Class. Weekly, xvi., pp. 18 ff. 
and 27 ff. ; W. W. Hyde, Roman Alpine Passes, in process 
of publication by the American Philosophical Society. 

' See note, p. xlvii. 

-This was not available to me for vol. i. 

























= the edition of Accursius.^ 

= the edition of Castellus. 

= the edition of Erasmus. 

= the edition of Boxhorn, Leyden, 1632. 

= cursus causa, emendations made to correct 

rhythmical endings. 
= Codex Vaticanus, 1874 (ends at xxv. 3, 13). 
= Codex Vaticanus Lat. 29G9. 
= the edition of Eyssenhardt. 
= the edition of Gelenius. 
= the edition of Gelenius hy R. Stephanus, 

Paris, 1544. 
= the edition of Gardthausen. 
= Codex Parisiiius, Bibl. Nat. Lat. 5819. 
= W. Heraeus, who collaborated with Clark in 

his edition. 
= lacuna. 

= the edition of Lindenbrog. 
= Codex Hersfeldensis. 
= Codex Neapolitan us, Paris, Bibl. Nat. Lat. 

= Codex Petrinus, Rome, Basil. S. Petri, E 27 

(ends with Book xxvi.). 
= M. Petschenig. 
= Codex Tolosanus, Paris, Bibl. Nat. Lat. 

= readings miknown to the Valesii, but found 

in the ed. of Gronov. 
= Codex Fuldensis, Rome, Vat. Lat. 1873. 
= the edition of Henricus Valesius. 
= the edition of Hadrian Valesius. 
= Codex Venetus, Bibl. S. Marc. 388, Bess. 

1 For a brief description of the principal manuscripts 
and editions see Introd., pp. xli v ff ., and for a full description, 
Clark's Text Tradition; see p. xliv, note 3. 



VOL. I. 





1. Gain Caesaris saevitia.^ 

1. Post emensos insuperabilis expeditioniseventus, 
languentibus partium animis, quas periculorum 
varietas fregerat et laborum, nondum tubarum 
cessante clangore, vel milite locate per stationes 
hibernas, fortunae saevientis procellae tempestates 
alias rebus infudere - communibus, per multa ilia et 
dira facinora Caesaris Galli, qui ex squalore imo 
miseriarum, in aetatis adultae primitiis, ad principale 
culmen insperato saltu ^ provectus, ultra terminos 

^ These summaries, which are not the work of Ammianus 
but of some early editor, are put for convenience at the 
beginning of each chapter. Usually the summaries of 
each book are put all together at the beginning of that 
book, or (e.g. by Eyssenhardt) the summaries of all the 
books are collected at the end of the entire text. 

^ infudere, HA ; infundere, V. ' saltu, Kellerbauer, 

Kiessling ; cultu, V. 

^Flavius Claudius (Julius) Constantius Gallus, grandson 
of Constantine the Great and half-brother of Julian. 
He was made Caesar by Constantius II. in 351. 







1. The cruelty of G alius Caesar.^ 

1. After the survival of the events of an unen- 
durable campaign,- when the spirits of both parties, 
broken by the variety of their dangers and hardships, 
were still drooping, before the blare of the trumpets 
had ceased or the soldiers been assigned to their 
winter quarters, the gusts of raging Fortune brought 
new storms upon the commonwealth through the 
misdeeds, many and notorious, of Gallus Caesar.^ 
He had been raised, at the very beginning of mature 

^Against Magnentius, who in 350 had assumed the rank 
of an Augustus in the west, with Veteranio, but he was 
defeated, in 351, by Constantius at Mursa, on the river 
Drave, a tributary of the Danube and in the passes of the 
Cottian Alps in 353. His followers then abandoned 
him and he committed suicide. See Index. 

^ The title of Augustus was lawfullj' held only by the 
reigning emperor, or emperors. Caesar 'i^as the title 
next in rank and was conferred by the emperor on one or 
more of the imperial family ; see Introd. p. xxiv. 


potestatis delatae procurrens, asperitate iiimia 
cuncta foedabat. Propinquitate enira regiae stirpis, 
gentilitateque etiam turn Constautii ^ nominis, 
efFerebatur in fastus, si plus valuisset, ausurus 
hostilia in auctorem suae felicitatis (ut videbatur). 
2. Cuius acerbitati uxor grave aecesserat incentivum, 
germanitate Augusti turgida supra modum, quam 
Hanniballiano regi fratris filio antehac Constantinus 
iunxerat pater, Megaera quaedam mortalis,' inflam- 
matrix saevientis assidua, humani cruoris avida 
nihil mitius quam niaritus. Qui paulatim eruditiores 
facti processu temporis ad nocendum, per clandes- 
tinos versutosque rumigerulos, compertis leviter 
addere quaedam male suetos, falsa et placentia sibi 
discentes, afFectati regni vel artium nefandarum 
calumnias insontibus affigebant. 3. Eminuit autem 
inter humilia, supergressa iam impotentia ^ fines 
mediocrium delictorum, nefanda Clematii cuiusdam 
Alexandrini nobilis mors repentina ; cuius socrus 
cum misceri sibi generum, flagrans eius amore,^ non 

^ Constanta, Lind ; Constant iani, Val ; Constantini, V. 
^ iam, impotentia, Wagn. ; impotentia, Momm. ; iampotentia, 
V. ^flagrans, eius am,orem, sugg. by Clark. 

^ He was married to Coustantia, daughter of Constantiiie 
tlie Great and Fausta. 

2 Constantjrie had given him the rule of Pontus, Armenia 
Minor, and Cappadocia, but Constantius II., soon after 
his accession, had caused his assassination. 

XIV., 1, 1-3, A.D. 353-4 

manhood, by an unexpected promotion from the 
utmost depths of wretchedness to princely heights, 
and overstepping the bounds of the authority con- 
ferred upon him, by excess of violence was causing 
trouble everywhere. For by his relationship to the 
imperial stock, and the alliance which he even then 
had with the name of Constantius,^ he was raised 
to such a height of presumption that, if he had been 
more powerful, he would have ventured (it seemed) 
upon a course hostile to the author of his good 
fortune. 2. To his cruelty his wife was besides a 
serious incentive, a woman beyond measure pre- 
sumptuous because of her kinship to the emperor, 
and previously joined in marriage by her father 
Constantine with his brother's son. King Hanni- 
ballianus.'- She, a Megaera ^ in mortal guise, con- 
stantly aroused the savagery of Gallus, being as 
insatiable as he in her thirst for human blood. 
The pair in process of time gradually became more 
expert in doing harm, and through underhand and 
crafty eavesdroppers, who had the evil habit of 
lightly adding to their information and wanting to 
learn only what was false and agreeable to them, 
they fastened upon innocent victims false charges 
of aspiring to royal power or of practising magic. 
3. There stood out among their lesser atrocities, 
when their unbridled power had already surpassed 
the limits of unimportant delinquencies, the sudden 
and awful death of one Clematius, a nobleman of 
Alexandria. This man's mother-in-law, it was 
said, had a violent passion for her son-in-law, but 

■* One of the Furies. 


impetraret, ut ferebatur, per palatii pseudothyrum 
introducta, oblato pretioso reginae monili, id assecuta 
est, ut ad Honoratum, turn comitem orientis, 
formula missa letali, homo ^ scelere nullo contactus, 
idem Clematius, nee hiscere nee loqui permissus, 

4. Post hoc impie perpetratum, quod in aliis quo- 
que iam timebatur, tamquam licentia crudehtati 
indulta, per suspicionum nebulas aestimati quidam 
noxii damnabantur. Quorum pars necati alii puniti 
bonorum multatione, actique laribus suis extorres, 
nullo sibi relicto praeter querellas et lacrimas, stipe 
collaticia victitabant ; et civili iustoque imperio ad 
voluntatem converso cruentam, claudebantur opu- 
lentae domus et clarae. 5. Nee vox accusatoris ulla 
(licet subditicii) "" in his malorum quaerebatur acervis, 
ut saltern specie tfijais crimina praescriptis legum 
committerentur, quod aliquotiens fecere principes 
saevi ; sed quidquid Caesaris implacabilitati sedisset, 
id velut fas iusque perpensum, confestim urgebatur 
impleri. 6. Excogitatum est super his, ut homines 
quidam ignoti, vilitate ipsa parum cavendi, ad 
coUigendos rumores per Antiochiae latera cuncta 

1 homo, Lind. ; omnino, EW ^ ; omo (from odio), V. 
- subditicii, Lind. ; subditi et, V. 

^ Comites originally were companions of an official 
on his travels, as Catullus accompanied Memraiiis to 
Bithynia ; of. Horace, Epist. i. 8, 2, etc. They gradually 
became his advisers, and later they were appointed to 


XIV., 1, 3-6, \.». 353-4 

was unable to seduce him; whereupon, gaining 
entrance to the palace by a secret door, she presented 
the queen with a valuable necklace, and thus 
secured the dispatch of his death-warrant to 
Honoratus, at that time Count of the East ; ^ and 
so Clematius, a man contaminated by no guilt, 
was put to death without being allowed to protest 
or even to open his lips. 

4. After the perpetration of this impious deed, 
which now began to arouse the fears of others also, 
as if cruelty were given free rein, some persons were 
adjudged guilty on the mere shadow of suspicion 
and condemned. Of these some were put to death, 
others punished by the confiscation of their property 
and driven from their homes into exile, where, 
having nothing left save tears and complaints, they 
lived on the doles of charity ; and since constitu- 
tional and just rule had given place to cruel caprice, 
wealthy and famous houses were being closed. 

5. And no words of an accuser, even though bribed, 
were required amid these accumulations of evils, in 
order that these crimes might be committed, at 
least ostensibly, under the forms of law, as has some- 
times been done by cruel emperors ; but what- 
ever the implacable Caesar had resolved upon was 
rushed to fulfilment, as if it had been carefully 
Meighed and determined to be right and lawful. 

6. It was further devised that sundry low-born men, 
whose very insignificance made them little to be 
feared, should be appointed to gather gossip in all 

various duties as his deputies. They differed in rank ; 
the Comes Orientis was of the second grade (spectabilis), 
see lutrod., p. xviii. 


destinarentur, relaturi quae audirent. Hi pera- 
granter et dissimulanter honoratorum circulis assis- 
tendo, pervadendoque divites domus egentium 
habitu, quicquid noscere poterant vel audire, la- 
tenter intromissi per posticas in regiam, nuntiabaut, 
id observantes conspiratione concordi, ut fingerent 
quaedam, et cognita duplicarent in peius, laudes 
vero supprimerent Caesaris, quas invitis compluribus 
formido malorum impendentium exprimebat. 7. Et 
interdum acciderat, ut siquid in penetrali secreto, 
nullo citerioris ^ vitae ministro praesente, pater- 
familias uxori susurrasset in aurem, velut Amphiarao 
referente aut Marcio, quondam vatibus inclitis, 
postridie disceret imperator. Ideoque etiam parietes 
arcanorum soli conscii timebantur. 8. Adulescebat 
autem obstinatum prOpositum erga haec et similia 
multa scrutandi,^ stimulos admovente regina, quae 
abrupte mariti fortunas trudebat in exitium praeceps, 
cum eum potius lenitate feminea ad veritatis humani- 
tatisque viam reducere utilia suadendo deberet, ut in 
Gordianorum actibus factitasse Maximini truculenti 
illius imperatoris retulimus coniugem. 

^ citerioris, vulgo ; citeriora eis, V. ^ scrutamli, V ; 

scrutanda. Bent. ; scnitantis, sugg. by Clark, cf. xxx. 5, 
5 ; XV. 3, 2. 

1 Amphiaraus was a famous seer of the heroic age, who 
took part in the hunt of the Calydonian boar, the expedi- 
tion of the Argonauts, and unwiUingly, because he saw the 
outcome, in tlie war of the Seven against Thebes, in which 
lie lost his life. The prophecies of Marcius, or as some say, 
of two brothers of that name, were discovered in 213 B.C. 

XIV., 1, 6-8, A.D. 353-4 

quarters of Antiochia and report what they had 
heard. These, as if travellers, and in disguise, 
attended the gatherings of distinguished citizens, and 
gained entrance to the houses of the wealthy in the 
guise of needy clients ; then, being secretly admitted 
to the palace by a back door, they reported whatever 
they had been able to hear or learn, with one accord 
making it a rule to add inventions of their own and 
make doubly worse what they had learned, but 
suppressing the praise of Caesar Avhich the fear of 
impending evils extorted from some against their 
will. 7. And sometimes it happened that if the 
head of a household, in the seclusion of his private 
apartments, with no confidential servant present, 
had whispered something in the ear of his wife, the 
emperor learned it on the following day, as if it were 
reported by Amphiaraus or Marcius, those famous 
seers of old. ^ And so even the walls, the only sharers 
of secrets, were feared. 8. Moreover, his fixed pur- 
pose of ferreting out these and many similar things 
increased, spurred on by the queen, who pushed her 
husband's fortunes headlong to sheer ruin, when 
she ought rather, with womanly gentleness, to have 
recalled him by helpful counsel to the path of truth 
and mercy, after the manner of the wife ^ of that 
savage emperor Maximinus, as we have related in 
our account of the acts of The Gordians. 

According to Livy, xxv. 12, 5, they foretold the defeat at 
Cannae. Cf. also Pausanias, I. 34. 4 f¥. and II. 13. 7. At 
a later time these prophetic writings were preserved on 
the Capitol at Rome with the Sibylline books. 

^ Her name is unlcnown j she was perhaps the diva 
Paulina whose name appears on a silver coin of the period. 


9. Novo denique perniciosoque exemplo, idem 
Gallus ausus est inire flagitium grave, quod Romae 
cum ultimo dedecore temptasse aliquando dicitur 
Gallienus, et adhibitis paucis clam ferro succinctis, 
vesperi per tabernas palabatur et compita, quaeri- 
tando Graeco sermone. cuius erat impendio gnarus, 
quid de Caesare quisque sentiret. Et haec confi- 
denter agebat in urbe, ubi pernoctantium lumiinum 
claritudo dierum solet imitari fulgorem. Postremo 
agnitus saepe, iamque (si prodisset) conspicuum se 
fore contemplans, non nisi luce palam egrediens ad 
agenda quae putabat seria cernebatur. Et haec 
quidem medullitus multis gementibus agebantur. 

10. Thalassius vero ea tempestate praefectus prae- 
torio praesens, ipse quoque arrogantis ingenii, con- 
siderans incitationem eius ad multorum augeri dis- 
crimina, non maturitate vel consiliis mitigabat, ut ^ 
aliquotiens celsae potestates iras principum mollive- 
runt, sed adversando iurgandoque cum parum con- 
grueret, eum ad rabiem potius evibrabat, Augustum 
actus eius exaggerando creberrime docens, idque 
(incertum qua mente) ne lateret affectans. Quibus ^ 
mox Caesar acrius efferatus, velut contumaciae 

1 lit, added in G ; V omits. ^ quibus ut mox 

(lac. 6 letters), V. 

^That is, Aiitioch. The brilliant lighting of the city is 
mentioned also by Libanius and Hieronymus. 


XIV., 1, 9-10, A.D. 353-4 

9. Finally, following an unprecedented and de- 
structive course, Gallus also ventured to commit the 
atrocious crime which, to his utter disgrace, Gallienus 
is said to have once hazarded at Rome. Taking with 
him a few attendants with concealed weapons, he 
used to roam at evening about the inns and street- 
corners, inquiring of every one in Greek, of which he 
had remarkable command, what he thought of the 
Caesar. And this he did boldly in a citv ^ where the 
brightness of the lights at night commonly equals 
the resplendence of day. At last, being often 
recognized, and reflecting that if he continued that 
course he would be conspicuous, he appeared only in 
broad daylight, to attend to matters which he con- 
sidered important. And all this conduct of his 
caused very deep sorrow to many. 

10. But at that time Thalassius was the Praetorian 
Prefect at court,^ a man who was himself of an 
imperious character. He, perceiving that Gallus' 
temper was rising, to the peril of many, did not try 
to soothe it by ripe counsel, as sometimes high 
officials have moderated the ire of princes ; but 
rather roused the Caesar to fury by opposing and re- 
proving him at unseasonable times : very frequently 
he informed the emperor of Gallus' doings, exagger- 
ating them and taking pains — whatever his motive 
may have been — to do it openly. Through this con- 
duct the Caesar was soon still more violently enraged, 

- This office was originally a militaiy one, but the 
praefectus praeforio under Constantine became the highest 
civil servant of tlie emperor. On })raenens, see Introd. 
p. xxxiii. In this case the court of Gallus is referred to, 
and there would also be a praefectus praetorio praesens at 
the court of Constantius. 



quoddam vexillum altius erigens, sine respectu 
salutis alienae vel suae, ad vertenda opposita,^ instar 
rapidi fluminis, irrevocabUi impetu ferebatur. 

2. Isaurorum incursiones. 

1. Nee sane haec sola pernicies orientem diversis 
cladibus affligebat. Namque et Isauri, quibus est 
usitatum saepe pacari, saepeque inopinis excursibus 
cuncta miscere, ex latrociniis occultis et raris, alente 
impunitate adulescentem in peius audaciam, ad bella 
gravia proruperunt, diu quidem perduelles spiritus 
irrequietis naotibus erigentes, hac tamen indignitate 
perciti vehementer, ut iactitabant, quod eorum capti 
quidam consortes, apud Iconium Pisidiae oppidum in 
amphitheatrali spectaculo fens praedatricibus obiecti 
sunt praeter morem. 2. Atque (ut Tullius ait) ut 
etiam bestiae ^ fame monitae plerumque ad eum 
locum ubi aliquando pastae sunt revertuntur, ita 
omnes instar turbinis degressi montibus impeditis et 
arduis, loca petivere mari confinia, per quae aviis ^ 
latebrosis sese convallibusque occultantes, cum 
appeterent noctes — luna etiam tum cornuta, ideoque 
nondum solido splendore fulgente — nauticos obser- 
vabant. Quos cum in somnum sentirent eflfusos, 
per ancoralia quadrupedo gradu repentes, seseque 

^ opposita. Bent. ; sibi o., Damste ; supposita, V. 
- bestiae, added by Val., ef. Cic. I.e., note 2 ; ferae, W^ G. 
' auiis, Kiessling ; uiis, V. 

^ A people dwelling in the mountains of Pisidia in 
southern Asia INIinor. 


XIV., 1, 10—2, 1-2, A.D. 353-4 

and as if raising higher, as it were, the standard of 
his obstinacy, with no regard for his own Hfe or 
that of others, he rushed on with uncontrollable im- 
petuosity, like a swift torrent, to overthrow whatever 
opposed him. 

2. Inroads of the Isaurians. 

1. And indeed this was not the only calamity 
to afflict the Orient with various disasters. For the 
Isaurians ^ too, whose way it is now to keep the 
peace and now put everything in turmoil by sudden 
raids, abandoned their occasional secret plundering 
expeditions and, as impunity stimulated for the 
worse their growing boldness, broke out in a serious 
war. For a long time they had been inflaming their 
warlike spirits by restless outbreaks, but they were 
now especially exasperated, as they declared, by 
the indignity of some of their associates, who had 
been taken prisoner, having been thrown to beasts 
of prey in the shows of the amphitheatre at Iconium, 
a town of Pisidia— an outrage without precedent. 
2. And, in the words of Cicero,^ as even wild animals, 
when warned by hunger, generally return to the 
place where they were once fed, so they all, swooping 
like a whirlwind down from their steep and rugged 
mountains, made for the districts near the sea ; and 
hiding themselves there in pathless lurking-places 
and defiles as the dark nights were coming on — the 
moon being still crescent and so not shining with full 
brilliance — they watched the sailors. And when 
they saw that they were buried in sleep, creeping or» 
all fours along the anchor-ropes and making their 

- Pro Cluentio, 2o, 67. 



suspensis passibus iniectantes in scaphas, eisdem ^ 
nihil opinantibus assistebant, et incedente aviditate 
saevitiam, ne cedentium quidem uUi parcendo, 
obtruncatis omnibus nierces opimas vel utiles nuUis 
repugnantibus avertebant. 3. Haecque non diu 
sunt perpetrata. Cognitis enim pilatorum caesorum- 
que funeribus, nemo deinde ad has stationes appulit 
navem, sed ut Scironis praerupta letalia declinantes, 
litoribus Cypriis contigui navigabant, quae Isauriae 
scopulis sunt controversa. 4. Procedente igitur mox 
tempore cum adventicium nihil inveniretur, relicta 
ora maritima, in Lycaoniam annexam Isauriae se 
contulerunt, ibique densis intersaepientes ^ itinera 
praetenturis, provincialium et \-iatorum opibus 
pascebantur. 5. Excitavit hie ardor milites per 
municipia plurima, quae eisdem conterminant, dis- 
positos et castella, et quisque serpentes latius pro 
viribus repellere moliens, nunc globis confertos, 
aliquotiens et dispersos, multitudine superabatur 
vigenti,^ quae nata et educata inter editos recurvos- 
que ambitus montium, eos ut loca plana persultat et 
mollia, missilibus obvios eminus lacessens et ululatu 
truci perterrens. 6. Coactique aliquotiens nostri 
pedites ad eos persequendos scandere clivos sublimes, 

1 eisdem enim, V ; eisdem, Xovak, Clark ; e. sensim, 
Eyssen., Gardt. ; e navi, Traube. ^ intersaepientes, 

Lind. ; intercipientes, Traube ; interasipientes, V. 
^ uigenti. Pet., Clark ; ingenti (originally ingentis), V. 

^ A notorious robber slain by Theseus ; he haunted the 
cliffs between Attica and Megara. He not only robbed 
travellers who came that way, but forced them to wash 
his feet, and v\'hile they were obeying kicked them off 
into the sea. 


XIV., 2, 2-6, A.D. 354 

way on tiptoe into the boats, they came upon the 
crew all unawares, and since their natural ferocity 
was fired by greed, they spared no one, even of those 
who surrendered, but massacred them all and 
without resistance carried off the cargoes, led either 
bv their value or their usefulness. 3. This however 
did not continue long ; for when the fate of those 
whom they had butchered and plundered became 
known, no one afterwards put in at those ports, but 
avoiding them as they would the deadly cliffs of 
Sciron,^ they coasted along the shores of Cyprus, 
which lie opposite to the crags of Isauria. 4. Then 
presently, as time went on and nothing came that 
way from abroad, they left the sea-coast and with- 
drew to that part of Lycaonia that borders on 
Isauria ; and there, blocking the roads with close 
barricades, they lived on the property of the pro- 
vincials and of travellers. 5. Anger at this aroused 
the soldiers quartered in the numerous towns and 
fortresses which lie near those regions, and each 
division strove to the best of its power to check the 
marauders as they ranged more widely, now in solid 
bodies, sometimes even in isolated bands. But the 
soldiers were defeated by their strength and numbers; 
for since the Isaurians were born and brought up 
amid the deep and winding defiles of the mountains, 
they bounded over them as if they were a smooth 
and level plain, attacking the enemy with missiles 
from a distance and terrifying them with savage 
bowls. 6. And sometimes gux infantry in pursuing 7p» 
them were forced to scale lofty peaks, and when ^ 
they lost their footing, even if they reached the very 
summits by catching hold of underbrush or briars, 



etiam si lapsantibus plaiilis fruticeta preusando vel 
dumos, ad vertices venerint summos, inter arta 
tamen et invia, nullas acies explicare permissi, nee 
firmare nisu valido gressus ; hoste discursatore 
rupium abscisa volvente superue, periculose per 
prona discedunt, aut ex necessitate ultima fortiter 
dimicantes, minis ponderum immanium conster- 
nuntur. 7. Quam ob rem circumspecta cautela 
observatum est deinceps, et cum edita montium 
petere coeperint grassatores, loci iniquitati ^ milites 
cedunt. Ubi autem in planitie potuerint reperiri, 
quod contingit assidue, nee exsertare lacertos nee 
crispare permissi tela quae vehunt bina vel terna, 
pecudum ritu inertium trucidantur. 

8. Metuentes igitur idem latrones Lycaoniam 
magna parte campestrem, cum se impares nostris 
fore congressione stataria documeiitis frequentibus 
scirent, tramitibus deviis petivere Pamphyliam, 
diu quidem iutactam, sed timore populationum et 
caedum, milite per omnia difFuso propinqua, magnis 
undique praesidiis communitam. 9. Raptim igitur 
properantes, ut motus sui rumores celeritate nimia 
praevenirent, vigore corporum ac levitate confisi, 
per flexuosas semitas ad summitates coUium tardius 
evadebant. Et cum, superatis difficultatibus arduis, 
ad supercilia veuisseut fluvii Melanis, alti et verticosi, 

' iniqyitati, (iardt. ; iniquitate, V. 


XIV., 2, 6-9, A.D. 354 

the narrow and pathless tracts did not allow them 
to deploy their ranks or take firm footing for a 
vigorous attack ; and while the enemy, running here 
and there, tore off and hurled down masses of rock 
from above, they made their perilous way down 
over steep slopes ; or if, compelled by dire necessity, 
they made a brave fight, they were overwhelmed by 
falling boulders of enormous weight. 7. Therefore 
extreme caution was shown after that, and when the 
marauders began to make for the mountain heights, 
the soldiers yielded to the unfavourable position. 
When, however, the Isaurians could be found on 
level ground, as constantly happened, they were 
allowed neither to strike a blow nor so much" as poise 
their weapons, of which each carried two or three, 
but they were slaughtered like defenceless sheep. 

8. Accordingly these same marauders, distrusting 
Lycaonia, which is for the most part level, and 
having learned by repeated experience that they 
would be no match for our soldiers in a stand-up 
fight, made their way by retired by-paths into 
Pamphylia, long unmolested, it is true, but through 
fear of raids and massacres protected everywhere by 
strong garrisons, while troops were spread all over 
the neighbouring country. 9. Therefore they made 
great haste, in order by extreme swiftness to anti- 
cipate the reports of their movements, trusting in 
their bodily strength and activity ; but they made 
their way somewhat slowly to the summits of the 
hills over winding trails. And when, after over- 
coming extreme difficulties, they came to the steep 
banks of the Melas, a swift and eddying stream, 
which surrounds the inhabitants like a wall and 

VOL. I. B 


qui pro muro tuetur accolas circumfusus, augente 
nocte adulta terrorem, (juievere paulisper, lucein ^ 
opperientes. Arbitrabantur enim niillo impediente 
transgress!, inopino accursu apposita quaeque 
vastare, sed in cassum labores pertulcre gravissimos. 
10. Nam sole orto magnitudiue angusti gurgitis sed 
profundi a transitu arcebantur, et dum piscatorios 
quaerunt lenunculos, vel innare temere contextis i 
cratibus ^ parant, effusae legiones quae hiemabant ' 
tunc apud Siden, eisdem impetu occurrere veloci. 
Et signis prope ripam locatis, ad manus comminus 
couserendas, denseta scutoruni compage, semet 
scientissime praestruebant, ausos quoque aliquos 
fiducia nandi, vel cavatis arborum truncis, amnem 
permeare latenter, facillime trucidarunt. 11. Undc 
temptatis ad discrimen ultimum artibus militum,^ 
cum nihil impetraretur, pavore vique repellente 
extrusi, et quo tenderent ambigentes, venere prope 
oppidum Laranda. 12. Ibi victu recreati et quiete, 
postquam abierat timor, vicos opulentos adorti, 
equestrium adiumento cohortium, quae casu propin- 
quabant, nee resistere planitie porrecta conati, 
digressi sunt, retroque cedentes,^ omne iuventutis 
robur reUctum in sedibus acciverunt. 13. Et 
quoniam inedia gravi afflictabantur, locum petivere 
Paleas nomine, vergentem in mare, valido muro 

1 contextis cratibus, Kiessling ; contexti sunt ratibus, V ; 
contextis ratibtis, BG. ^ militmn, Clark ; multum, \ ; 

multis, \'al. ^ cedentes, Novak ; concedentes, V. 


XIV., 2, 9-13, A.D. 354 

protects them, the lateness of the. night increased 
their alarm, and they halted for a time, waiting for 
daylight. They thought, indeed, to cross without 
opposition and by their unexpected raid to lay ' 
waste all before them ; but they endured the greatest 
hardships to no purpose. 10. For when the sun 
rose, they were prevented from crossing by the size 
of the stream, which was narrow but deep. And 
while they were hunting for fishermen's boats or 
preparing to cross on hastily woven hurdles, the 
legions that were then wintering at Side poured out 
and fell upon them in swift attack. And having set 
up their standards near the river-bank, the legions 
drew themselves up most skilfully for fighting hand 
to hand with a close formation of shields ; and with 
perfect ease they slew some, who had even dared to 
cross the river secretly, trusting to swimming, or in 
hollowed out tree trunks. 11. From there, after try- 
ing the skill of our soldiers even to a final test without T^ 
gaining anything, "dislodged by fear and the strength 
of the legions, and not knowing what direction to 
take, they came to the neighbourhood of the town 
of Laranda. 12. There they were refreshed with 
food and rest, and after their fear had left them, 
they attacked some rich villages ; but since these 
were aided by some cohorts of cavalry, which 
chanced to come up, the enemy withdrew without 
attempting any resistance on the level plain ; but 
as they retreated, they summoned all the flower of 
their youth that had been left at home. 13. And 
since they were distressed by severe hunger, they 
made for a place called Paleas, near the sea, which 
was protected by a strong wall. There supplies are 



firmatum, ubi couduntur uunc usque corameatus, 
distribui militibus omne latus Isauriae defenden- 
tibus assueti. Circumstetere igitur hoc munimen- 
tum per triduum et trinoctium, et cum neque 
acclivitas ipsa sine discrimine posset adiri ^ letali, 
nee cuniculis quicquam geri, nee procedebat uUum 
obsidionalc commentum, maesti excedunt, postrema 
vi subigente maiora viribus aggressuri. 14. Proinde 
concepta rabie saeviore, quam desperatio incendebat 
et fames, amplificatis viribus, ardore incohibili in 
excidium urbium matris Seleuciae efFerebantur, 
quam comes tuebatur Castricius, tresque legiones 
bellicis sudoribus induratae. 15. Horum adventum 
praedocti speculationibus fidis, rectores militum 
tessera data sollemui, armatos omnes celeri eduxere 
procursu, et agiliter praeterito Calycadni fluminis 
ponte, cuius undarum maguitudo murorum alluit 
turres, in speciem locavere pugnandi. Neque tamen 
exsUuit quisquam, nee permissus est congredi. 
Formidabatur enim flagrans vesania manus, et 
superior numero, et ruitura sine respectu salutis in 
ferrum. 16. Viso itaque exercitu procul, auditoque 
liticinum cantu, represso gradu parumper stetere 
praedones, exsertantesque minaces gladios postea 
lentius incedebant. 17. Quibus occurrere bene per- 
tinax miles explicatis ordinibus parans, hastisque 
feriens scuta, qui habitus iram pugnantium concitat 

^ possit adiri, EbG ; possit aflire, V ; posset. A, put before 
adiri by Clark. 


XIV., 2, 13-17, A.D. 354 

regularly stored even to-day, for distribution to the 
troops that defend the whole frontier of Isauria. 
Therefore they invested that fortress for three days 
and three nights ; but since the steep slope itself 
could not be approached without deadly peril, and 
nothing could be eflfected by mines, and no method 
of siege was successful, they withdrew in dejection, 
ready, under the pressure of extreme necessity, to 
undertake even tasks beyond their powers. 14. Ac- 
cordingly, filled with still greater fury, to which de- 
spair and famine added fuel, with increased numbers 
and irresistible energy they rushed on to destroy 
Seleucia, the metropolis of the pro\ance, which Count 
Castricius was holding with three legions steeled by 
hard service. 15. Warned of their approach by 
trusty scouts, the officers of the garrison gave the 
watchword, according to regulations, and in a swift 
sally led out the entire force ; and having quickly 
crossed the bridge over the river Calycadnus, whose 
mighty stream washes the towers of the city walls, 
they drew up their men in order of battle. And yet 
no one charged or was allowed to fight ; for they 
feared that band on fire with madness, superior in 
numbers, and ready to rush upon the sword, regard- 
less of their lives. 16. Consequently, when the 
army came into view afar off, and the notes of the 
trumpeters were heard, the marauders stopped and 
halted for a while ; then, drawing their formidable 
swords, they came on at a slower pace. 17. And 
when the unperturbed soldiers made ready to meet 
them, deploying their ranks and striking their 
shields with their spears, an action which rouses the 
\VTath and resentment of the combatants, they 



et dolorem, proximos iain gestu terrebat. Sed eum 
in certamen alacriter consurgentem, revocavere due- 
tores, rati iuteinpestivuni anceps subire certamen, 
cum haut longe muri distarent, quorum tutela 
securitas poterat in solido loeari cunctorum. 18. 
Hac ita persuasionc reducti intra moenia bellatores, 
obseratis undique portarum aditibus, propugnaculis 
insistebant et pinnis, congesta undique saxa telaque 
habentes in promptu, ut si quis se proripuisset 
citerius,^ multitudine missilium sterneretur et lapi- 
dum. 19. Illud taraen clausos vehementer angebat, 
quod captis navigiis, quae frumenta vehebant per 
flumen, Isauri quidem alimentorum copiis affluebant, 
ipsi vero solitarum rerum cibo iam consumendo, 
inediae propinquantis aerumnas exitialis horrebant. 
20. Haec ubi latius fama vulgasset, missaeque 
relationes assiduae Galhim Caesarem permo\dssent, 
quoniam magister equitum longius ea tempestate 
distinebatur, iussus comes orientis Nebridius, con- 
tractis undique militaribus copiis, ad eximendam 
periculo civitatem amplam et opportuuam, studio 
properabat ingenti. Quo cognito abscessere la- 
trones, nulla re amplius memorabdi gesta, dispersi- 
que (ut solent,) avia montium petiere celsorum. 

1 proripuisset, EBG ; p. citerius, Gronov, Fletcher ; 
p. interius, Val. ; proripuisse (lac. 3 letters) terius, V. 

1 See Introd., pp. xxxiv f. ' See Introd., pp. xxviii f. 


XIV., 2, 17-20, A.D. 354 

intimidated the nearest of the enemy by their very 
gestures. But as they were eagerly rushing to the 
fray, their leaders called them back, thinking it 
inadvisable to risk a doubtful combat when forti- 
fications were not far distant, under the protection 
of which the safety of all could put on a solid founda- 
tion. 18. In this conviction, then, the warriors 
were led back within the walls, the entrances to the 
gates on all sides were barred, and they took their 
place on the battlements and pinnacles with rocks 
gathered from every hand and weapons in readiness, 
so that, if anyone should force his way near to the 
walls, he might be overwhelmed by a shower of 
spears and stones. 19. Still, the besieged were 
greatly troubled by the fact that the Isaurians, 
having captured some boats which were carrying 
grain on the river, were abundantly supplied with 
provisions, while they themselves had already ex- 
hausted the regular stores and were dreading the 
deadly pangs of approaching famine. 20. When 
the news of this situation spread abroad, and re- 
peated messages dispatched to Gallus Caesar had 
roused him to action, since the Master of the Horse ^ 
was at the time too far removed from the spot, 
orders were given to Nebridius, Count of the East.- 
He quickly got together troops from every side and 
with the greatest energy hastened to rescue this 
great and strategically important city from danger. 
On learning this, the freebooters departed without 
accomplishing anything more of consequence, and 
scattering (after their usual fashion) made for the 
trackless xvastes of the high mountains. 



3. Persarum commentum irritum. 

1. Eo adducta re per Isauriam, rege Persarum 
bellis finitimis illigato, repellenteque a collimitiis 
suis ferocissimas gentes, quae mente quadam ver- 
sabili hostiliter eum saepe incessunt, et in nos arma 
moventem aliquotiens iuvant, Nohodares quidam 
nomine e numero optiniatum, incursare Mesopo- 
tamiam quotiens copia dederit ordinatus, explorabat 
nostra sollicite, si repperisset usquam locum, vi 
subita perrupturus. 2. Et quia Mesopotamiac trac- 
tus omnes crebro iuquietari sueti, praetenturis et 
stationibus servabantur agrariis, laevorsura flexo 
itinera, Osdroenae subsiderat extimas partes, novum 
parumque aliquando temptatum commentum ag- 
gressus ; quod si impetrasset, fulminis modo cuncta 
vastarat. Erat autem quod cogitabat huius modi. 

3, Batnae municipium in Anthemusia conditum 
Macedonum manu priscorum, ab Euphrate flumine 
brevi spatio disparatur, refertum mercatoribus 
opulentis, ubi annua soUemnitate prope Septembris 
initium mensis, ad nundinas magna promiscuae 
fortunae convenit multitudo, ad commercanda quae 
Indi mittunt et Seres, aliaque ^ plurima vehi terra 
marique consueta. 4. Hanc regionem praestitutis 
celebritati diebus, invadere parans dux ante dictus, 
per solitudines Aboraeque amnis herbidas ripas, 

^ aliaque. A, Kiessling ; alia, V. 
^ Sapor, see Index. 


XIV., 3, 1-4, A.D. 354 

3. An unsuccessful plot of the Persians. 

1. When affairs had reached this stage in Isauria, 
the king of Persia,^ involved in war with his neigh- 
bours, was driving back from his frontiers a number 
of very wild tribes which, with inconsistent policy, 
often make hostile raids upon his territories and 
sometimes aid him when he makes war upon us. 
One of his grandees, Nohodares by name, having 
received orders to invade Mesopotamia whenever 
occasion offered, was carefully reconnoitring our 
territory, intending a sudden incursion in case he 
found any opening. 2. And as all the districts of 
Mesopotamia, being exposed to frequent raids, 
were protected by frontier-guards and country 
garrisons, Nohodares, having turned his course to 
the left, had beset the remotest parts of Osdroene, 
attempting a novel and all but unprecedented 
manoeuvre ; and if he had succeeded, he would 
have devastated the whole region like a thunderbolt. 
Now what he planned was the following. 

3. The town of Batne, founded in Anthemusia in 
early times by a band of Macedonians, is separated 
by a short space from the river Euphrates ; it is 
filled with wealthy traders when, at the yearly festi- 
val, near the beginning of the month of September, 
a great crowd of every condition gathers for the fair, 
to traffic in the wares sent from India and China, 
and in other articles that are regularly brought there 
in great abundance by land and sea. 4. This dis- 
trict the above-mentioned leader made ready to 
invade, on the days set for this celebration, through 
the wilderness and the grass-covered banks of the 
river Abora ; but he was betrayed by information 



suorum indicio proditus, qui admissi flagitii metu 
exagitati, ad praesidia descivere Romana, absque 
uUo egressus effectu, deinde tabescebat immobilis. 

4. Saracenorum irruptiones et mores. 

1. Saraceni tamen nee amici nobis umquam nee 
hostes optandi, ultro citroque discursantcs, quicquid 
inveniri poterat momento temporis parvi vastabant, 
milvorum rapacium similes, qui si praedam di- 
spexerint celsius, volatu rapiunt ccleri,ac si^impetra- 
verint, non immorantur. 2. Super quorum moribus 
licet in actibus principis Marei, et postea aliquotiens 
memini rettulisse,^ tamen nunc quoque pauca de 
eisdem expediam carptim. 3. Apud has gentes, 
quarum exordieus initium ab Assyriis, ad Nili 
cataractas porrigitur, el confinia Blemmyarum, 
omnes pari sorte sunt bellatores, seminudi coloratis 
sagulis pube tenus amicti, equorum adiuraento 
pernicium graciliumque camelorum per diversa 
reptantes, in tranquillis vel turbidis rebus ; nee 
eorum quisquam aliquando stivam apprehendit, vel 
arborem edit, aut arva subigendo quaeritat victum, 
sed errant semper per spatia longe lateque distenta, 
sine lare sine sedibus fixis aut legibus ; nee idem 
perferunt diutius caelum, aut tractus unius sol 
illis umquam placet. 4. Vita est illis semper in 
fuga, uxoresque mercennariae conductae ad tempus 
ex pacto, atque (ut sit species matrimonii,) dotis 
nomine futura coniunx hastam et tabernaculum 

1 ac si, Mommsen ; aut si, V. - memini rcttiilisse, 

Kiessling ; meminerit tulisse, V. 

^ In one of the lost boolcs. 


XIV., 3, 4—4, 1-4, A.D. 354 

given by some of his owu soldiers, who, fearing 
punishment for a crime which they had committed, 
deserted to the Roman garrison. Therefore, with- 
drawing without accomplishing anything, he lan- 
guished thereafter in inaction. 

4. Inroads of the Saracens ; their customs. 

1. The Saracens, however, whom we never found 
desirable either as friends or as enemies, ranging up 
and down the country, in a brief space of time laid 
waste whatever they could find, like rapacious hawks 
which, whenever they have caught sight of any prey 
from on high, seize it with swift swoop, and directly 
they have seized it make off. 2. Although I recall 
having told of their customs in my history of the 
emperor Marcus,^ and several times after that, yet I 
will now briefly relate a few more particulars about 
them. 3. Among those tribes whose original abode 
extends from the Assyrians to the cataracts of the 
Nile and the frontiers of the Blemmyae all alike are 
warriors of equal rank, half-nude, clad in dyed cloaks 
as far as the waist, ranging widely with the help of 
swift horses and slender camels in times of peace or 
; of disorder. No man ever grasps a plough-handle or 
cultivates a tree, none seeks a living by tilling the 
soil, but they rove continually over wide and exten- 
sive tracts without a home, without fixed abodes or 
laws ; they cannot long endure the same sky, nor 
does the sun of a single district ever content them. 
4. Their life is always on the move, and they have 
mercenary wives, hired under a temporary contract. 
But in order that there may be some semblance of 
matrimony, the future wife, by way of dower, oilers 



ofl'crt marito, post statum diem (si id elegerit,) dis- 
cessura, et incredibile est quo ardore apud eos in 
venerem^ uterque solvitursexus. 5. Ita autem quoad 
vixerint late palantur, ut alibi mulier nubat, in loco 
pariat alio, liberosque procul educat,^ nulla copia 
quiescendi permissa. 6. Victus universis caro ferina 
est, lactisque abundans copia qua sustentantur, et 
herbae niultiplices, et siquae alites capi per aucupium 
possint, et plerosque nos vidimus frumenti usum et 
vini penitus ignorantes. 

7. Hactenus de natione peruiciosa. Nunc ad 
textum propositum revertamur. 

5. Magnentianorum supplicia. 

1, Dum haec in oriente aguntur, Arelate hiemem 
agens Constantius, post theatralis ludos atque circen- 
ses ambitioso editos apparatu, diem sextum idus 
Octobres, qui imperii eius annum tricensimum 
terminabat, insolentiae pondera gravius librans, 
siquid dubium deferebatur aut falsum, pro liquido 
accipiens et comperto, inter alia excarnificatum 
Gerontium, Magnentianae comitem partis, exsulari 
maerore multavit. 2. Utque aegrum corpus quas- 
sari etiam levibus solet ofFensis, ita animus eius 
angustus et tener, quicquid increpuisset, ad salutis 

^ in venerem, W^ BG ; in venere, Traube ; invenire, V. 
- educat, Lind. ; inde educat, Novak ; deducat, V. 

^This dates his reign from a.d. 323, when he and his 
brothers Constantine and Crispus were appointed Caesars, 
on October 8th, by Constantine the Great. He became an 
Augustus witli Constantine II. and Constans in 337, and 
reigned alone, after the death of Magnentius, from 353 to 


XIV., 4, 4-7—5, 1-2, A.D. 353-4 

her husband a spear and a tent, with the right to 
leave him after a stipulated time, if she so elect : 
and it is unbelievable with what ardour both sexes 
give themselves up to passion. 5. Moreover, they 
wander so widely as long as they live, that a woman 
marries in one place, gives birth in another, and 
rears her children far away, without being allowed 
any opportunity for rest. 6. They all feed upon 
game and an abundance of milk, which is their main 
sustenance, on a variety of plants, as well as on such 
birds as they are able to take by fowling ; and I have 
seen many of them who were wholly unacquainted 
with grain and wine. 7. So much for this dangerous 
tribe. Let us now return to our original theme. 

5. The torture of the followers of Magnentius. 

1. While this was happening in the East, Con- 
stantius was passing the winter at Arelate, where he 
gave entertainments in the theatre and the circus 
with ostentatious magnificence. Then, on the 10th 
of October, which completed the thirtieth year of 
his reign, ^ giving greater weight to his arrogance and 
accepting every false or doubtful charge as evident 
and proven, among other atrocities he tortured 
Gerontius, a count of the party of Magnentius,^ and 
visited him with the sorrow of exile. 2. And, as an 
ailing body is apt to be affected even by slight 
annoyances, so his narrow and sensitive mind, 
thinking that every sound indicated something done 
or planned at the expense of his safety, made his 

361. Aininianus seems to have written thirtieth for 
twenty-ninth, and October for November. 
^ See note, p. 1, and Index. 



suae dispendium cxistimaus laclujii aiit cuj^itatum, 
insontium caedibus fecit victoriam luctuosam. 3. 
Siquis enim militarium vel honoratorum aut iiobilis 
inter suos, rumore tenus asset insimulatus fovisse 
partes hostiles, iniecto ouere catenarum, in modum 
beluae trahebatur, et inimico urgente vel nuUo, 
quasi sufficiente hoc solo, quod nominatus esset 
aut delatus aut postulatus, capite vel multatione 
bonorum, aut insulari solitudine damnabatur. 

4. Accedebant enim eius asperitati, ubi imminuta 
esse ^ amplitudo imperii dicebatur, et iracundiae 
suspicionumque vanitati,^ proximorum cruentae 
blauditiae, exaggerantium incidentia, et dolere 
impendio simulantium, si principis petitur ^ vita, a 
cuius salute velut filo pendere statum orbis terrarum 
fictis vocibus exclamabant. 5. Ideoque fertur nemi- 
nem aliquando ob haec vel similia poenae addictumi 
oblato de more elogio, revocari iussisse, quod inexo- 
rabiles quoquo principes factitarunt. Et exitiale hoc 
vitium, quod in aliis non numquam intepescit, in 
illo aetatis progressu effervescebat, obstinatum eius 
propositum accendente adulatorum cohorte. 

^ inminuta esse, Traube ; inminuta uel laesa, Val. ; 
inminutae (lac. 5 letters), V. ^ suspicionumque 

vanitati, Heraeus ; suspicionum quantitati, V. ^ pefitnr, 
Novak ; periclitetur, Gardt. ; per[di]tur, V. 

1 Over Magnentius. See note, p. 1. 

2 The honorati were former civil officials; cf. xxix. 1, 9, 
abunde honoratum ; Asiam quippe rexerat pro praefectis. 


XIV., 5, 2-5, A.». 353-4 

victory ^ lamentable through the murder of innoceut 
men. 3. For if anyone of the military commanders 
or ex-officials," or one of high rank in his own com- 
munity, was accused even by rumour of having 
favoured the party of the emperor's opponent, he 
was loaded with chains and dragged about like a 
wild beast. And whether a personal enemy pressed 
the charge or no one at all, as though it w as enough 
that he had been named, informed against, or accused, 
he was condemned to death, or his property con- 
fiscated, or he was banished to some desert island. 

4. Still greater was his cruelty whenever the 
majesty of the empire was said to be insulted, and 
his angry passions and unfounded suspicions were 
increased by the bloodthirsty flattery of his 
courtiers, who exaggerated everything that hap- 
pened and pretended to be greatly troubled by the 
thought of an attempt on the life of a prince on 
whose safety, as on a thread, they hypocritically 
declared that the condition of the whole world 
depended. 5. And he is even said to have given 
orders that no one who had ever been punished for 
these or similar ofi"ences should be given a new trial 
after a writ of condemnation ^ had once been pre- 
sented to him in the usual manner, which even the 
most inexorable emperors commonly allowed. And 
this fatal fault of cruelty, which in others sometimes 
grew less with advancing age, in his case became 
more violent, since a group of flatterers intensified i 
his stubborn resolution. 

'That is, a tablet on which the charge and the pnnish- 
ment were recorded. This was sometimes handed to the 
emperor by a judge, cf . Suet., Caliy. 27, 1, sometimes issued 
by the ernperor himself ; see Aium. xiv. 7, 2 ; xix. 12, 9. 



6. Inter quos Paulus eminebat notarius, ortus in 
Hispania coluber ^ quidam sub vultu latens, odorandi 
vias periculorum occultas perquam sagax. Is in 
Britanniara missus, ut militares quosdam perduceret, 
ausos conspirasse Magnentio, cum reniti non possent, 
iussa licentius supergressus, fluminis modo fortunis 
complurium sese repentinus infudit, et ferebatur per 
strages multiplices ac ruinas, vinculis membra 
ingenuorum affligens, et quosdam obterens manicis, 
crimiua scilicet multa consarcinando, a veritate 
longe discreta. Unde admissum est facinus impium, 
quod Constanti tempus nota inusserat sempiterna. 
7. Martinus agens illas provincias pro praefectis, 
aerumnas innocentium graviter gemens, saepeque 
obsecrans, ut ab omni culpa immunibus parceretur, 
cum non impetraret, minabatur se discessurum ; 
ut saltem id metuens. perquisitor malivolus tandem 
desineret quieti coalitos homines in aperta pericula 
proiectare. 8. Per hoc minui studium suum existi- 
mans Paulus, ut erat in complicandis negotiis artifex 
dirus, unde ei Catenae indutum ^ est cognomentum, 
vicarium ipsum eos quibus praeerat adhuc defen- 
santem, ad sortem periculorum communium traxit. 
Et instabat ut eum quoque cum tribunis et aliis 
pluribus, ad comitatum imperatoris vinctum per- 
duceret ; quo percitus ille, exitio urgente abrupto, 

^ coluber, Bentley, Novak ; glaber, V. * indutum, 

Clark, c.c. (cf. xv. 3, 4) ; inditum, EBG ; indinuum, V. 

* See Ixitrod., p. xxx. 


XIV., 5, 6-8, A.D. 353-4 

6. Prominent among these was the state secretary ^ 
Paulus, a native of Spain, a kind of viper, whose 
countenance concealed his character, but who was 
extremely clever in scenting out hidden means of 
danger for others. ^ hen he had been sent to Britain 
to fetch some officers who had dared to conspire 
with Magnentius, since they could make no resist- 
ance he autocratically extended his instructions and, 
like a flood, suddenly overwhelmed the fortunes of 
many, making his way amid manifold slaughter and 
destruction, imprisoning freeborn men and even 
degrading some with handcuffs ; as a matter of 
fact, he patched together many accusations with 
utter disregard of the truth, and to him was due an 
impious crime, which fixed an eternal stain upon 
the time of Constantius. 7. Martinus, who was 
governing those provinces as a deputy of the prefects, 
deeply deplored the woes suff"ered by innocent men ; 
and after often begging that those who were free 
from any reproach should be spared, when he failed 
in his appeal he threatened to retire, in the hope that, 
at least through fear of this, that malevolent man- 
hunter might finally cease to expose to open danger 
men naturally given to peace. 8. Paulus thought 
that this would interfere with his profession, and 
being a formidable artist in devising complications, 
for which reason he was nicknamed " The Chain," 
since the deputy continued to defend those whom 
he was appointed to govern, Paulus involved even 
him in the common peril, threatening to bring 
him also in chains to the emperor's court, along with 
the tribunes and many others. Thereupon Martinus, 
alarmed at this threat, and thinking swift death 


VOL, I. C 


ferro eundem adoritur Paulum. Et quia languente 
dextera letaliter f'erire non potuit, iam destrictum 
mucronem in proprium latus impegit. Hocque 
deformi genere mortis, excessit e vita iustissimus 
rector,^ ausus miserabiles casus levare multorum. 
9. Quibus ita sceleste patratis, Paulus cruore per- 
fusus, reversusque ad principis castra, multos co- 
opertos paene catenis adduxit, in squaloreni deiectos 
atque maestitiam, quorum adventu intendebantur 
eculei, uncosque parabat carnifex et tormenta. 
Et ex his ^ proscripti sunt plures, actique in exsilium 
alii, non nullos gladii consumpsere poenales. Nee 
enim quisquam facile meminit sub Constantio, ubi 
susurro tenus haec movebantur, quemquana abso- 

6. Senatus populique Romani vitia. 

1. Inter haec Orfitus praefecti potestate regebat 
urbeni aeternam,^ ultra modum delatae dignitatis 
sese offerens insolenter, vir quidem prudens, et 
forensium negotiorum oppido gnarus, sed splendore 
liberalium doctrinarum minus quam nobilem decu- 
erat institutus. Quo administrante seditiones sunt 
concitatae graves ob inopiam vini, cuius ^ avidis 
usibus vulgus intentum, ad motus asperos excitatur 
et crebros. 

1 rector, H. Ernst, Bentley ; remora, V. - et ex his, 

Ej'ssen. ; tormentae texis, V. * urhem aeternam, E^A ; 

wr (lac. of 8 letters) noTn, V^, urbevi etate ivam, V-. 
* cuius, C. F. W. Miiller ; huius, V. 


XIV.. 5, 8-9—6, L A.D. 353-5 

iiuniineut, drew his sword and attacked that same 
Pauhis. But since the weakness of his hand pre- 
vented him from dealing a fatal blow, he plunged the 
sword which he had already drawn into his own 
side. And by that ignominious death there passed 
from life a most just ruler, who had dared to lighten 
the unhappy lot of many. 9. After perpetrating these 
atrocious crimes, Paulus, stained with blood, re- 
turned to the emperor's camp, bringing with him 
many men almost covered with chains and in a state 
of pitiful filth and wretchedness. On their arrival, 
the racks were made ready and the executioner 
prepared his hooks and other instruments of torture. 
Many of the prisoners were proscribed, others 
driven into exile ; to some the sword dealt the 
penalty of death. For no one easily recalls the 
acquittal of anyone in the time of Constantius 
when an accusation against him had even been 

6. The faults of the Roman Senate and People. 

1. Meanwhile Orfitus was governing the eternal 
city with the rank of Prefect, and with an arrogance 
beyond the limits of the power that had been con- 
ferred upon him. He was a man of wisdom, it is 
true, and highly skilled in legal practice, but less 
equipped with the adornment of the liberal arts than 
became a man of noble rank. During his term of 
office serious riots broke out because of the scarcity 
of wine ; for the people, eager for an unrestrained 
use of this commodity^ were roused to frequent and 
violent disturbances. 




2. Et quoniam mirari posse quosdam peregrinos 
existimo, haec lectures forsitan (si coutigerit), quam 
ob rem cum oratio ad ea monstranda deflexerit quae 
Romae geruntur, nihil praeter seditiones narratur et 
tabernas et vilitates harum similis alias, summatim 
causas perstringam, nusquam a veritate sponte 
propria digressurus. 

3. Tempore quo primis auspiciis in mundanum 
fulgorem surgeret victura dum erunt homines Roma, 
ut augeretur sublimibus incrementis, foedere pacis 
aeternae Virtus convenit atque Fortuna, plerumque 
dissidentes, quarum si altera defuisset, ad perfectam 
non venerat summitatem. 4. Eius populus ab 
incunabulis primis ad usque pueritiae tempus 
extremum, quod annis circumcluditur fere trecentis, 
circummurana pertulit bella ; deinde aetatem 
ingressus adultam, post multiplices bellorum aerum- 
nas, Alpes transcendit et fretum ; in iuvenem erectus 
et virum, ex omni plaga quam orbis ambit immensus, 
reportavit laureas et ^ triumphos ; iamque vergens 
in senium, et nomine solo aliquotiens vincens, 
ad tranquilliora vitae discessit. 5. Ideo urbs vene- 
rabilis, post superbas efFeratarum gentium cervices 
oppressas, latasque leges, fundamenta libertatis et 
retinacula sempiterna, velut frugi parens et prudens 
et dives, Caesaribus tamquam liberis suis regenda 
patrimonii iura permisit. 6. Et olim licet otiosae 

^ laureas et, Kiessling ; laureace, V. 

^ Here Ammianus, writing his History- at Rome, classes 
himself as a Roman ; see note on 6, 12, below, and Introd., 
p. xiv. 


XIV., 6, 2-6 

2. Now I think that some foreigners ^ who will per- 
haps read this work (if I shall be so fortunate) may 
wonder why it is that when the narrative turns to 
the description of what goes on at Rome, I tell of 
nothing save dissensions, taverns, and other similar 
vulgarities. Accordingly, I shall briefly touch upon 
the reasons, intending nowhere to depart intention- 
ally from the truth. 

3. At the time when Rome first began to rise into 
a position of world-wide splendour, destined to live 
so long as men shall exist, in order that she might 
grow to a towering stature. Virtue and Fortune, 
ordinarily at variance, formed a pact of eternal 
peace ; for if either one of them had failed her, 
Rome had not come to complete supremacy. 4. Her 
people, from the very cradle to the end of their 
childhood,'^ a period of about three hundred years, 
carried on wars about her walls. Then, entering 
upon adult life, after many toilsome wars, they 
crossed the Alps and the sea. Raised to manly 
vigour, from every region which the vast globe 
includes, they brought back laurels and triumphs. 
And now, declining into old age, and often owing 
victory to its name alone, it has come to a quieter 
period of life. 5. Thus the venerable city, after 
humbling the proud necks of savage nations, and 
making laws, the everlasting foundations and moor- 
ings of liberty, like a thrifty parent, wise and 
wealthy, has entrusted the management of her inheri- 
tance to the Caesars, as to her children. 6. And 

-The same figure is used by i'lorus, Introd. 4 ff. {L.C.L 
PR. 6 ff. ). 



sint tribus, pacataeque centuriae, et nulla suffragi- 
orum certamina, sed Pompiliani redierit securitas 
temporis, per omnes tamen quot orae sunt partesque ^ 
terrarum, ut domina suscipitur et regina, et ubique 
patrum reverenda cum auctoritate canities, populique 
Romani nomen circumspectum et verecundum. 

7. Sed laeditur hie coetuum magnificus splendor, 
levitate paucorum incondita, ubi nati sunt non 
reputantium, sed tamquam indulta licentia vitiis, 
ad errores lapsorum atque ^ lasciviam. Ut enim 
Simonides lyricus docet, beate perfecta ratione 
victuro, ante alia patriam esse convenit gloriosam. 
8. Ex his quidam aeternitati se commendari posse 
per statuas aestimantes, eas ardenter affectant, 
quasi plus praemii de figmentis aereis sensu caren- 
tibus adepturi, quam ex conscientia honeste recteque 
factorum. easque auro rurant imbratteari, quod 
Acilio Glabrioni delatum est primo, cum consiliis 
armisque regem superasset Antiochum. Quam autem 
sit pulchrum, exigua haec spernentem et minima, ad 
ascensus verae gloriae tendere longos et arduos, ut 
memorat vates Ascraeus. Censorius Cato monstravit. 
Qui interrogatus quam ob rem inter multos ipse ^ 

* quot orae sunt partesque, Seguine, Clark ; quotque sunt 
partes quae, V. ^ atque, Harmon, c.c, Clark ; ac, 
Eyssen. ; ad, V. ^ ijjse, Traube in lac. of 3 letters. 

1 The thirty-five tribes into which the Roman citizens 
were divided. 

^ The comitm centuriata. 

^ The passage does not occur in the surviving fragments. 
Plutarch, Demosthenes, 1, attributes the same saying to 
Eiu-ipides, "or whoever it was." 

* See Livy, xl. 34, 5. 


XIV., 6, 6-8 

although for some time the tribes ^ have been inactive 
and the centuries - at peace, and there are no con- 
tests for votes but the tranquillity of Numa's time 
has returned, yet throughout all regions and parts of 
the earth she is looked up to as mistress and queen; 
everywhere the white hair of the senators and their 
authority are revered and the name of the Roman 
people is respected and honoured. 

7. But this magnificence and splendour of the 
assemblies is marred by the rude worthlessness of a 
few, who do not consider where they were born, but, 
as if licence were granted to vice, descend to sin and 
wantonness. For as the lyric poet Simonides tells 
us,^ one who is going to live happy and in accord 
with perfect reason ought above all else to have a 
glorious fatherland. 8. Some of these men eagerly 
strive for statues, thinking that by them they can 
be made immortal, as if they would gain a greater 
reward from senseless brazen images than from the 
consciousness of honourable and ■sdrtuous conduct. 
And they take pains to have them overlaid with gold, 
a fashion first introduced by Acilius Glabrio,* after 
his skill and his arms had overcome King Antiochus.^ 
But how noble it is, scorning these slight and tri\'ial I 
honours, to aim to tread the long and steep ascent 
to true glory, as the bard of Ascra expresses it,® is 
made clear by Cato the Censor. For when he was 
asked why he alone among many did not have a 

^ At Thermopylae in 191 B.C. 

^ Hesiod, Works and Days, 289 ff. ttjs S' dper^s IbpaiTa 
Beol TTpondpoidev eOrjKav \ 'Addvaroi • i.iaKp6s Se Koi opOios oifMS 
en avTTjv, \ /cal rprj^vs to npcorov • eirrjv S' eh aKpov iKrjTaL, \ 
'PrjiBiTj 8fj eneira ireXei, y^^aXem] nep eovaa. 



statuam non haberet, " Malo " inquit " ambigere 
bonos, quam ob rem id non meruerim, quam (quod 
est gravius) cur impetraverim mussitare." 

9. Alii summum decus in carruchis solito altioribus, 
et ambitioso vestium cultu ponentes, sudant sub 
ponderibus lacernarum, quas in collis insertas iu- 
gulis ^ ipsis annectunt, nimia subtegminum tenuitate 
perflabilis, exceptantes eas manu utraque et vex- 
antes ^ crebris agitationibus, maximeque sinistra, 
ut longiores fimbriae tunicaeque perspicue luceant, 
varietate liciorum effigiatae in species animalium 
multiformes. 10. Alii nuUo quaerente.vultus severi- 
tate assimulata, patrimonia sua in immensum extol- 
lunt, cultorum (ut putant) feracium multiplicantes 
annuos fructus, quae a primo ad ultimum solem se 
abunde iactitant possidere, ignorantes profecto 
maiores sues per quos ita magnitudo Romana 
porrigitur, non divitiis eluxisse, sed per bella saevis- 
sima, nee opibus nee victu nee indumentorum vili- 
tate gregariis militibus discrepantes, opposita cuncta 
superasse virtute. 11. Hac ^ ex causa coUaticia stipe 
Valerius humatur ille Pubbcola.etsubsidiis amicorum 
mariti, inops cum liberis uxor alitur Reguli, et 

^ insertas iugulis, W-, Gronov ; inserla singulis, V. 
- exceptantes eas (expendentcs eas, Val.) manu utraque et 
vexantes, Novak ; explicantes eas, IBentley, Traube ; 
per pia uilis expectantes, V- m lac. 24 letters. ' hue, 

Eyssen. ; hie, V. 


XIV., 6, 8-11 

statue, he replied : " I would rather that good men 
should wonder why I did not deserve one than 
(which is much worse) should mutter ' Why was 
he given one ? ' " 

9. Other men, taking great pride in coaches higher 
than common and in ostentatious finery of apparel, 
sweat under hea\y cloaks, which they fasten about 
their necks and bind around their very throats, 
while the air blows through them because of the 
excessive lightness of the material ; and they lift 
them up with both hands and wave them with many 
gestures, especially with their left hands, ^ in order 
that the over-long fringes and the tunics embroidered 
with party-coloured threads in multiform figures of 
animals may be conspicuous. 10. Others, though no 
one questions them, assume a grave expression and 
greatly exaggerate their wealth, doubling the annual 
yield of their fields, well cultivated (as they think), of 
which they assert that they possess a great number 
from the rising to the setting sun ; they are clearly 
unaware that their forefathers, through whom the 
greatness of Rome was so far flung, gained renown,' ,4 
not by riches, but by fierce wars, and not difi"ering 
from the common soldiers in wealth, mode of life, or 
simplicity of attire, overcame all obstacles by valour. 
11. For that reason the eminent Valerius Publicola 
was buried by a contribution of money,- and through 
the aid of her husband's friends ^ the needy wife of 

' Probably to display their rings ; ef. Pliiij-, N.H. xxxiii. 
9. manus et prorsus sinistrae maximam auctoritatern con- 
ciliavere auro. - In 503 B.C. ; see Livy, ii. 16, 7. 

' Valerius Maxim us, iv. 4, 6, says that it was the senate 
that came to their aid. 



dotatur ex aerario filia Scipionis, cum nobilitas 
florem adultae virginis diuturnum absentia pauperis 
erubesceret patris. 

12. At nunc si ad aliquem bene nummatum tumen- 
teinque ideo, honestus advena salutatum introieris 
primitus, tamquam exoptatus suscipieris, et interro- 
gatus multa coactusque mentiri, miraberis numquam 
antea visus, summatem \'irum tenuem te sic enixius 
observantem, ut paeniteat ob ^ haec bona tamquam 
praecipua non vidisse ante decennium Romam. 13. 
Hacque afFabilitate confisus. cum eadem postridie 
feceris, ut incognitus haerebis et repentinus, hor- 
tatore illo hesterno suos enumerando,^ qui sis vel 
unde venias diutius ambigente. Agnitus vero tan- 
dem et asscitus iu amicitiam, si te salutandi assid- 
uitati dederis triennio indiscretus, et per totidem 
dierum ^ defueris tempus, reverteris ad paria perfe- 
renda, nee ubi esses interrogatus, et ni inde miser * 
discesseris, aetatem omnem frustra in stipite conteres 

^ ob, Val. ; t//, V. * suos, scripsi ; varia or foenera 

enumerando, Wagner ; clientes n., suggested by Clark ; 
te non n., Pet. ; inter miracula n., Novak ; numerando, 
preceded by lac. of 5 letters, V. ^ dierum, added 

by Val. ; V omits. * ni inde miser, Novak ; et non- 

temisero, iu lac. of 10 letters, V^. 

^ Cu. Cornelius Scijiio, who wrote from Spain in the 
second Punic war, asking to be recalled, that he might 
provide a dowry for his daughter ; see Valerius Maximus, 
iv. 4, 10. 


XIV., 6, 11-13 

Regulus and her children were supported. And the 
daughter of Scipio ^ received her dowry from the 
public treasury, since the nobles blushed to look 
upon the beauty of this marriageable maiden long 
unsought because of the absence of a father of 
modest means. 

12. But now-a-days, if as an honourable stranger - 
you enter to pay your respects to some man who 
is well-to-do ^ and therefore puffed up, at first you 
will be greeted as if you were a long-expected friend, 
and after being asked many questions and forced to 
lie, you will wonder, since the man never saw you 
before, that a great personage should pay such 
marked attention to your humble self as to make 
you regret, because of such special kindness, that 
you did not see Rome ten years earlier. 13. When, 
encouraged by this affability, you make the same 
call on, the following day, you will hang about 
unknown and unexpected, while the man who the 
day before urged you to call again counts up his 
clients, wondering who you are or whence you 
came. But when you are at last recognized and 
admitted to his friendship, if you devote yourself to 
calling upon him for three years without interruption, 
then are aAvay for the same number of davs. and 
return to go through with a similar course, you will 
not be asked where you were, and unless you abandon 
the quest in sorrow, you will waste your whole life 
to no purpose in paying court to the blockhead. 

- Ensslin, p. 7 (see Bibliography), refers this to Anuni- 
aniis ; cf . note on 6, 2, above. 

■* For bene numnmtum, cf. Horace, Epist. i. 6, 38. 



summittendo. 14. Cum autem commodis ^ inter- 
vallata temporibus, convivia longa et noxia coeperint 
apparari, vel distributio sollemnium sportularum, 
anxia deliberatione tractatur, an exceptis his quibus 
vicissitude debetur, peregrinum invitari conveniet, 
et si digesto plene consilio, id placuerit fieri, is 
adhibetur qui pro domibus excubat aurigarum, aut 
artem tesserariam profitetur, aut secretiora quaedam 
se nosse confingit. 15. Homines enim erudites et 
sobrios, ut infaustos et inutiles vitant, eo quoque 
accedente, quod et nomenclatores, assueti haec et 
taUa venditare, mercede accepta, lucris quosdam et 
prandiis inserunt subditicios ignobiles et obscuros. 

16. Mensarum enim voragines et varias volup- 
tatum Ulecebras, ne longius progrediar, praeter- 
mitto, illuc transiturus, quod quidam per ampla 
spatia urbis, subversasque silices, sine periculi metu 
properantes equos velut publicos, ignitis ^ quod 
dicitur calcibus ^ agitant, familiarium agmina tam- 
quam praedatorios globos post terga trahentes, ne 
Sannione quidem (ut ait comicus) domi relicto. 
Quos imitatae matronae complures, opertis capitibus 
et basternis, per latera civitatis cuncta discurrunt. 
17. Utque proeliorum periti rectores primo catervas 
densas opponunt et fortes, deinde leves armaturas, 

^ commodis, Val. ; cum autem commotu-s, in lac. of 15 
letters, V-. - igtiifis, Pet. ; signatifi, V. * calcibus, 

Bentley, Traube ; calcifi, V. 

^Referring to a plebeian (cf. xxviii. 4, 29), a partisan of 
one of the colours. Cf. also Suet., Calig. 55, 3. 


XIV., 6, 14-17 

14. And when, after a sufficient interval of time, the 
preparation of those tedious and unwholesome ban- 
quets begins, or the distribution of the customary 
doles, it is debated wdth anxious deUberation whether 
it wiU be suitable to invite a stranger, with the 
exception of those to whom a return of hospitality is 
due ; and if, after full and mature deliberation, the 
decision is in the affirmative, the man who is invited 
is one who watches all night before the house of the 
charioteers,^ or who is a professional dicer, or who 
pretends to the knowledge of certain secrets. 15. 
For they avoid learned and serious people as uiducky 
and useless, in addition to which the announcers of 
names, who are wont to traffic in these and similar 
favours, on receiving a bribe, admit to the doles 
and the dinners obscure and low-born intruders. 

16. But I pass over the gluttonous banquets and 
the various allurements of pleasures, lest I should 
go too far, and I shall pass to the fact that certain 
persons hasten without fear of danger through the 
broad streets of the city and over the upturned 
stones of the pavements as if they were driving 
post-horses with hoofs of fire (as the saying is), 
dragging after them armies of slaves like bands 
of brigands and not leaving even Sannio at home, 
as the comic writer says.^ And many matrons, 
imitating them, rush about through all quarters of 
the city with covered heads and in closed litters. 
17. And as skilful directors of battles place in the 
van dense throngs of brave soldiers, then light- 
armed troops, after them the javelin-throwers, and 

^Terence, Eun., 780, solus Sannio servat domi. 



post iaculatores ultiniasque subsitliales acies (si fors 
adegerit) iuvaturas, ita praepositis urbanae familiae 
suspense digerentibus atque ^ sollicite, quos insignes 
faciunt virgae dexteris aptatae, velut tessera data 
castrensi, iuxta vehiculi frontem omne textrinum 
incedit : huic atratum coquinae iungitur minis- 
teriuin, dein totum promisee servitium, cum otiosis 
plebeis de vicinitate coniunctis ; postrema multitudo 
spadonum a senibus in pueros desinens, obluridi 
distortaque lineamentorum compage deformes, ut 
quaqua incesserit quisquam, cernens mutiloruna 
hominum agmina, detestetur memoriam Samiramidis 
reginae illius veteris, quae teneros mares castravit 
omnium prima, velut vim iniectans naturae, ean- 
demque ab institute cursu retorquens, quae inter 
ipsa oriundi crepundia, per primigenios seminis 
fontes, tacita quodam modo lege vias propagandae 
posteritatis ostendit. 

18. Quod cum ita sit, paucae domus studiorum 
seriis cultibus antea celebratae, nunc ludibriis 
ignaviae torpentis ^ exundant, vocabili sonu, per- 
flabili tinnitu fidium resultantes. Denique pro 
philosopho cantor, et in locum oratoris doctor artium 
ludicrarum accitur, et bybliothecis sepulcrorum 
ritu in perpetuum clausis, organa fabricantur hy- 
draulica, et lyrae ad speciem ^ carpentorum ingentes, 
tibiaeque et histrionici gestus instrumenta non 

^ atque, added by Novak, cf. Livy, xxii. 59, 16 ; xxvii. 
50, 6 ; V omits. - torpentis, vulgo ; torrentes, V. 

^ ad, BG in E- ; de specie, Eyssen. ; de speciem, V. 


XIV., 6 17-18 

last of all the reserve forces, to enter the action in 
case chance makes it needful, just so those who 
have charge of a city household, made conspicu- 
ous by wands grasped in their right hands, care- 
fully and diligently draw up the array ; then, as if 
the signal had been given in camp, close to the 
front of the carriage all the weavers inarch ; next to 
these the blackened service of the kitchen, then all 
the rest of the slaves without distinction, accom- 
panied by the idle plebeians of the neighbourhood ; 
finally, the throng of eunuchs, beginning with the old 
men and ending with the boys, sallow and disfigured 
by the distorted form of their members ; so that, 
wherever anyone goes, beholding the troops of 
mutilated men, he would curse the memory of 
that Queen Samiramis of old, who was the first 
of all to castrate young males, thus doing violence, 
as it were, to nature and wresting her from her 
intended course, since she at the very beginning 
of life, through the primitive founts of the seed, by 
a kind of secret law, shows the ways to propagate 

18. In consequence of this state of things, the few 
houses that were formerly famed for devotion to 
serious pursuits now teem with the sports of sluggish 
indolence, re-echoing to the sound of singing and 
the tinkling of flutes and lyres. In short, in place 
of the philosopher the singer is called in, and in 
place of the orator the teacher of stagecraft, and 
while the libraries are shut up forever like tombs, 
water-organs are manufactured and lyres as large 
as carriages, and flutes and huge instruments for 
gesticulating actors. 



19. Postremo ad id indignitatis est ventum, ut 
cum peregrini ob formidatam baud ita dudum ali- 
mentorum inopiam pellerentur ab urbe praecipites, 
sectatoribus discipHnarum liberalium, impendio 
paucis, sine respiratione ulla extrusis, tenerentur 
mimarum asseculae ^ veri, quique id simularunt 
ad tempus, et tria miUa saltatricum, ne interpel- 
lata quidem, cum choris totidemque remanerent 
magistris. 20. Et licet, quocumque oculos flexeris, 
feminas affatim multas spectare cirratas, quibus, 
(si nupsissent) per aetatem ter iam nixus poterat 
suppetere liberorum, ad usque taedium pedibus 
pavimenta tergentis, iactari volucriter ^ gyris, dum 
exprimunt innumera simulacra, quae finxere fabulae 

21. lUud autem non dubitatur, quod cum asset 
aliquando virtutum omnium domicilium Roma, 
ingenuos advenas plerique nobilium, ut Homerici 
bacarum suavitate Lotophagi, humanitatis multi- 
formibus officiis retentabant. 22. Nunc vero in- 
anes flatus quorundam, vile esse quicquid extra urbis 
pomerium nascitur aestimant praeter orbos et 
caelibes, nee credi potest qua obsequiorum diver- 
sitate coluntur homines sine liberis Romae. 

^ adsaeculae, V. - uolucriter, Gronov ; uoluetur, V. 

^This happened in 383 B.C. ; see Introd., p. xiii. 

^ I.e. dancing on the mosaic pavements of great houses. 

■' Odyssey, ix. 84 ff. 

* Originally, the line within the city wall, marking the 


XIV., 6, 19-22, A.D. 3.13 

19. At last we have reached such a state of 
baseness, that whereas not so very long ago, when 
there was fear of a scarcity of food, foreigners were 
driven neck and crop from the city,^ and those who 
practised the liberal arts (very few in number) 
were thrust out without a breathing space, yet the 
genuine attendants upon actresses of the mimes, and 
those who for the time pretended to be such, were 
kept with us, while three thousand dancing girls, 
without even being questioned, remained here with 
their choruses, and an equal number of dancing 
masters. 20. And, wherever you turn your eyes, you 
may see a throng of women with curled hair, who 
might, if they had married, by this time, so far as 
age goes, have already produced three children, 
sweeping the pavements '^ with their feet to the point 
of weariness and whirling in rapid gyrations, while 
they represent the innumerable figures that the 
stage-plays have devised. 

21. Furthermore, there is no doubt that when once 
upon a time Rome was the abode of all the virtues, j 
many of the nobles detained here foreigners of free | VL 
birth by many kindly attentions, as the Lotus-eaters "^ 

of Homer ^ did by the sweetness of their fruits. 
22. But now the vain arrogance of some men regards 
everything born outside the pomerium * of our city 
as worthless, except the chddless and unwedded ; 
and it is beyond belief with what various kinds of 
obsequiousness men without children are courted at 

limit within which the auspices could be taken ; the 
term pomerium was soon transferred to the strip of land 
between this line and the actual city wall. Here it means 
merely the wall of the eitj'. 


VOL. I. D 


23. Et quoniam apud eos, ut iu capitc muiidi, nior- 
borum accrbitates celsius dominantur, ad quos vel 
sedandos omnis professio raedendi torpescit, excogi- 
tatutn est adminiculum sospitale, iiequi amicum 
perferentem simdia videat, additumque est cautiori- 
bus ^ paucis remedium aliud satis validum, ut '^ famu- 
los percontatum inissos quern ad moduni valeant 
noti hac ^ aegritudine colligati, non ante recipiant 
domum, quam lavacro purgaverint corpus. Ita 
etiam alienis oculis visa metuitur labes. 24. Sed 
tamen haec cum ita tutius observentur, quidani 
vigore artuum imminuto, rogati ad nuptias, ubi 
aurum dextris manibus cavatis ofFertur, impigre vel 
usque Spoletium pergunt. Haec nobiliura sunt * 

25, Ex turba vero iniae sortis et paupertinae, in 
tabernis aliqui pernoctant vinariis, non nulli sub 
velabris ^ umbraculorum tbeatrahum latent, quae, 
Campanam iniitatus lasciviam, Catulus in aedilitate 
sua suspendit omnium primus ; aut pugnaciter aleis 
certant, turpi sono fragosis naribus introrsum reducto 
spiritu concrepantes ; aut quod est studiorum 
omnium maximum ab ortu lucis ad vesperam sole 
fatiscunt vel pluviis, per minutias ® aurigarum 

^ cautioribus, Bentley, cautionibus, V. ^ ut, added 

by Lind. ; V omits. ^ noti hac, G ; non hac, EB ; ut 

hac, Lind. ; non haec, V. * sunt, Kiessling ; est, V. 

' nonnulli sub velabris (nonnulli, G ; uelariis, Gardt.), Her. ; 
[iiljariis non nullis velabris, V. Q. Catulus primus spectan- 
tium consessum velorum umbraculis texit. * per minutias, 
Lind. ; perminuas, V. 

1 This "legacy hunting," by pajdng court to childless 
men and women, is satirized by Horace (Sat. ii. 5). The 
"art" was in vogue as early as Plautus' time (see Miles, 


XIV., 6, 23 25, A.D. 354 

Home.' 23. Aud since aiuoug them, as is natural iii the 
capital of the world, cruel disorders gain such heights 
that the healing art is powerless even to mitigate 
them, it has been provided, as a means of safety, 
that no one shall visit a friend suffering from such a 
disease, and by a few who are more cautious another 
sufficiently eff"ective remedy has been added, namely, 
that servants sent to inquire after the condition of a 
man's acquaintances who have been attacked by that 
disorder should not be readmitted to their masters' 
house until they have purified their persons by a 
bath. So fearful are they of a contagion seen only 
by the eyes of others. 24. But yet, although these 
precautions are so strictly observed, some men, 
when invited to a wedding, although the strength of 
their limbs is impaired, will go, when gold is put 
into their cupped right hands, even all the way to 
Spoletium.^ Such are the habits of the nobles. 

25. But of the multitude of lowest condition and 
greatest poverty some spend the entire night in 
wineshops, some lurk in the shade of the awnings 
of the theatres, which Catulus ^ in his aedileship, 
imitating Campanian wantonness, was the first to 
spread, or they quarrel with one another in their 
games at dice, making a disgusting sound by drawing 
back the breath into their resounding nostrils ; or, 
which is the favourite among their amusements, from 
sunrise until evening, in sunshine and in rain, they 
stand open-mouthed, examining minutely the good 

705 ff.), but became a "profession" at the end of the 
Republic (cf. Cic, Paradoxa, v. 39) and under the Empire, 
followed even by some of the emperors (see Suet., Calig. 
.38, 2; Nero, .32, 2). 

- Til Umliria. ^See Index, and Val. Max. ii. 4. 



equorumquc praecipua vel delicta scrutantes. 26. 
Et est admodum mirum videre plebem innumerain, 
mentibus ardore quodam infuso, e dimicationum 
curulium eventu pendentem. Haec similiaque 
memorabile nihil vel serium agi Romae permittunt. 
Ergo redeundum ad textum. 

7. Gain Caesaris immanitas et saevitia. 

1. Latius iam disseminata licentia, onerosus 
bonis omnibus Caesar, nullum post haec adhibens 
modum, orientis latera cuncta vexabat, nee honoratis 
parcens nee urbium primatibus nee plebeis, 2. 
Denique Antiochensis ^ ordinis vertices sub uno 
elogio iussit occidi, ideo efFeratus, quod ei celerari - 
\alitatem intempestivam iirgenti, cum impenderet 
inopia, gravius rationabili responderunt ; et peris- 
sent ad unum, ni comes orientis tunc Honoratus fixa 
constantia restitisset. 3. Erat autem diritatis eius 
hoc quoque indicium nee obscurum nee latens, quod 
ludicris cruentis delectabatur, et in circo sex vel 
septem aliquotiens deditus ^ certaminibus, pugilum 
vicissim se concidentium, perfusorumque sanguine 
specie, ut lucratus ingentia, laetabatur. 4. Accen- 
derat super his incitatum propositum ad nocendum 
aliqua mulier vilis, quae ad palatium (ut poposcerat) 

1 Antiochensis, Lind. ; antichisis, V. ^ celerari, Wag- 
ner ; celebrari, V. ^ deditus. Pet. ; vetitu^, V. 

^ The great Syrian city ; see Index. 
2 See Introd., pp. xviii f. 


XIV., 6, 26—7, 1-4, A.D. 354 

points or the defects of charioteers and their horses. 
26. And it is most remarkable to see an innumerable 
crowd of plebeians, their minds filled with a kind of 
eagerness, hanging on the outcome of the chariot 
races. These and similar things prevent anything 
memorable or serious from being done in Rome. 
Accordingly, I must return to my subject. 

7. Atrocities and savagery of Gallus Caesar. 

1. His lawlessness now more widely extended, 
Caesar became offensive to all good men, and hence- 
forth showing no restraint, he harassed all parts of 
the East, sparing neither ex-magistrates nor the 
chief men of the cities, nor even the plebeians. 
2. Finally, he ordered the death of the leaders of the 
senate of Antioch ^ in a single wTit, enraged because 
when he urged a general introduction of cheap prices 
at an unseasonable time, since scarcity threatened, 
they had made a more vigorous reply then was 
fitting. And they would have perished to a man, 
had not Honoratus, then count-governor ^ of the 
East, opposed him with firm resolution. 3. This 
also was a sign of his savage nature which was 
neither obsciu-e nor hidden, that he delighted in 
cruel sports ; and sometimes in the Circus, absorbed 
in six or seven contests, he exulted in the sight of 
boxers pounding each other to death and drenched 
with blood, as if he had made some great gain. 
4. Besides this, his propensity for doing harm was 
inflamed and incited by a worthless woman, who, 
on being admitted to the palace (as she had 
demanded) had betrayed a plot that was secretly 



intromissa, insidias ei latenter obtendi prodiderat a 
militibus obscurissimis. Quam Constantina exultans, 
ut in tuto iam locata mariti salute, muneratam 
vehiculoque impositam per regiae ianuas emisit in 
publicum, ut his illecebris alios quoque ad indicanda 
proliceret paria vel maiora. 5. Post haec Gallus 
Hierapolim profecturus, ut expeditioni specie tenus 
adesset, Antiochensi plebi suppliciter obsecranti, 
ut inediae dispelleret metum, quae per multas 
difficilisque causas afFore iam sperabatur, non ut 
mos est principibus, quorum diffusa potestas 
localibus subinde medetur aerumnis, disponi quic- 
quam statuit, vel ex provinciis alimenta transferri 
conterminis,sedconsularem Syriae Theophilum prope 
adstantem, ultima metuenti multitundini dedit, id ^ 
assidue replicando, quod in^'ito rectore, nullus egere 
poterit victu. 6. Auxerunt haec vulgi sordidioris 
audaciam ; et cum ingravesceret penuria commea- 
tuum, famis et furoris impulsu, Eubuli cuiusdam 
inter suos clari domum ambitiosam ignibus subditis 
inflammavit, rectoremque ut sibi iudicio imperiali 
addictum, calcibus incessens et pugnis. conculcans 
seminecem laniatu miserando discerpsit. Post cuius 
lacrimosum interitnm, in unius exitio quisque 

' dcdit id, Eyssen. ; dediti, V. 


XIV., 7, 4-6, A.D. 354 

being made against him by some soldiers of the 
lowest condition. Whereupon Constantina. exulting 
as if the safety of her husband were now assured, 
gave her a reward, and seating her in a carriage, 
sent her out through the palace gates into the 
public streets, in order that by such inducements 
she might tempt others to reveal similar or greater 

5. After this, when Gallus was on the point of 
leaving for Hierapolis, ostensibly to take part in a 
campaign, and the commons of Antioch earnestly 
besought him to save them from the fear of a famine, 
which for various reasons, difficult to explain, was 
then believed to be imminent, he did not, after the 
manner of princes whose widely extended power 
sometimes cures local troubles, order any distribution 
of food or command the bringing of supplies from 
neighbouring provinces ; but to the multitude, 
which was in fear of the direst necessity, he delivered 
up Theophilus, consular governor of Syria, who was 
standing near by, constantly repeating the statement, 
that no one could lack food if the governor did not 
wish it. 6. These words increased the audacity of 
the lowest classes, and when the lack of provisions 
became more acute, driven by hunger and rage, they 
set fire to the pretentious house of a certain 
Eubulus, a man of distinction among his own people ; 
then, as if the governor had been delivered into 
their hands by an imperial edict, they assailed him 
w^th kicks and blows, and trampling him under foot 
when he was half-dead, with awful mutilation tore 
him to pieces. After his wretched death each man 
saw in the end of one person an image of his own 



imaginem periculi sui considerans, documeuto re- 
centi similia formidabat. 7. Eodem tempore Sereni- 
anus ex duce, cuius ignavia populatam in Phoenice 
Celsein ante rettulimus, pulsatae maiestatis imperii 
reus iure postulatus ac lege, incertum qua potuit 
sufFragatione absolui, aperte convictus, familiarem 
suum cum pileo quo caput operiebat, incantato 
vetitis artibus, ad templum misisse fatidicum, 
quaeritatum praesagia,^ an ei firmum portenderetur 
imperium (ut cupiebat) et tutum.- 8. Duplexque 
eisdem diebus acciderat malum, quod et Theophilum 
insontem atrox interceperat casus, et Serenianus 
dignus execratione cunctorum, innoxius, modo non 
reclamante publico vigore, discessit. 

9. Haec subinde Constantius audiens, et quaedam 
referente Thalassio doctus, quern obisse ^ iam com- 
pererat lege communi, scribens ad Caesarem blandius, 
adiumenta paulatim illi subtraxit, sollicitari se 
simulans ne, uti est mibtare otium fere tumultu- 
osum, in eius perniciem conspiraret, soUsque schoUs 
iussit esse contentum palatinis et protectorum, cum 
Scutariis et GentUibus, et mandabat Domitiano, ex 
comite largitionum praefecto provecto, ut cum in 
Syriam venerit, Galium quern crebro acciverat,'* 

1 jyraesagia, W^ X^ ; jiraesa anei, V. - tutum, C. W. F. 

Miiller ; cutum, V. ^ quern obisse, Lind. ; que movisse, V. 
•• acciuerat, Valesius ; acciperat, V. 

1 In a lost book. ^ See ch. i. 10, above. 

^ The Scholae Palatinae were the divisions of the house- 
hold or court troops, a corps of 3500 men : protectares, 
domestici, gentiles, scutarii and armaturae. The protectores, 
guards, were a body of troops with the rank of officers, also 
called domestici. The scutarii (targeteers) took their name 


XIV., 7, 6-9, A.D. 354 

peril and dreaded a fate like that which he had just 
witnessed. 7. At that same time Serenianus, a 
former general, through whose inefficiency Celse in 
Phoenicia had been pillaged, as we have described,^ 
was justly and legally tried for high treason, and it 
was doubtful by w hat favour he could be acquitted ; 
for it was clearly proved that he had enchanted by 
forbidden arts a cap which he used to wear, and sent 
a friend of his with it to a prophetic shrine, to seek 
for omens as to whether the imperial power was des- 
tined to be firmly and safely his, as he desired. 8. At 
that time a twofold e\al befell, in that an awful fate 
took off Theophilus, who was innocent, and Sereni- 
anus, who was deserving of universal execration, got 
off scotfree, almost without any strong public protest. 
9. Constantius, hearing of these events from time 
to time, and being informed of some things by 
Thalassius,^ who, as he had now learned, had died 
a natural death, ^vTote in flattering terms to the 
Caesar, but gradually withdrew from him his means 
of defence. He pretended to be anxious, since 
soldiers are apt to be disorderly in times of inaction, 
lest they might conspire for Gallus' destruction, and 
bade him be satisfied with the palace troops only ^ 
and those of the guards, besides the Targeteers and 
the household troops. He further ordered Domiti- 
anus, a former state treasurer,^ and now prefect, 
that when he came into Syria, he should politely and 
respectfully urge Gallus, whom he had frequently 

from their equipment. The gentiles were a cavalry troop 
enlisted from foreigners : Scythians, Goths, Franks, 
Germans, etc. 

* See Introd., p. xl. 



ad Italiam properare blande hortaretur et ^ vere- 
cunde. 10. Qui cum venisset ob haec festinatis 
itineribus Antiochiam, praestrictis palatii ianuis, 
contempto Caesare quern videri decuerat, ad prae- 
torium cum pompa sollemni perrexit, morbosque 
diu causatus, nee regiam introiit, nee proeessit in 
publicum, sed abditus multa in eius moliebatur 
exitium, addens quaedam relationibus supervacua, 
quas subinde mittebat ^ ad principem. 11. Rogatus 
ad ultimum, admissusque in consistorium, ambage 
nulla praegressa, inconsiderate et leviter, " Proficis- 
cere " inquit (ut praeceptum est) " Caesar, sciens 
quod (si cessaveris) et tuas et palatii tui auferri iubebo 
prope diem annonas." Hocque solo contumaciter 
dicto, subiratus abscessit, nee in conspectum eius 
postea venit, saepius arcessitus. 12. Hinc ille 
commotus, ut iniusta perferens et indigna, praefecti 
custodiam protectoribus mandaverat fidis. Quo con- 
perto Montius tunc quaestor, acer ^ quidem sed ad 
lenitatem propensior, consulens in commune, advo- 
catos palatinarum primos scholarum allocutus est 
mollius, docens nee decere haec fieri nee prodesse, 
addensque vocis obiurgatorio sonii, quid si id 

1 et, added by BG, omitted by V. - mittebat, 

Petschenig; ditnittebat, V. •'' ncer, Gronov ; a fen, V : 

Afer, Bentley, Kiessling. 

1 I.e. the local consistorium of Gallus. 


XIV.. 7, ''-l^. A.u. 354 

summoned, to hasten to return to Italy. 10. But 
when Domitianus had quickened his pace because of 
these instructions and had come to Antioch, passing 
by the gates of the palace in contempt of the Caesar, 
on -whom he ought to have called, he went to the 
generals quarters with the usual pomp, and having 
for a long time pleaded illness, he neither entered 
the palace nor appeared in public, but remaining in 
hiding he made many plots for Gallus' ruin, adding 
some superfluous details to the reports which from 
time to time he sent to the emperor. 11. At last, 
being invited to the palace and admitted to the 
council, '^ without any preliminary remarks he said 
inconsiderately and coolly : " Depart, Caesar, as you 
have been ordered, and know that, if you delay, I 
shall at once order your supplies and those of your 
palace to be cut ofi"." Ha\-ing said onlv this in an 
insolent tone, he went off in a passion, and although 
often sent for, he never afterwards came into 
Gallus' presence. 12. Caesar, angered at this and 
feeling that such treatment was unjust and un- 
deserved, ordered his faithful guards - to arrest the 
prefect. ^ hen this became known, Montius, who 
was then quaestor,^ a spirited man but somewhat 
inclined to moderate measures, ha\dng in vieW' the 
public welfare, sent for the foremost members of the 
palace troops and addressed them in mild terms, 
pointing out that such conduct was neither seemly 
nor expedient and adding in a tone of reproof that 
if they approved of this course, it would be fitting 

- See note, p. .50. 

' Corresponding in the court of Gallus to the quaeslw 
sacri palatii of the emperor. 



placuerit, post statuas Constantii ^ deiectas, super 
adimenda vita praefecto conveniet securius cogi- 
tari. 13. His cognitis Gallus ut serpens appetitus 
telo vel saxo, iamque spes extremas opperiens, et 
succurrens saluti suae quavis ratione, colligi omnes 
iussit armatos, et cum starent attoniti, districta 
dentium acie stridens, " Adeste " inquit " viri fortes 
mihi periclitanti vobiscum. 14. Montius nos tumore 
inusitato quodam et novo, ut rebelles et maiestati 
recalcitrantes Augustae, per haec quae strepit incu- 
sat, iratus nimirum, quod contumacem praefectum, 
quid reruni ordo postulat ignorare dissimulantem, 
formidine tonus iusserini custodiri." 15. Nihil 
morati post haec militares avidi saepe turbarum. 
adorti sunt Montium primum, qui devertebat in 
proximo, levi corpore senem atque morbosum, et 
hirsutis resticulis cruribus eius innexis, divaricatum 
sine spiramento ullo ad usque praetorium traxere 
praefecti. 16. Et eodem impetu Domitianum praeci- 
pitem per scalas itidem funibus constrinxerunt, eosque 
coniunctos per ampla spatia civitatis acri raptavere 
discursu. Iamque artuum et membrorum divulsa 
compage, superscandentes corpora mortuorum, ad 
ultimam truncata deformitatem, velut exsaturati 
mox abiecerunt in flumcn. 17. Incenderat autem 
audaces usque ad insaniam homines ad haec 
quae nefariis egere conatibus, Luscus quidam 
curator urbis subito visus, eosque ut heiulans baiolo- 
rum praecentor, ad expediendum quod orsi sunt, 

^ Constantii, Valesius ; Conntantini, V. 


XIV.. 7, 12-17, A.D. 354 

first to overthrow the statues of Constantius and 
then plan with less anxiety for taking the life of the 
prefect. 13. On learning this, Gallus, Uke a serpent 
attacked by darts or stones, resorting now to the 
last expedient and trying to save his life by any 
possible means, ordered all his troops to be assembled 
under arms, and while they stood in amazement, he 
said, baring and gnashing his teeth, " Stand by me, 
my brave men, who are Uke myself in danger. 14. 
Montius M'ith a kind of strange and unprecedented 
arrogance in this loud harangue of his accuses us of 
being rebels and as resisting the majesty of Augustus, 
no doubt in anger because I ordered an insolent 
prefect, who presumes to ignore what proper conduct 
requires, to be imprisoned, merely to frighten him." 
15. With no further delay the soldiers, as often eager 
for disturbance, first attacked Montius, who bved 
close by, an old man frail of body and ill besides, 
bound coarse ropes to his legs, and dragged him 
spread-eagle fashion without any breathing-space all 
the way to Caesar's headquarters. 16. And in the 
same access of rage they threw Domitianus down the 
steps, then bound him also with ropes, and tying 
the two together, dragged them at full speed through 
the broad streets of the city. And when finally their 
joints and limbs were torn asunder, leaping upon 
their dead bodies, they mutilated them in a horrible 
manner, and at last, as if glutted, threw them into 
the river. 17. Now these men, reckless to the point 
of madness, were roused to such atrocious deeds as 
they committed by a certain Luscus, curator of the 
city. He suddenly appeared and with repeated 
cries, like a bawling leader of porters, urged them to 



incitaus vocibus crcbris. (^ui hand loiigc poslca 
ideo vivus exustus est. 

18. Et quia Montius inter dilaiicinautium manus 
spiritum efflaturus, Epigonura et Eusebium, nee 
professionem nee dignitatem ostendens, aliquotiens 
increpabat, aequisoni ^ his magna quaerebantur 
industria, et nequid intepesceret, Epigonus e Cilicia - 
philosophus ducitur, et Eusebius ab Emissa Pittacas 
cognomento, concitatus orator, cum quaestor non 
hos sed tribunos fabricarum insimulasset, promit- 
tentes armorum, si novae res agitari coepissent.'* 
19. Eisdem diebus ApoUinaris Domitiani gener paulo 
ante agens palatii Caesaris curam, ad Mesopotamiam 
missus a socero, per militares numeros imraodice 
scrutabatur, an quaedam altiora meditantis iam 
Galli secreta susceperint scripta ; qui compertis 
Antiochiae gestis, per minorem Armeniam lapsus, 
Constantinopolim petit, exindeque per* protectores 
retractus, artissime tenebatur. 

20. Quae dum ita struuntur, indicatum est apud 
Tyrum indumentum regale textum occulte, incertum 
quo locante vel cuius usibus apparatum. Ideoque 
rector provinciae tunc pater ApoUinaris eiusdem 
nominis ut conscius ductus est, aliique congregati 

^ aequisoni, Traube ; qui sint, V^. ' Cilicia, Clark, 

Her. ; e Lycia, EG ; haec licia, V. ^ coepissent, 

EG ; cotiperissent, PB ; conpissent, V. * per, added 
by E^ BG (B omits que) ; V omits. 


XIV., 7, 17-20, A.D. 354 

finish what they had begun. And lor that not long 
afterwards he was burned alive. 

18. And because Montius, when about to breathe 
his last in the hands of those who were rending him, 
cried out upon Epigonus and Eusebius, but without 
indicating their profession or rank, men of the same 
name were sought for with great diligence. And in 
order that the excitement might not cool, a philo- 
sopher Epigonus was brought from Cilicia, and a 
Eusebius, surnamed Pittacas, a vehement orator, 
from Edessa. although it was not these that the 
quaestor had imphcated, but some tribunes of forges,^ 
who had promised arms in case a revolution should 
be set on foot. 19. In those same days Apollinaris, 
son-in-law of Domitianus, who a short time before had 
been in charge of Caesar's palace, being sent to 
Mesopotamia by his father-in-law, inquired with 
excessive interest among the companies of soldiers 
whether they had received any secret messages from 
Gallus which indicated that he was aiming higher ; 
but when he heard what had happened at Antioch, 
he slipped off through Lesser Armenia and made for 
Constantinople, but from there he was brought back 
by the guards and kept in close confinement. 

20. Now, while these things were happening, there 
was discovered at Tyre a royal robe that had been 
made secretly, but it was uncertain who had ordered 
it or for whose use it was made. Consequently the 
governor of the province at that time, who was the 
father of Apollinaris and of the same name, was 
brought to trial as his accomplice ; and many others 

^ I.e. in charge of workshops for making arms. Fahrica 
is apphed to Vulcan's forge in Cic, De Nat. Deo. iii. 22, 5.'). 



sunt ex diversis civitatibus multi, qui atrocium 
criminum ponderibus urgebantur. 

21. lainque lituis cladium concrepantibus inter- 
narum, non celatc ^ (ut autea) turbidum saeviebat 
ingenium, a veri consideratione detortum, et nullo 
irapositorum vel compositorum fidem sollemniter 
inquirente, nee diseernente a societate noxionim 
insontes, velut exturbatum e iudiciis fas omne dis- 
cessit et causarum legitima silente defensione, 
carnifex rapinarum sequester, et obductio capitum, 
et bonorum ubique multatio versabatur per orientales 
provincias ; quas recensere puto nunc oportunum, 
absque Mesopotamia, iam ^ digesta cum bella 
Parthica narrarentur,^ et Aeg^'pto, quam necessario 
aliud reieciemus * ad tempus. 

8. Orientis provinciariim descriptio. 

1. Superatis Tauri mentis verticibus, qui ad solis 
ortum sublimius attolluntur, Cilicia spatiis porrigitur 
late distentis, dives bonis omnibus terra, eiusque 
lateri dextro annexa Isauria, pari sorte uberi, 
palmite viret et frugibus multis, quam mediam 
navigabile flumen Calycadnus interscindit. 2. Et 
banc quidem praeter oppida multa duae civitates 
exornant, Seleucia opus Seleuci regis, et Claudio- 
polis, quam deduxit coloniam Claudius Caesar. 

^ concitate. Her. ; concelatae, V. - iam, added by 

Val. ; Mesopotamiam, V. ^ narrarentur. Her. ; dice- 

rentur, G ; (lac. of 5 letters) rentur, V. '' reiciemus, 

Traube ; reici (lac. of 4 letter.^), V. 


XIV., 7, 20-21, A.D. 354—8, 1-2 

were gathered together from various cities and were 
bowed down by the weight of charges of heinous 

21. And now, when the clarions of internal dis- 
aster were sounding, the disordered mind of Caesar, 
turned from consideration of the truth, and not 
secretly as before, vented its rage ; and since no one 
conducted the usual examination of the charges 
either made or invented, or distinguished the innocent 
from association Avith the guilty, all justice vanished 
from the courts as though driven out. And while the 
legitimate defence of cases was put to silence, the 
executioner, the go-between of plunderers, hood- 
winking, and the confiscation of property were every- 
where in evidence throughout the eastern provinces. 
These I think it now a suitable time to review, excep- 
ting Mesopotamia, which has already been described 
in connection with the account of the Parthian wars,^ 
and Egypt, which we have necessarily postponed 
to another time.^ 

8. Description of the Eastern Provinces. 

1. After one passes the summits of Mount Taurus, 
which rise to a lofty height, Cilicia spreads out in 
widely extended plains, a land abounding in products 
of every kind ; and adjoining its right side is Isauria, 
equally blest -svith fruitful vines and abundant grain, 
being divided in the middle by the navigable river 
Calycadnus. 2. This province too, in addition to 
many towns, is adorned by two cities ; Seleucia, the 
work of king Seleucus, and Claudiopolis, which 

^ In a lost book. ^ See xxii. 15-16. 


VOL. I. E 


Isaura ^ enim antehac nimium potens, olim subversa 
ut rebellatrix iuterneciva, aegre vestigia claritudinis 
pristinae monstrat admodum paiica. 3. Ciliciam 
vero, quae Cydno amni exultat, Tarsus nobilitat, urbs 
perspicabilis — banc condidisse Perseus memoratur, 
lovis filius et Danaes, vel certe ex Aethiopia profec- 
tus Sandan quidam nomine vir opulentus et nobilis 
— et Anazarbus auctoris vocabulum referens, et 
Mobsuestia, vatis illius domicilium Mobsi, queni a 
commilitio Argonautarum, cum aureo vellere direpto 
redirent, errore abstractum, delatumque ad Africae 
litus, mors repentina consumpsit, et ex eo caespite 
punico tecti, manes eius heroici, dolorum varietati 
medentur plerumque sospitales. 4. Hac duae pro- 
vinciae, bello quondam piratico catervis mixtae 
praedonum, a Servilio pro consule missae sub 
iugum, factae sunt vectigales. Et hae quidem 
regiones velut in prominenti terrarum hngua positae, 
ob orbe eoo monte Amano disparantur. 5. Orientis 
vero limes in longum protentus et rectum, ab 
Euphratis fluminis ripis ad usque supercilia porrigitur 
Nili, laeva Saracenis conterminans gentibus, dextra 
pelagi fragoribus patens, quam plagam Nicator 
Seleucus occupatam auxit magnum in modum, cum 
post Alexandri Macedonis obitum successorio iure 
teneret regna Persidis, efl&caciae impetrabilis rex (ut 

1 Isaura, Val. ; Isauria, W^BG ; Caesaris aurenimante, V. 
1 The Emperor Claudius, a.d. 41-54. 


XIV., 8, 2-5 

Claudius Ceasar ^ founded as a colony. For Isaura, 
which was formerly too powerful, was long ago 
overthrown as a dangerous rebel, and barely shows 
a few traces of its former glory. 3. Cilicia, however, 
which boasts of the river Cydnus, is ennobled by 
Tarsus, a fair city ; this is said to have been founded 
by Perseus, son of Jupiter and Danae, or else by a 
wealthy and high-born man, Sandan by name, who 
came from Ethiopia. There is also Anazarbus, 
bearing the name of its founder, and Mobsuestia, 
the abode of that famous diviner Mobsus. He, 
wandering from his fellow-warriors when they were 
returning after having carried off the golden fleece, 
and being borne to the coast of Africa, met a sudden 
death. Thereafter his heroic remains, covered with 
Punic sod, have been for the most part efi"ective in 
healing a variety of diseases. 4. These two pro- 
vinces, crowded with bands of brigands, were long 
ago, during the war with the pirates, sent under 
the yoke by the proconsul Servilius ^ and made 
to pay tribute. And these regions indeed, lying, as 
it were, upon a promontory, are separated from the 
eastern continent by Mount Amanus. 5. But the 
frontier of the East, extending a long distance in a 
straight line, reaches from the banks of the Euphrates 
to the borders of the Nile, being bounded on the left 
by the Saracenic races and on the right exposed to 
the waves of the sea. Of this district Nicator 
Seleucus took possession and greatly increased it in 
power, when by right of succession he was holding 
the rule of Persia after the death of Alexander of 
Macedon ; and he was a successful and efficient 

^ P. Servilius Isaimcus, in 74 b.c. 



indicat cognomentum). 6. Abusus enim multi- 
tudine hominum, quara tranquillis in rebus diutius 
rexit, ex agrestibus habitaculis urbes construxit, 
multis opibus firmas et viribus, quarum ad praesens 
pleraeque, licet Graecis iiominibus appellentur, 
quae eisdem ad arbitrium imposita sunt conditoris, 
primigenia tamen nomina non amittunt, quae eis 
Assyria lingua institutores veteres indiderunt. 

7. Et prima post Osdroenam quani (at dictum 
est) ab hac descriptione discrevimus, Commagena 
(nunc Euphratensis) clementer assurgit, Hierapoli 
(vetere Nino) et Samosata civitatibus amplis ^ 

8. Dein Syria per speciosam interpatet diffusa pla- 
nitiem. Hanc nobilitat Antiochia, mundo cognita 
civitas, cui non certaverit alia advecticiis ita affluere 
copiis et internis, et Laodicia et Apamia, itidemque 
Seleucia iam ^ inde a primis auspiciis florentis- 

9. Post hanc acclinis Libano monti Phoenice, 
regio plena gratiarum et venustatis, urbibus decorata 
magnis et pulcbris ; in quibus amoenitate celebri- 
tateque nominum Tyros excellit, Sidon et Berj^us 
eisdemque pares Emissa et ^ Damascus saeculis 
condita priscis. 10. Has autem provincias, quas 
Orontes ambiens amnis, imosque pedes Cassii montis 
illius celsi praetermeans, funditur in * Parthenium 

^ amplis, EG ; amplis et, V.' ^ Seleucia iam, Val. ; 

Seleuciam, V. ^ et, A ; Y omits. * in, added 

by E, Lind. ; omitted by the other MSS., and by G. 


XIV., 8, 5-10 

king, as his surname Nicator indicates. 6. For by 
taking advantage of the great number of men whom 
he ruled for a long time in peace, in place of their 
rustic dwelUngs he built cities of great strength and 
abundant wealth ; and many of these, although 
they are now called by the Greek names which were 
imposed upon them by the will of their founder, 
nevertheless have not lost the old appellations in the 
Assyrian tongue which the original settlers gave 

7. And first after Osdroene, which, as has been said, 
I have omitted from this account, Commagene, now 
called Euphratensis, is gradually rising into power ; 
it is famous for the great cities of Hierapolis, the 
ancient Ninus, and Samosata. 

8. Next Syria spreads for a distance over a beauti- 
ful plain. This is famed for Antiochia, a city known 
to all the world, and without a rival, so rich is it in 
imported and domestic commodities ; likewise for 
Laodicia, Apamia, and also Seleucia, most flourishing 
cities from their very origin. 

9. After this comes Phoenicia, lying at the foot of 
Mount Libanus,^ a region full of charm and beauty, 
adorned with many great cities ; among these in 
attractiveness and the renown of their names Tyre, 
Sidon and Berytus are conspicuous, and equal to 
these are Emissa and Damascus, founded in days 
long past. 10. Now these provinces, encircled by 
the river Orontes, which, after flowing past the foot 
of that lofty mountain Cassius, empties into the 
Parthenian Sea,^ were taken from the realms of the 

^ Lebanon. 

2 Near the Gulf of Issos, in south-eastern CiUcia. 



mare, Gnaeus Pompieus superato Tigrane, regnis 
Armeniorum abstractas, dicioni Romanae coniunxit. 

11. Ultima Syriarum est Palaestina, per intervalla 
magna protenta, cultis abundans terris et nitidis, et 
civitates habens quasdam egregias, nullam nulli 
cedentem, sed sibi vicissim velut ad perpendiculum 
aemulas : Caesaream, quam ad honorem Octaviani 
principis exaedificavit Herodes, et Eleutheropolim 
et Neapolim, itidemque Ascalonem Gazam, aevo 
superiore exstructas. 12. In his tractibus navigerum 
nusquam visitur flumen, et in locis plurimis aquae 
suapte natiira calentes emergunt, ad usus aptae 
multipUcium medellarum. Verum has quoque re- 
giones pari soxte Pompeius ludeis domitis et 
Hierosolymis captis, in provinciae ^ speciem delata 
iuris dictione formavit. 

13. Huic Arabia est conserta, ex alio latere Naba- 
taeis contigua, opima varietate commerciorvun, 
castrisque oppleta vaUdis et castelUs, quae ad 
repellendos gentium vicinarum excursus, sollici- 
tudo pervigil veterum per opportunos saltus erexit et 
cautos. Haec quoque ci\dtates habet inter oppida 
quaedam ingentes, Bostram et Gerasam atque 
Philadelphiam, murorum firmitate cautissimas. 
Hanc provinciae imposito nomine, rectoreque ad- 
tributo, obtemperare legibus nostris Traianus com- 
pulit imperator, incolarum tumore saepe contunso, 
cum glorioso Marte Mediam urgeret et Parthos. 

^ provinciae, Val. ; provincias, V. 

1 In 64 B.C. - I.e. exactly. ^ Herod the Great. 


XIV., 8, 10 lli 

Armenians by Gnaeus Pompeius, alter his defeat ol" 
Tigranes,^ and brought iiuder Roman sway. 

11. The last region of the Syrias is Palestine, 
extending over a great extent of territory and 
abounding in cultivated and well-kept lands ; it also 
has some splendid cities, none of which yields to any 
of the others, but they rival one another, as it were, 
by plumb-line.- These are Caesarea, which Herodes ^ 
built in honour of the emperor Octavianus,* Eleuther- 
opolis, and Neapolis, along with Ascalon and Gaza, 
built in a former age. 12. In these districts no 
navigable river is anywhere to be seen, but in numer- 
ous places natural warm springs gush forth, adapted 
to many medicinal uses. But these regions also met 
with a like fate, being formed into a province by 
Pompey, after he had defeated the Jews and taken 
Jerusalem,^ but left to the jurisdiction of a local 

13. Adjacent to this region is Arabia, which on 
one side adjoins the country of the Nabataei, a land 
producing a rich variety of wares and studded with 
strong castles and fortresses, which the watchful 
care of the early inhabitants reared in suitable and 
readily defended defiles, to check the inroads of 
neighbouring tribes. This region also has, in addi- 
tion to some towns, great cities, Bostra, Gerasa and 
Philadelphia, all strongly defended by mighty walls. 
It was given the name of a province, assigned a 
governor, and compelled to obey our laws by the 
emperor Trajan,^ who, by frequent victories crushed 
the arrogance of its inhabitants when he was waging 
glorious war with Media and the Parthians. 

* Augustus. * In 63 B.C. « In a.d. 107. 



14. Cyprum ilidem insulam procul a continenti ^ 
discretam et portuosam, inter municipia crebra 
urbes duae faciunt claram, Salamis et Paphus, 
altera lovis delubris, alteta Veneris templo insignis. 
Tanta autem tamque multiplici fertilitate abundat 
rerum omnium eadem Cyprus, ut nullius externi 
indigens adminiculi, indigenis viribus, a fundamento 
ipso carinae ad supremos usque carbasos, aedificet 
onerariam navem, omnibusque armamentis instruc- 
tam, mari committat. 15. Nee piget dicere avide 
magis banc insulam populum Romanum invassise 
quam iuste. Ptolomaeo enim rege foederato nobis 
et socio, ob aerarii nostri angustias iusso sine ulla 
culpa proscribi, ideoque hausto veneno, voluntaria 
morte deleto, et tributaria facta est, et velut 
hostiles eius exuviae classi impositae, in urbem ad- 
vectae sunt per Catonem. Nunc repetetur ordo ge- 

9. De Constantio Gallo Caesare. 

1. Inter has ruinarum varietates, a Nisibi quam 
tuebatur accitus Ursicinus,^ cui nos obsecuturos 
iunxerat imperiale praeceptum, dispicere litis exitialis 
crimina ^ cogebatur, abnuens et reclamans, adula- 
torum oblatrantibus turmis, bellicosus sane milesque 
semper et militum ductor, sed forensibus iurgiis longe 

1 continenti, EBG ; continendisqtie tarn, V. ^ Ursicinus, 
E-, Val. ; V omits. ^ crimina, W-DE, Clark (c. iam, 

W^DE) ; lese (lac. of 2 letters) mina, V. 

^ Ptolemy Aiiletes, King of Egj^^t and Cyprus from 
80 B.C. ^ CatoUticensisin 58 B.C. 


XIV., 8, 14-15—9, 1, A.D. 354 

14. Cyprus, too, an island far removed from the 
mainland, and abounding in harbours, besides having 
numerous towns, is made famous by two cities, 
Salamis and Paphos, the one celebrated for its 
shrines of Jupiter, the other for its temple of Venus. 
This Cyprus is so fertile and so abounds in products 
of every kind, that without the need of any help 
from without, by its native resources alone it builds 
cargo ships from the very keel to the topmast sails, 
and equipping them completely entrusts them to the 
deep. 15. Nor am I loth to say that the Roman 
people in invading that island showed more greed 
than justice ; for King Ptolemy,^ our ally joined 
to us by a treaty, without any fault of his, merely 
because of the low state of our treasury was 
ordered to be proscribed, and in consequence com- 
mitted suicide by drinking poison ; whereupon the 
island was made tributary and its spoils, as though 
those of an enemy, Avere taken aboard our fleet and 
brought to Rome by Cato.'^ I shall now resume the 
thread of my narrative. 

9. Of Constantius Gallus Caesar. 

1. Amid this variety of disasters Ursicinus, to 
whose attendance the imperial command had 
attached me, was summoned from Nisibis, of which 
he was in charge, and was compelled, in spite of his 
reluctance and his opposition to the clamorous 
troops of flatterers, to investigate the origin of the 
deadly strife. He was in fact a warrior, having 
always been a soldier and a leader of soldiers, but 
far removed from the wranglings of the forum ; 



discretus, qui metu sui discriminis anxius, cum 
accusatores quaesitoresque subditivos sibi conso- 
ciatos, ex eisdem foveis cerneret eraergentes, quae 
clam palamve agitabantur occultis Constantium 
litteris edocebat, implorans subsidia, quorum metu 
tumor notissimus Caesaris exhalaret. 2. Sed cautela 
nimia in peiores haeserat plagas, ut narrabimus 
postea, aemulis consarcinantibus insidias graves 
apud Constantium, cetera medium principem, sed 
siquid auribus eius huius modi quivis infudisset 
ignotus, acerbum et implacabilem, et in hoc causarum 
titulo dissimilem sui. 

3. Proinde die funestis interrogationibus praesti- 
tuto, imaginarius index equitum resedit magister, 
adhibitis aliis, iam quae essent agenda praedoctis, et 
assistebant bine inde notarii, quid quaesitum esset 
quidve responsum, cursim ad Caesarem perferentes ; 
cuius imperio truci, stimulis reginae exsertantis ora ^ 
subinde per aulaeum, nee diluere obiecta permissi 
nee defensi periere complures. 4. Primi igitur om- 
nium statuuntur Epigonus et Eusebius, ob nominum 
gentilitatem oppressi. Praediximus enim Montium 
sub ipso vivendi termino his vocabulis appellatos, 
fabricarum culpasse tribunos, ut adminicula futu- 
rae mohtioni ^ pollicitos. 5. Et Epigonus qviidem 
amictu tenus philosophus, ut apparuit, prece frustra 
temptata, sulcatis lateribus, mortisque metu admoto, 

^ ora, Novak, Her. (cf. Aen. iii. 425) ; aicra, V. 
^ molitioni, Lind. ; militioni, V {melitioni, V^). 

1 See ch. 7, 18, above. ^ See note on 7, 18, above. 


XIV., 9, 1-5, A.D. 354 

accordingly, worried by fear of the danger wiiicli 
threatened him, seeing the corrupt accusers and 
judges with whom he was associated all coming 
forth from the same holes, he informed Constantius 
by secret letters of what was going on furtively or 
openly, and begged for aid, that through fear of 
it the well-known arrogance of the Caesar might 
subside. 2. But by too great caution he had fallen 
into worse snares, as we shall show later, since his 
rivals patched up dangerous plots with Constantius, 
who was in other respects a moderate emperor, but 
cruel and implacable if anyone, however obscure, 
had whispered in his ear anything of that kind, and 
in cases of that nature unlike himself. 

3. Accordingly, on the day set for the fatal 
examinations the master of the horse took his seat, 
ostensibly as a judge, attended by others who had 
been told in advance what was to be done ; and on 
either side of him were shorthand writers who 
reported the questions and answers post-haste to 
Caesar ; and by his cruel orders, instigated by the 
queen, who from time to time Ustened at a curtain, 
many were done to death without being allowed to 
clear themselves of the charges or to make any 
defence. 4. First of all, then, Epigonus and Eusebius 
were brought before them and ruined by the affinity 
of their names ; for Montius, as I have said,^ at the 
very end of his Ufe had accused certain tribunes of 
forges ^ called by those names of having promised 
support to some imminent enterprise. 5. And 
Epigonus, for his part, was a philosopher only in 
his attire, as became evident ; for when he had 
tried entreaties to no purpose, when his sides had 



turpi confessione cogitatorum socium (quae nulla 
erant) fuisse firmavit, cum nee vidisset quicquam nee 
audisset, penitus expers forensium rerum ; Eusebius 
vero obiecta fidentius negans, suspensus in eodem 
gradu constantiae stetit,^ latroeinium illud esse, non 
indicium damans. 6. Cumque pertinacius (ut legum 
gnarus) accusatorem flagitaret atque soUemnia, 
doctus id Caesar, libertatemque superbiam ratus, 
tamquam obtrectatorem audacem excarnificari prae- 
cepit, qui ita evisceratus ut cruciatibus membra 
deessent, implorans caelo iustitiam, torvum renidens, 
fundato pectore mansit immobilis, nee se incusfire 
nee quemquam alium passus, et tandem nee con- 
fessus nee confutatus, cum abieeto eonsorte poenali 
est morte multatus. Et ducebatur intrepidus, 
temporum iniquitati insultans, imitatus Zenonem 
ilium veterem Stoicum, qui ut mentiretur quaedam 
laceratus diutius, avulsam sedibus linguam suam 
cum cruento sputamine, in oculos interrogantis 
Cyprii regis impegit. 

7. Post haec indumentum regale quaerebatur, et 
ministris fucandae purpurae tortis, confessisque 
pectoralem tuniculam sine manicis textam, Maras 
nomine quidam inductus est (ut appellant Christiani) 

1 constantiae stetit, Lind. ; cunctantia est et id, V. 


XIV., 9, 5-7, A.D. 354 

been furrowed and he was threatened with death, 
by a shameful confession he declared that he was 
implicated in plans which never existed, since he was 
wholly unacquainted with political matters and had 
neither seen nor heard anything. Eusebius, on the 
contrary, courageously denied the charges, and 
although he was put upon the rack, he remained 
firm in the same degree of constancy, crying out that 
it was the act of brigands and not of a court of 
justice. 6. And when, being acquainted with the 
law, he persistently called for his accuser and the 
usual formaUties, Caesar, being informed of his 
demand and regarding his freedom of speech as 
arrogance, ordered that he be tortured as a reckless 
slanderer. And when he had been so disembowled 
that he had no parts left to torture, calUng on Heaven 
for justice and smiling sardonically, he remained un- 
shaken, with stout heart, neither deigning to accuse 
himself or anyone else ; and at last, without having 
admitted his guilt or been convicted, he was con- 
demned to death along with his abject associate. 
And he was led off to execution unafraid, raiUng 
at the wdckedness of the times and imitating the 
ancient stoic Zeno, who, after being tortured for a 
long time, to induce him to give false witness, tore 
his tongue from its roots and hurled it with its blood 
and spittle into the eyes of the kin g of Cyprus, who 
was putting him to the question. 

7. After this, the matter of the royal robe was 
investigated, and when those who were employed 
in dyeing purple were tortured and had confessed 
to making a short sleeveless tunic to cover the chest, 
a man named Maras was brought in, a deacon, as 



diaconus ; cuius prolatae litterae scriptae Graeco 
sermone, ad Tyrii textrini praepositum, celerari 
speciem perurgebant, quam autem non indicabant ; 
denique etiain idem ad usque discrimen vitae 
vexatus, nihil fateri compulsus est. 8. Quaestione 
igitur per multiplices dilatata fortunas, cum am- 
bigerentur quaedam, non nulla levius actitata 
constaret, post multorum clades Apollinares ambo 
pater et fiHus, in exilium acti, cum ad locum Crateras 
nomine pervenissent, villam scilicet suam, quae ab 
Antiochia vicensimo et quarto disiungitur lapide, ut 
mandatum est, fractis cruribus occiduntur. 9. Post 
quorum necem nihilo lenius ferociens Gallus, ut leo 
cadaveribus pastus, multa huius modi scrutabatur. 
Quae singula narrare non refert, ne professionis 
modum (quod sane vitandum ^ est) excedamus. 

10. Pax Alamannis petentibus datur a Constantis A. 

1. Haec dum oriens diu ^ perferret, caeli reserato 
tepore, Constantius consulatu suo septies et Caesaris 
iterum, egressus Arelate Valentiam petit, in Gun- 
domadum et Vadomarium fratres Alamannorumreges 
arma motxirus, quorum crebris excursibus vasta- 
bantur confines limitibus terrae Gallorum. 2. Dum- 
que ibi diu moratur, commeatus opperiens, quorum 

^ sane uitandum, Comelissen, Traube ; saemtatum, V. 
* diu, V ; dira, Dajnste. 

^ It was Gallus' third Consulship ; Valesius proposed to 
read tertium or ter. 


XIV., 9, 7-9—10, 1-2, A.D. 351 

the Christians call them. A letter of his was 
presented, Avritten in Greek to the foreman of a 
weaving plant in Tyre, strongly urging him to speed 
up a piece of work ; but what it was the letter did not 
say. But although finally Maras also was tortured 
within an inch of his life, he could not be forced to 
make any confession. 8. So when many men of 
various conditions had been put to the question, 
some things were found to be doubtful and others 
were obviously unimportant. And after many had 
been put to death, the two Apollinares, father and 
son, were exiled ; but when they had come to a » 
place called Craterae. namely, a villa of theirs distant 
twenty-four miles from Antioch, their legs were 
broken, according to orders, and they were killed. 

9. After their death Gallus, no whit less ferocious 
than before, like a lion that had tasted blood, tried 
many cases of the kind ; but of all of these it is not 
worth while to give an account, for fear that I may 
exceed the Hmits which I have set myself, a thing 
which I certainly ought to avoid. 

10. The Alamanni sue for peace, ivhich is granted by 
Constantius Augustus. 

1. While the East was enduring this long tyranny, 
as soon as the warm season began, Constantius, 
being in his seventh consulship with Gallus in his 
third,^ set out from Arelate for Valentia, to make war 
upon the brothers Gundomadus a^jd Vadomarius, 
kings of the Alamanni, whose frequent raids were de- 
vastating that part of Gaul which adjoined their fron- 
tiers. 2. And while he delayed there for a long time, 



translationem ex Aquitania verni imbres solito 
crebriores prohibebant auctique torrentes, Hercu- 
lanus advenit protector domesticus, Hermogenis ex 
magistro equitum filius, apud Constantinopolim (ut 
supra retulimus) popularium ^ quondam turbela 
discerpti. Quo verissime referente quae Gallus 
egerat coniuxque,^ super praeteritis maerens, et 
futurorum timore suspensus, angorem animi quam 
diu potuit amendabat.^ 3. Miles tamen interea 
omnis apud Cabyllona collectus, morarum impatiens 
saeviebat, hoc irritatior, quod nee subsidia vdvendi 
suppeterent, alimentis nondum ex usu translatis. 
4. Unde Rufinus ea tempestate praefectus praetorio, 
ad discrimen trusus est ultimum. Ire enim ipse 
compellebatur ad militem, quern exagitabat inopia 
simul et feritas, et alioqui coalito more in 
ordinarias dignitates asperum semper et saevum, 
ut satisfaceret, atque monstraret, quam ob causam 
annonae convectio sit impedita. 5. Quod opera 
consulta cogitabatur astute, ut hoc insidiarum 
genere Galli periret avunculus, ne eum ut prae- 
potens acueret in fiduciam, exitosa coeptantem. 
Verum navata est opera dUigens, hocque dilato, 
Eusebius praepositus cubiculi missus est Cabyllona, 

^ popularium. Pet. ; populari ui, Mommsen ; pcqjulari 
ut, V. ^ coniuxque, Heraeus ; damnis, BG ; donius 

quae, V (qu<ie del. V*). ' amendabat, Bentley, Clark ; 

emendabat, V. 

1 In a lost book. 
^ Chalons sur Saone. 
^ That is, praetorian prefect in Gaul. 

* Praefectus praetorio at this time was a civil, not a 
military, official. 


XIV., 10, 2-5, A.D. 354 

waiting for supplies, the transport of which from 
Aquitania was hindered by spring rains of unusual 
frequency and by rivers in flood, Herculanus came 
there, one of his body-guard, the son of Hermogenes, 
formerly commander of the cavalry and, as we have 
before related,^ torn to pieces in a riot of the people at 
Constantinople. When this man gave a true account 
of what Gallus and his wife had done, the emperor, 
grie\'ing over the past disasters and made anxious 
by fear of those to come, concealed the distress that 
he felt as long as he could. 3. The soldiers, how- 
ever, who in the meantime had been assembled at 
Chalons,- began to rage with impatience at the delay, 
being the more incensed because they lacked even the 
necessities of life, since the usual supplies had not yet 
been brought. 4. Therefore Rufinus, who was at 
that time praetorian prefect,^ was exposed to extreme 
danger ; for he was forced to go in person before 
the troops, who were aroused both by the scarcity 
and by their natural savage temper, and besides are 
naturally inclined to be harsh and bitter towards 
men in civil positions,^ in order to pacify them and 
explain why the convoy of provisions was inter- 
rupted. 5. This was thought to have been a 
shrewdly devised plan, in order that by such a plot 
the uncle of Gallus ^ might perish, for fear that so 
very powerful a man might whet the boldness of his 
nephew and encourage his dangerous designs. But 
great precautions were taken, and when the danger 
was deferred, Eusebius, the grand chamberlain,^ was 

^ Rufinus was his mother's brother. 

^ In charge of the imperial household. At this time 
a very important official ; see Introd. pp. xxxv f . 


VOL. I. F 


auruni secum perferens, quo per turbulentos sedi- 
tionum concitores occultius distributo, et tumor 
consenuit militum, et salus est in tuto locata prae- 
fecti. Deinde cibo abunde perlato, castra die 
praedicto sunt mota. 6. Enxensis itaque difficul- 
tatibus multis, et nive obrutis callibus plurimis, ubi 
prope Rauracum ventum est ad supercilia fluminis 
Rheni, resistente multitudine Alamanna. pontem 
suspendere navium compage Romani vi nimia veta- 
bantur, ritu grandinis undique convolantibus telis ; 
et cum id impossibile videretur, imperator cogita- 
tionibus magnis attonitus, quid capesseret ambigebat. 

7. Ecce autem ex improviso index quidam regionum 
gnarus advenit, et mercede accepta, vadosum locum 
nocte monstravit, unde superari potuit flumen. Et 
potuisset aliorsum intentis hostibus exercitus inde 
transgressus, nuUo id opinante, cuncta vastare, ni 
pauci ex eadem gente, quibus erat honoratioris 
militis cura commissa, populares suos haec per 
nuntios docuissent occultos, ut quidam existimabant. 

8. Infamabat autem haec suspicio Latinum domes- 
ticorum comitem et Agilonem tribunum stabuli 
atque Scudilonem scutariorum rectorem, qui tunc, 
ut dextris suis gestantes rem publicam, colebantur. 

9. At barbari suscepto pro ^ instantium rerum ratione 
consilio, dirimentibus forte auspicibus, vel congredi 
prohibente auctoritate sacrorum, mollito rigore, quo 

1 jyro, added by G ; V omits. 

^ Augusta Rauricorum, modern Augst. 
^ See Introd. p. xlii, and note 3, p. 56. 
' See Introd., pp. xliii f. * See note 3, p. 56. 

*Cf. Val. Max. ii. 8, 5, humeris suis salutetn patriae 
gestantes (of Scipio and Marcellus). 


XIV., 10, 5-9, A.D. 354 

sent to Chalons, taking gold with him ; when this 
had been secretly distributed among the turbulent 
inciters of rebeUion, the rage of the soldiers abated 
and the safety of the prefect was assured. Then 
an abundant supply of food arrived and the camp 
was moved on the appointed day. 6. And so, 
after surmounting many difficulties, over paths 
many of which were heaped high with snow, they 
came near to Rauracum ^ on the banks of the river 
Rhine. There a great force of the Alamanni opposed 
them, and hurling weapons from all sides like hail, 
by their superior numbers prevented the Romans 
from making a bridge by joining boats together. 
And when that was obviously impossible, the 
emperor was consumed with anxious thought and 
in doubt what course to take. 7. But lo ! a guide 
acquainted with the region unexpectedly appeared, 
and, in return for money, pointed out by night a place 
abounding in shallows, where the river could be 
crossed. And there the army might have been led 
over, while the enemy's attention was turned else- 
where, and devastated the whole country without 
opposition, had not a few men of that same race, 
who held military positions of high rank, informed 
their countrymen of the design by secret messengers, 
as some thought. 8. Now the shame of that suspicion 
fell upon Latinus, count in command of the body- 
guard,^ Agilo, tribune ^ in charge of the stable, and 
Scudilo, commander of the targeteers,^ who were then 
highly regarded as having in their hands the defence 
of the state. ^ 9. But the savages, taking such counsel 
as the immediate circumstances demanded, since 
the courage which inspired a bold resistance was 



fidentius resistebant, optimatcs misere, delictorum 
veniam petituros et pacem. 10. Tentis igitur regis 
utriusque legatis, et negotio tectius diu pensato, 
cum pacem oportere tribui quae iustis condicion- 
ibus petebatur, eamque ex re ^ fore sententiarum 
via concinens approbasset, advocate in contionem 
exercitu, imperator pro tempore pauca dicturus, 
tribunali adsistens, circumdatus potestatum coetu 
celsarum, ad hunc disseruit inodum : 

11. " Nemo (quaeso) miretur, si post exsudatos 
labores itinerum longos, congestosque adfatim 
commeatus, fiducia vestri ductante, barbaricos 
pagos adventans, velut mutato repente consilio, ad 
placidiora deverti. 12. Pro suo enim loco et animo, 
quisque vestrum reputans id inveniet verum, quod 
miles ubique, licet membris vigentibus firmius,^ se 
solum vitamque propriam circumspicit et defendit, 
imperator vero officiorum, dum aequis omnibus 
consulit, plenus,^ aUenae custos salutis, nihil non ad 
sui spectare tutelam rationes populorum cognoscit,* 
et remedia cuncta quae status negotiorum admittit, 
arripere debet alacriter, secunda numinis volun- 
tate delata. 13. Ut ^ in breve igitur conferam et 
ostendam qua ex causa omnes vos simid adesse 

^ re, E-bG ; re turn, A ; rerum, V. -firming, V, 

Pet. ; firmior, Clark. ^ consulit, pleiius, added by 

Novak. ■* rationes populorum cognoscit, BG ; ratio 

(lac. of 33 letters), V. ^ ^t, Liud. ; id, V. 


XIV., 10, 9-13, A.D. 354 

diminished perhaps because the auspices were un- 
favourable or because the authority of the sacrifices 
forbade an engagement, sent their chiefs to sue for 
peace and pardon for their offences. 10. Therefore 
the envoys of both kings were detained and the 
matter was discussed for a long time in secret ; and 
since there was general agreement in the opinion that 
peace which was asked for on reasonable conditions 
ought to be granted, and that it would be expedient 
to do so under the present circumstances, the emperor 
summoned an assembly of the army, intending to 
say a few words appropriate to the occasion ; and 
taking his place upon a tribunal, surrounded by a 
staflF of high officials, he spoke after this fashion : 

11. " Let no one, I pray, be surprised, if after going 
through the toil of long marches and getting together 
great quantities of supplies, I now, when approaching 
the abode of the savages, with my confidence in you 
leading the way, as if by a sudden change of plan 
have turned to milder designs. 12. For each one 
of you, according to his rank and judgment, upon 
consideration will find it to be true, that the soldier 
in all instances, however strong and vigorous of body, 
regards and defends only himself and his own life. 
The commander, on the other hand, has manifold 
duties, since he aims at fairness to all ; and being 
the guardian of others' safety, he reaUses that the 
interests of the people cannot be separated from his 
own, and that therefore he ought eagerly to seize 
upon all remedies which the condition of afi"airs 
allows, as though ofi'ered to him by the favour of 
Heaven. 13. To put the matter, then, in a few words, 
and to explain why I have wished you all to be present 



volui, commilitones mei fidissimi, accipite acquis 
auribus quae succinctius explicabo. Veritatis enim 
absolutio ^ semper est ^ simplex. 14. Arduos vestrae 
gloriae gradus, quos fama per plagarum quoque 
accolas extimarum difFundit, excellenter accrescens, 
Alamannorum reges et populi formidantes, per 
oratores quos videtis, summ^issis cervicibus, conces- 
sionem praeteritorum poscunt et pacem. Quam ut 
cunctator et cautus, utiliumque monitor, (si vestra 
voluntas adest) tribui debere censeo multa con- 
templans. Primo ut Martis ambigua declinentur, 
dein ut auxiliatores pro adversariis adsciscamus, quod 
poUicentur, turn autem ut incruenti mitigemus 
ferociae flatus, perniciosos saepe provinciis, postremo 
id reputantes, quod non ille hostis vancitur solus, 
qui cadit in acie, pondere armorum oppressus et 
virium, sed multo tutius etiam tuba tacente, sub 
iugum mittitur voluntarius, qui sentit expertus, nee 
fortitudinem in rebelles nee lenitatem in suppUces 
animos abesse ^ Romanis.^ 15. In summa tamquam 
arbitros vos quid suadetis opperior, ut princeps 
tranquillus, temperanter adhibere modum adlapsa 
felicitate decernens. Non enim inertiae sed modes- 
tiae humanitatique (mihi credite) hoc quod recte 
consultum est adsignabitur." 

16. Mox dicta finierat, multitudo omnis ad quae 

^ absolutio, E, Madvig, Xovak ; absolimo, V. ^ est, 

Novak, deleting at per as dittography ; at per est, V. 
' abesse, Eyssen. ; adesse, V. ^ Romanis, scrips! in lac. 

of 8 letters. 


XIV., 10, 13-16, A.D. 354 

here together, my loyal fellow-soldiers, receive with 
favourable ears what I shall briefly set forth ; for 
perfect ^ truth is always simple. 14. The kings 
and peoples of the Alamanni, in dread of the rising 
progress of your glory, which fame, grooving greatly, 
has spread abroad even among the dwellers in far off 
lands, through the envoys whom you see with 
bowed heads ask for peace and indulgence for past 
offences. This I, being cautious, prudent, and an 
advisor of what is expedient, think ought to be 
granted them (if I have your consent), for many 
reasons. First, to avoid the doubtful issue of war ; 
then, that we may gain friends in place of enemies, 
as they promise ; again, that without bloodshed we 
may tame their haughty fierceness, which is often 
destructive to the provinces ; finally, bearing in 
mind this thought, that not only is the enemy 
vanquished who falls in battle, borne down by weight 
of arms and strength, but much more safely he who, 
while the trumpet is silent, of his own accord passes 
under the yoke and learns by experience that 
Romans lack neither courage against rebels nor 
mildness towards suppliants. 15. In short, I await 
your decision as arbiters, as it were, being myself 
convinced a? a peace-loving prince, that it is best 
temperately to show moderation while prosperity is 
with us. For, beUeve me, such righteous conduct 
will be attributed, not to lack of spirit, but to 
discretion and humanity." 

16. No sooner had he finished speaking than the 

^Cf. Cic, De Fin. v. 14, 38, ex qua virtus est, quae ra- 
tionis absoluiio definitur, " virtue is defined as the perfection 
of reason " {L.C.L. p. 437). 



imperator voluit promptior, laudato consilio, con- 
sensit in pacem, ea ratione maxime percita, quod 
norat expeditionibus crebris ^ fortunam eius in malis 
tantum civilibus vigilasse ; cum autem bella move- 
rentur externa, accidisse plerumque luctuosa. Icto 
post haec foedere gentium ritu, perfectaque sollem- 
nitate, imperator Mediolanum ad hiberna discessit. 

11. Constantius Gallus Caesar evocatur a Constantio 
A. et capite truncatur. 

1. Ubi curarum abiectis ponderibus aliis, tamquam 
nodum et obicem ^ difficillimum, Caesarem convellere 
nisu valido cogitabat ; eique deliberanti cum proxi- 
mis, clandestinis coUoquiis et nocturnis, qua vi 
quibusve commentis id fieret, antequam effundendis 
rebus pertinacius incumberet confidentia, acciri 
mollioribus scriptis, per simulationem tractatus 
publici nimis urgentis,^ eundem placuerat Galium, 
ut auxilio destitutus, sine ullo interiret obstaculo. 
2. Huie sententiae versabilium adulatorum refragan- 
tibus globis, inter quos erat Arbitio, ad insidiandum 
acer et flagrans, et Eusebius tunc praepositus 
cubiculi efFusior ad nocendum, id occurrebat, 
Caesare discedente, Ursicinum in oriente perniciose 

^ et crebris, V ; e crebris, E, Moinmsen. ^ obicem, 

R. Unger ; odiem, V. ^ urgentis, N, Val. ; argentis, V. 

1 See ch. 10, 5, and note 6. 

XIV., 10, 16—11, 1-2. A.D. 354 

whole throng, fully in agreement with the emperor's 
wish, praised his purpose and unanimously voted for 
peace. They were influenced especially by the con- 
viction, which they had formed from frequent 
campaigns, that his fortune watched over him only 
in civil troubles, but that when foreign wars were 
undertaken, they had often ended disastrously. 
After this a treaty was struck in accordance with 
the rites of the Alamanni, and when the ceremony 
had been concluded, the emperor withdrew to Medio- 
lanum for his winter quarters. 

11. Constantius Gallus Caesar is summoned by 
Constantius Augustus and executed. 
1. There having laid aside the burden of other 
cares, Constantius began to consider, as his most 
difficult knot and stumbling-block, how to uproot 
the Caesar by a mighty efi"ort. And as he deliberated 
with his closest friends, in secret conferences and by 
night, by what force or by what devices that might 
be done before the Caesar's assurance should be more 
obstinately set upon throwing everything into dis- 
order, it seemed best that Gallus should be summoned 
by courteous letters, under pretence of very urgent 
public business, to the end that, being deprived of 
support, he might be put to death without hindrance. 
2. But this view was opposed by the groups of 
fickle flatterers, among whom was Arbetio, a man 
keen and eager in plotting treachery, and Eusebius, 
at that time grand chamberlain,^ who was suffi- 
ciently inclined to mischief, and it occurred to them 
to say that, if Caesar left the East, it would be 
dangerous to leave Ursicinus there, since he would 



relinquendum, si nullus esset qui prohiberet ^ altiora 
meditaturum. 3. Eisdemque residui regii accessere 
spadones, quorum ea tempestate plus habendi 
cupiditas ultra mortalem modum adolescebat, inter 
ministeria vitae secretions per arcanos susurros 
nutrimenta fictis criminibus subserentes ; qui pon- 
deribus invidiae gravioris \'irum fortissimum op- 
primebant, subolescere imperio adultos eius fiUos 
mussitantes, decore corporum favorabiles et aetate, 
per multiplicem armaturae scientiam, agilitatemque 
membrorum, inter cotidiana proludia exercitus, 
consulto consilio cognitos : Galium suopte ingenio 
trucem, per suppositos quosdam ad saeva facin- 
ora ideo animatum, ut eo digna omnium ordinum 
detestatione exoso, ad magistri equitum liberos 
principatus insignia transferantur. 

4. Cum haec taliaque soUicitas eius aures everbe- 
rarent, expositas semper eius modi rumoribus et 
patentes, vario animi ^ motu miscente ^ consilia, 
tandem id ut ^ optimum factu elegit : et Ursicinum 
primum ad se venire summo cum honore mandavit, 
ea specie ut pro rerum tunc urgentium captu, dis- 
poneretur concordi consilio, quibus virium incre- 
mentis, Partbicarum gentium arma minantium 
impetus frangerentur. 5. Et nequid suspicaretur 
adversi venturus, vicarius eius (dum redit) Prosper 
missus est comes ; acceptisque litteris, et copia rei 

^prohiberet, EAg ; prohibeat, G ; proJiibet, V; pro- 

hibebit, Clark. ^ animi. Her. ; animo, V. * motu 

miscente. Her. (cf. Aen. xii. 217) ; tzuniscente, V. ■• id 
ut, Val. ; dot, V. 


XIV., 11, 2-5, A.D. 354 

be likely to think of a loftier station, if there were no 
one to restrain him. 3. And this faction was sup- 
ported by the royal eunuchs as well, whose love of 
gain at that time was growing beyond mortal limits. 
These, while performing duties of an intimate nature, 
by secret whispers suppUed fuel for false accusations. 
They overwhelmed that most gallant man with the 
weight of a grave suspicion, muttering that his sons, 
who were now grown up, were beginning to have 
imperial hopes, being popular because of their youth 
and their handsome persons and trained also by 
daily exercise in the use of many kinds of weapons 
and in bodily activity, besides being known to be of 
sound judgment ; that Gallus, while naturally 
savage, had been incited to deeds of cruelty by persons 
attached to his person, to the end that, when he had 
incurred the merited detestation of all classes, the 
emblems of empire might be transferred to the 
children of the master of the horse. 

4. When these and similar charges were dinned 
into the emperor's anxious ears, which were always 
attentive and open to such gossip, the turmoil of 
his mind suggesting many plans, he at last chose the 
following as the best. First, in the most compli- 
mentary terras he directed Ursicinus to come to him, 
under pretence that, because of the urgent condition 
of affairs at the time, they might consult together 
and decide what increase of forces Avas necessary in 
order to crush the attacks of the Parthian tribes, 
which were threatening war. 5. And that Ursicinus 
might not suspect any unfriendly action, in case he 
should come. Count Prosper was sent to be his 
deputy untU his return. So, when the letter was 



vehiculariae data, Mediolanum itineribus proper- 
avimus magnis. 

6. Restabat ut Caesar post haec properaret accitus, 
et abstergendae causa suspicionis, sororem suam 
(eius uxorem) Constantius ad se tandem desideratam 
venire, multis fictisque blanditiis hortabatur. Quae 
licet ambigeret, metuens saepe cruentum, spe tamen 
quod eum lenire poterit ^ ut germanum, profecta, 
cum Bithyniam introisset, in statione quae Caenos 
Gallicanos appellatur, absumpta est vi febrium 
repentina. Cuius post obitum maritus contemplans 
cecidisse fiduciam qua se fultum existimabat, anxia 
cogitatione quid moliretur haerebat, 7. Inter res 
enim impeditas et turbidas, ad hoc unum mentem 
sollicitam dirigebat, quod Constantius cuncta ad 
suam sententiam conferens, nee satisfactionem 
suscipiet aliquam, nee erratis ignoscet, sed ut erat 
in propinquitatis perniciem inclinatior, laqueos ei 
latenter obtendens, si cepisset incautum, morte 
multaret. 8. Eo necessitatis adductus, ultimaque 
ni vigilasset opperiens, principem locum, si copia 
patuisset, clam ^ aflfectabat, sed perfidiam proxi- 
morum ratione bifaria verebatur, qui eum ut trucu- 
lentum horrebant et levem, quique altiorem Con- 
stantii fortunam in discordiis civilibus formidabant. 
9. Inter has curarum moles immensas, imperatoris 

^ poterit, Kellerbauer ; poterat, V. ^ clam. Her. ; 

quani, V. 

1 Aiiunianus was attached to the suite of Ursiciuus ; 
see ch. 9. 1. 

2Cf. ch. 10, 16, above. 


XIV., 11, 5-9, A.D. 354 

received and abundant transportation facilities were 
furnished, we ^ hastened at full speed to Mediolanum. 
6. After this the next thing was to summon Caesar 
and induce him to make equal haste, and in order to 
remove suspicion, Constantius with many feigned 
endearments urged his sister, the Caesar's wife, at 
last to satisfy his longing and visit him. And 
although she hesitated, through fear of her brother's 
habitual cruelty, yet she set forth, hoping that, since 
he was her own brother, she might be able to pacify 
him. But after she had entered Bithynia, at the 
station called Caeni Gallicani, she was carried off by 
a sudden attack of fever. After her death the 
Caesar, considering that the support on which he 
thought he could rely had failed him, hesitated in 
anxious deliberation what to do. 7. For in the 
midst of his embarrassments and troubles his 
anxious mind dwelt on this one thought, that 
Constantius, who measured everything by the 
standard of his own opinion, was not one to accept 
any excuse or pardon mistakes ; but, being^specially 
inclined to ihe ruin of his kin, woulH secretly set a 
snare for him and punish him with death, if he 
caught him off his guard. 8. But in such a critical 
situation and anticipating the worst if he were not 
on the watch, he secretly aimed at the highest rank, 
if any chance should offer ; but for a twofold reason 
he feared treachery on the part of those nearest to 
his person, both because they stood in dread of him 
as cruel and untrustworthy, and because they feared 
the fortune of Constantius which in civil discords 
usually had the upper hand.^ 9. Amid this huge 
mass of anxieties he received constant letters from 



scripta suscipiebat assidua, monentis orantisque 
ut ad se veniret, et mente monstrantis obliqua, rem 
publicam nee posse dividi nee debere, sed pro viribus 
quemque ei ferre suppetias fluetuanti, nimirum 
Galliarum indicans vastitatem. 10. Quibus sub- 
serebat non adeo vetus exemplum, quod Dioeletiano 
et eius coUegae, ut apparitores Caesares non resides 
sed ultro citroque discurrentes, obtemperabant, et in 
Syria Augusti vehiculum irascentis, per spatium 
mille passuum fere pedes antegressus est Galerius 

11. Advenit post midtos Scudilo scutariorum 
tribunus, velamento subagrestis ingenii, persuasionis 
opifex callidus. Qui eum adulabili sermone periuriis ^ 
admixto, solus omnium proficisci pellexit, vultu 
assimulato saepius replicando, quod flagrantibus 
votis eura videre frater cuperet patruelis, siquid ^ 
per imprudentiam gestum est, remissurus, ut mitis 
et clemens, participemque eum suae maiestatis 
asscisceret,^ futurum laborum quoque socium, quos 
Arctoae provinciae diu fessae poscebant. 12. Utque 
solent manum iniectantibus fatis, hebetari sensus 
hominum et obtundi, his illecebris ad meliorum 
expectationem erectus, egressusque Antiochia numine 
laevo ductante, prorsus ire tendebat de fumo, ut pro- 
verbium loquitur vetus, ad flammam ; et ingressus 

1 periuriis, Clark ; periis, V {seriis, V^ EBG). ^ siquid, 
Kiessling ; quid, V. ' adscisceret, C. F. W. Miiller ; 

adscisco et, V ; adsciscet, Clark. 


XIV., 11, 9-12, A.D. 354 

the emperor, admonishing and begging him to come 
to him and covertly hinting that the commonwealth 
could not be divided and ought not to be, but that 
each ought to the extent of his powers to lend it aid 
when it was tottering, doubtless referring to the 
devastation of Gaul. 10. To this he added an 
example of not so very great antiquity, that Dio- 
cletian and his colleague ^ were obeyed as superiors 
by their Caesars, who did not remain in one place 
but hastened about hither and thither, and that in 
Syria Galerius, clad in purple, walked for nearly a 
mile before the chariot of his Augustus ^ when the 
latter was angry with him. 

11. After many other messengers came Scudilo, 
tribune of the targeteers, a skilled artist in persua- 
sion, under the cloak of a somewhat rough nature. 
He alone of all, by means of flattering words mingled 
with false oaths, succeeded in persuading Callus to 
set out, constantly repeating with hypocritical expres- 
sion that his cousin ardently desired to see him, that 
being a mild and merciful prince he would overlook 
anything that was done through inadvertence ; that 
he would make him a sharer in his rank, to be a 
partner also in the labours which the northern 
pro%ances, for a long time disaffected, demanded 
l2. And since, when the fates lay hands upon men 
their senses are apt to be dulled and blunted, Gallus 
was roused by these blandishments to the hope of a 
better destiny, and leaving Antioch under the lead 
of an unpropitious power, he proceeded to go straight 
from the smoke into the fire, as the old proverb has 

1 Maximianus. - Diocletian. 




Constantinopolim, tamquara in rebus prosperis et 
securis, editis equestribus ludis, capiti Thoracis ^ 
aurigae coronam imposuit, ut victoris. 

13. Quo cognito Constantius ultra mortalem 
modum exarsit ; ac nequo casu idem Gallus de 
futuris incertus, agitare quaedam conducentia saluti 
suae per itinera conaretur, remoli sunt omnes de 
industria milites agentes in civitatibus perviis. 14. 
Eoque tempore Taurus quaestor ad Armeniam missus, 
confidenter nee appellato eo nee viso transivit. 
Venere tamen aUqui iussu imperatoris, administra- 
tionum specie diversarum, eundem ne commovere se 
posset, neve temptaret aliquid occulte custodituri ; 
inter quos Leontius erat, postea urbi praefectus, ut 
quaestor, et ^ Lucillianus quasi domesticorum comes 
et scutariorum tribunus nomine Bainobaudes. 15. 
Emensis itaque longis intervaUis et planis, cum 
Hadrianopolim introisset, urbem Haemimontanam, 
Uscudamam antehac appellatam, fessasque labore 
diebus duodecim recreans vires, comperit Thebaeas 
legiones in \'icinis oppidis hiemantes, consortes suos 
misisse quosdam, eum ut remaneret promissis fidis 
hortaturos et firmis, cum animarentur roboris ^ sm 
fiducia, abunde per stationes locatae * confines, sed 
observante cura pervigili proximorum,nidlam videndi 
vel audiendi quae ferebant, furari potuit facultatem. 
16. Inde aliis super alias urgentibus Utteris exire et 

^ capiti Thoracis, T- ; capita thoracis, V. - et, EG ; 

ut, V ; ac, Traube. ^ cu7n a. roboris, added by Novak. 

* locatae, Novak ; locat, V. 


XIV., 11, 12-16, A.D. 354 

it ; and euteriug Cou.staiitinoplr as if in the height 
ol" prosperity and security, he exhibited horse-races 
and crowned Thorax the charioteer as victor. 

13. On learning this Constantius was enraged 
beyond all human bounds, and lest by any chance 
Gallus should become uncertain as to the future and 
should try in the course of his journey to take 
measures for his own safety, all the soldiers in the 
towns through which he would pass were purposely 
removed. 14. And at that time Taurus, who had 
been sent to Armenia as quaestor, boldly passed that 
way without addressing him or going to see him. 
Others, however, visited him by the emperor's orders, 
under pretext of various matters of business, but 
really to take care that he should not be able to 
make any move or indulge in any secret enterprise ; 
among these was Leontius, then quaestor and later 
prefect of the city, LucuUianus, as count commander 
of the household troops, and a tribune of the targe- 
teers called Bainobaudes. 15. Thus, after covering 
long distances over level country, he had entered 
Hadrianopolis, a city in the region of Mt. Haemus, 
formerly called Uscudama, and was recovering his 
strength, exhausted by twelve days of travel. There 
he learned that certain Theban legions that were 
passing the winter in near-by towns had sent some 
of their comrades to encourage him by faithful and 
sure promises to remain there, since they were full 
of confidence in themselves and were posted in large 
numbers in neighbouring encampments ; but owing 
to the watchful care of those about him, he could not 
steal an opportunity of seeing them or hearing the 
message that they brought. 16. Then, as letter 


VOL. I. G 


decern vehiculis piibliris, ut praeceptum est, usus, 
relicto palatio oiniii, praeter paucos tori miuistros 
et mensae, qiios avexerat secuni, squalore concretus, 
celerare gradum compellebatur, adigentibus inultis, 
temeritati suae subinde flebiliter imprecatus, quae 
eum iam despectum et vilem arbitrio subdiderat 
infimoruin. 17. Inter haec tamen per indutias 
naturae conquiescentis, sauciabantur eius sensus 
circumstridentium terrore larvaruna, interfectorum- 
que catervae, Doniitiano et Montio praeviis, correp- 
tum eum (ut existimabat in somnis), uncis furialibus 
obiectabant. 18. Solutus enim corporeis nexibus. 
animus semper vigens motibus indefessis, ex cogita- 
tionibus subiectis et curis, quae mortalium sollicitant 
mentes, colligit visa nocturna, quas (^avravias nos 

19. Pandente itaque viam fatorum sorte tristis- 
sima, qua praestitutum erat eum vita et imperio 
spoliari, itineribus rectis ^ permutatione iumentorum 
emensis, venit Petobionem oppidum Noricorum, ubi 
reseratae sunt insidiarum latebrae omnes, et Barbatio 
repente apparuit Comes, qui sub eo domesticis 
praefuit, cum Apodemio agente in rebus, milites 
ducens, quos beneficiis suis oppigneratos elegerat 

^ rectis, Lind. ; eiectis, V. ; directis, Novak. 

^ I.e. we Greeks. 

^ The agentes in rebus constituted the imperial secret 
service under the direction of the magister officiorum. 
These were the original frumentarii, who at iirst had 
charge of the grain supply of the troops, but towards the 
beginning of the second century a.d. became secret police 


XIV., 11, 16-19, A.D. 354 

followed letter, urging him to leave, making use of 
ten public vehicles, as was directed, and leaving 
behind all his attendants with the exception of a few 
whom he had brought with him to serve in his bed- 
room and at his table, he was driven to make haste, 
being without proper care of his person and urged on 
by many, railing from time to time at the rashness 
which had reduced him, now mean and abject, to 
submit to the will of the lowest of mankind. 17. Yet 
all this time, whenever nature allowed him sleep, 
his senses were wounded by frightful spectres that 
shrieked about him, and throngs of those whom 
he had slain, led by Domitianus and Montius, would 
seize him and fling him to the claws of the Furies, as 
he imagined in his dreams. 18. For the mind, when 
freed from the bonds of the body, being always filled 
with tireless movement, from the underlying thoughts 
and worries which torment the minds of mortals, con- 
jures up the nocturnal visions to which we ^ give the 
name of phantasies. 

19. And thus with the way opened by the sad 
decree of fate, by which it was ordained that he 
should be stripped of life and rank, he hurried by the 
most direct way and wdth relays of horses and came 
to Petobio, a town of Noricum. There all the secret 
plots were revealed and Count Barbatio suddenly 
made his appearance — he had commanded the house- 
hold troops under Gallus — accompanied by Apo- 
demius, of the secret service,^ and at the head of 
soldiers whom Constantius had chosen because they 
were under obligation to him for favours and could 

agents. It was Diocletian who changed the name/ruwe»- 
tarii to agentes in rebus. 




imperator, certus nee praemiis nee miseratione ulla 
posse deflecti. 

20. lamque uon umbratis f'allaciis res agebatur, sed 
qua palatium est extra muros, armatis Barbatio ^ 
omne circumdedit. Ingressusque obscuro iani die, 
ablatis regiis indumentis, Caesarem tunica texit et pa- 
ludamento communi, eum post haec nihil passurum, 
velut mandato principis iurandi crebritate confir- 
mans, et " Statim " inquit " exsurge," et inopinum 
carpento privato impositum, ad Histriam duxit.prope 
oppidum Polam, ubi quondam peremptum Con- 
stantini filiuni accipimus Crispum. 21. Et cum 
ibi servaretur artissime, terrore propinquantis exitii 
iam praesepultus, accurrit Eusebius, cubiculi tunc 
praepositus, Pentadiusque notarius, et Mallobaudes 
armaturarum tribunus, iussu imperatoris compul- 
suri eum singillatim docere, quam ob causam quem- 
que apud Antiochiam necatorum iusserat trucidari. 
22. Ad quae Adrasteo pallore perfusus, hactenus 
valuit "' loqui, quod plerosque incitante coniuge 
iugulaverit Constantina, ignorans profecto Alexan- 
drum Magnum urgenti matri ut occideret quendam 
insontem, et dictitanti spe impetrandi postea quae 
vellet, eum se per novem menses utero portasse 
praegnantem, ita respondisse prudenter : " Aliam, 
parens optima, posce mercedem ; hominis enim 
salus beneficio nullo pensatur." 23. Quo comperto 

1 Barbatio, added by Damste. - valuit, vulgo ; 

voluit, V. 

1 See note 3, p. 56. 

- Proverbial ; cf. Virgil, Aen. vi. 480, Adrasti pallentis 
iniago. Adrastus turned pale at the death of his sons-in-law 
Tydeus and PoljTiices (when the seven champions attacked 
Thebes), and never recovered his colour. 


XIV., 11, 19-23, A.D. 354 

not, he felt sure, be influenced by bribes or any feeling 
of pity. 

20. And now the aff"air was being carried on with no 
disguised intrigue, but where the palace stood with- 
out the walls Barbatio surrounded it with armed men. 
And entering before dawn and removing the Caesar's 
royal robes, he put upon him a tunic and an ordinary 
soldier's cloak, assuring him with frequent oaths, as 
if by the emperor's command, that he would sufi'er 
no further harm. Then he said to him : " Get up at 
once," and having unexpectedly placed him in a 
private carriage, he took him to Histria, near the 
town of Pola, where in former times, as we are in- 
formed, Constantine's son Crispus was killed. 21. 
And while he was kept there in closest confinement, 
already as good as buried by fear of his approaching 
end, there hastened to him Eusebius, at that time 
grand chamberlain, Pentadius, the secretary, and 
Mallobaudes, tribune of the guard, ^ to compel him by 
order of the emperor to inform them, case by case, 
why he had ordered the execution of all those whom 
he had put to death at Antioch. 22. At this, 
o'erspread with the pallor of Adrastus,'^ he was able 
to say only that he had slain most of them at the 
instigation of his wife Constantina, assuredly not 
knowing that when the mother of Alexander the Great 
urged her son to put an innocent man to death and 
said again and again, in the hope of later gaining 
what she desired, that she had carried him for nine 
months in her womb, the king made this \\dse 
answer : " Ask some other reward, dear mother, for 
a man's life is not to be weighed against any favour." 
23. On hearing this the emperor, smitten with 



irrevocabili ira princeps percitus et dolore, fiduciam 
omnem fundandae securitatis in eodem posuit 
abolendo. Et misso Sereniano, quern in crimen 
maiestatis vocatum praestrigiis quibusdam absolu- 
tum esse supra monstravimus, Pentadio quin etiam 
notario, et Apodemio agente in rebus, eum capitali 
supplicio destinavit, et ita colligatis manibus in 
modum noxii cuiusdam latronis, cervice abscisa, 
ereptaque vultus et capitis dignitate, cadaver est 
relictum informe, paulo ante urbibus et provinciis 
formidatum. 24. Sed vigilavit utrubique superni 
numinis aequitas. Nam et Galium actus oppressere ^ 
crudeles, et non diu postea ambo cruciabili morte 
absumpti sunt, qui eum licet nocentem, blandius 
palpantes periuriis, ad usque plagas perduxere letales. 
Quorum Scudilo destillatione iecoris pulmones vomi- 
tans interiit ; Barbatio, qui in eum iam diu falsa 
composuerat crimina, cum ex magisterio peditum 
altius niti quorundam susurris incusaretur. damnatus 
extincti per fallacias Caesaris manibus - illacrimoso 
obitu parentavit. 

25. Haec et liuius modi quaedam innumerabilia 
ultrix facinorum impiorum, bonorumque praemia- 
trix, aliquotiens operatur Adrastia, (atque utinam 
semper !) : quam vocabulo duplici etiam Nemesim 
appellamus : ius quoddam sublime numinis efficacis, 

1 oppressere, XT, Val. ; oppresse, V. - manibus anima, 
V ; anima, del. Val. 


XIV., 11, 23-25, A.D. 354 

implacable anger and resentment, rested all his 
hopes of securing his safety on destroying Gallus ; 
and sending Serenianus, who, as I have before shown, 
had been charged with high treason and acquitted 
by some jugglery or other, and with him Pentadius 
the secretary and Apodemius of the secret service, 
he condemned him to capital punishment. Accord- 
ingly his hands were bound, after the fashion of some 
guilty robber, and he was beheaded. Then his face 
and head were mutilated, and the man who a little 
while before had been a terror to cities and provinces 
was left a disfigured corpse. 24. But the justice of ^ 
the heavenly power was everywhere watchful ; for \ 
not only did his cruel deeds prove the ruin of Gallus, I 
but not long afterwards a painful death overtook 
both of those whose false blandishments and perjuries 
led him, guUty though he was, into the snares of 
destruction. Of these Scudilo. because of an abcess 
of the liver,^ vomited up his lungs and so died ; 
Barbatio, who for a long time had invented false 
accusations against Gallus, charged by the whispers 
of certain men of aiming higher than the mastership 
of the infantry, was found guilty and by a lamentable 
end made atonement to the shades of the Caesar, 
whom he had treacherously done to death. 

25. These and innumerable other instances of the 
kind are sometimes (and would that it were always 
so !) the work of Adrastia,'^ the chastiser of evil deeds 
and the rewarder of good actions, whom we also call 
by the second name of Nemesis. She is, as it were, 
the subUme jurisdiction of an efficient divine power, 

^ Augustus was cured of this disease by Antonius Musa 
(Suet., Atig. 81, 1). ^ See Index. 



humanarum mentium opinione lunari circulo super- 
positum, vel ut dcfiniunt alii, substantialis tutela 
generali potentia partilibiis praesidens fatis, quam 
theologi veteres fingentes lustitiae filiam, ex abdita 
quadam aeternitate tradunt omnia despectare 
terrena. 26. Haec ut regina causarum, et arbitra 
rerum ac disceptatrix, urnam sortium temperat, 
accidentium. vices alternans, voluntatumque nos- 
trarum exorsa interdum alio quam quo contende- 
bant exitu terminans, multiplices actus permutando 
convolvit. Eademque necessitatis insolubili retin- 
aculo mortalitatis vinciens fastus, tumentes in 
cassum, et incrementorum detrimentorumque mo- 
menta versans (ut novit), nunc erectas eminentium ^ 
cervices opprimit et enervat, nunc bonos ab imo 
suscitans ad bene vivendum extoUit. Pinnas autem 
ideo illi fabulosa vetustas aptavit, ut adesse velo- 
citate volucri cunctis existimetur, et praetendere 
gubernaculum dedit, eique subdidit rotam, ut uni- 
versitatem regere per dementia discurrens omnia 
non ignoretur. 

27. Hoc immaturo interitu, ipse quoque sui pertae- 
sus, excessit e vita, aetatis nono anno atque viceu- 
simo, cum quadriennio imperasset. Natus apud 
Tuscos in Massa Veternensi patre Constantio, 
Constantini fratre imperatoris, matreque Galla, 
sorore Rufini et Cerealis, quos trabeae consulares 

^ eminentium, Fletcher, C.Q. 1930, p. 193 ; tumentium, 
Giinther ; mentium,, V. 

1 Cf. Cic, Acad. ii. 28, 91, leri etfalnl disceptatricem 
et itidicem,. 


XIV., 11, 25-27, A.D. 354 

dwelling, as men think, above the orbit of the moon ; 
or as others define her, an actual guardian presiding 
with universal sway over the destinies of individual ' 
men. The ancient theologians, regarding her as the 
daughter of Justice, say that from an unknown eter- 
nity she looks down upon all the creatures of earth. 
26. She, as queen of causes and arbiter and judge ^ 
of events, controls the urn with its lots and causes the 
changes of fortune,^ and sometimes she gives our 
plans a different result than that at which we aimed, 
changing and confounding many actions. She too, 
binding the vainly swelling pride of mortals with the 
indissoluble bond of fate, and controlhng, as she 
knows how to do, the causes of gain and loss, now 
bends and weakens the uphfted necks of the proud, 
and now, raising the good from the lowest estate, 
lifts them to a happy Life. Moreover, the storied past 
has given her wings in order that she might be 
thought to come to all with swift speed ; and it has 
given her a helm to hold and has put a wheel beneath 
her feet, in order that none may fail to know that 
she runs through all the elements and rules the 

27. Bv this untimely death, although himself 
weary of his existence, the Caesar passed from life in 
the twenty-ninth year of his age, after a rule of four 
years. He was born in Etruria at Massa in the district 
of Veternum, being the son of Constantius,the brother 
of the emperor Constantine, and Galla, the sister of 
Rufinus and Cerealis, who were distinguished by the 

^ Cf . Ovid, Metam. xv. 409, alternare vices. 
* With this description cf. that of Fortune in Pacuvius, 
inc. xiv., Ribbeck (p. 144), and Horace, Odes, i. 34. 



nobilitarunt, et praefecturae. 28. Fuit ^ autem 
forma conspicuus bona, decente filo corporis mem- 
brorumque recta compage, flavo capillo et molli, 
barba licet recens emergente lanugine tenera, ita 
tameu ut maturius auctoritas emineret ; tantum a 
temperatis moribus luliani differens fratris, quantum 
inter Vespasiani filios fuit Domitianum et Titum. 
29. Assumptus autem in amplissimum fortunae 
fastigium, versabilis eius motus expertus est, qui 
ludunt mortalitatem. nunc evehentes quosdam in 
sidera, nunc ad Cocyti profunda mergentes. Cuius 
rei cum innumera sint exempla, pauca tactu summo 
transcurram. 30. Haec fortuna mutabilis et in- 
constans fecit Agathoclem Siculum ex figulo regem, 
et Dionysium, gentium quondarA terrorem, Corinthi 
of litterario ludo praefecit. 31. Haec Adramytenum 
Andriscum, in fullonio natum, ad Pseudophilippi 
nomen evexit, et Persei legitimum filium artem 
ferrariam ob quaerendum docuit victum. 32. 
Eadem Mancinum post imperium dedidit ^ Numan- 
tinis, Samnitum atrocitati Veturium, et Claudium 
Corsis, substravitque feritati Carthaginis Regulum ; 
istius iniquitate Pompeius, post quaesitum Magni ex 

^fuit, in lac. of 5 letters, EDW^NA (defendo, cf. Suet., 
Aug. 79, 1, Tib. 68, 1, Calig. 50, 1) ; erat, Heraeus, Clark 
(cf. XXV. 4, 22). ^dedidit, Val. ; dedit, V. 

^ The trabea was a toga, or robe, in white, ornajnented 
with horizontal stripes of purple. It was worn by the 
knights on public occasions and by the early kings and 
consuls. In the classical period it was, in that form, 
the distinctive garb of the equites (see Tac, Ann. iii. 2 ; 


XIV., 11, 27-32, A.D. 354 

vesture ^ of consul and prefect. 28. He was conspicu- 
ous for his handsome person, being well proportioned, 
with well-knit limbs. He had soft golden hair, and 
although his beard was just appearing in the form of 
tender down, yet he was conspicuous for the dignity 
of greater maturity. But he differed as much from 
the disciplined character of his brother Julian as did 
Domitian, son of Vespasian, from his brother Titus. 
29. Raised to the highest rank in Fortune's gift, he / 
experienced her fickle changes, which make sport of j f^ 
mortals, now Hfting some to the stars, now plunging j v 
them in the depths of Cocytus. But although in- 
stances of this are innumerable, I shall make cursory 
mention of only a few. 30. It was this mutable and 
fickle Fortune that changed the Sicilian Agathocles 
from a potter to a king, and Dionysius, once the terror 
of nations, to the head of an elementary school, at 
Corinth. 31. She it was that raised Andriscus ^ of 
Adramyttium, who was born in a fullery, to the 
title of the Pseudo-Phillip, and taught the legitimate 
son of Perseus the blacksmith's trade as a means of 
livelihood.^ 32. She, too, delivered Mancinus, after 
his supreme command, to the Numantians, Veturius 
to the cruelty of the Samnites, and Claudius to the 
Corsicans, and she subjected Regulus to the savagerv 
of the Carthaginians. Through her injustice Pompey, 
after he had gained the surname Great by his 

Val. Max., ii. 2, 9), but it varied in its colour and its use 
at different periods. One form, wholly of purple, was 
worn by the kings and later emperors ; another, of purple 
and safi'ron, by the augurs. 

- For Andriscus and other names in 31-33, see Index. 

3 Cf. Plutarch, Aem. 37. 



rerum gestarum amplitudine cognomentum, ad spa- 
donum libidinem in Aegypto trucidatur. 33. Et 
Eunus quidam ergastularius servns ductavit in 
SicUia fugitives. Quam multi splendido loco nati 
Romani,^ eadem rerum domina conivente, Viriathi 
genua sunt amplexi vel Spartaci ? Quot capita 
quae horruere gentes funesti carnifices absciderunt ? 
Alter in vincula ducitur, alter insperatae praeficitur 
potestati, alius a summo culmine dignitatis excutitur. 
34. Quae omnia si scire quisquam velit quam varia 
sint et assidua, harenarum numerum idem iam 
desipiens et montium pondera scrutari putabit.^ 


1. Mors Gain Caesaris imperatori nuntiatur. 

1. Utcumque potui veritatem ^ scrutari, ea quae 
videre licuit per aetatem, vel perplexe interrogando 
versatos in medio scire, narravimus ordine casuum 
exposito diversorum ; residua quae secuturus aperiet 
textus, pro virium captu limatius absolvemus, nihil 
obtrectatores longi (ut putant) operis formidantes. 
Tunc enim laudanda est brevitas, cum moras rum- 
pens intempestivas, nihil subtrahit cognitioni ges- 

^ 7iati Romani, Novak ; nati, E^BG ; natura, V. ^ pn^. 

abit, E, Val. (in text) ; posse putabit, Val. ; putavit, V. 
•'' vicumque potui ueritatem, Traube ; ut cumippo tumeri- 
tote, V. * gestarum, E, Val. ; iustorum, V. 


XIV., 11, 32-34— XV., 1, 1, A.D. 354-5 

glorious deeds, was butchered in Egypt to give the 
eunuchs' pleasure. 33. Eunus, too, a workhouse 
slave, commanded an army of runaways in Sicily. 
How many Romans of illustrious birth at the nod of 
that same arbiter of events embraced the knees of 
a Viriathus ^ or a Spartacus ! ^ How many heads 
dreaded by all nations has the fatal excutioner lopped 
ofl". One is led to prison, another is elevated to un- 
looked-for power, a third is cast down from the 
highest pinnacle of rank. 34. But if anyone should 
desire to know aU these instances, varied and con- 
stantly occurring as they are, he will be mad enough 
to think of searching out the number of the sands 
and the weight of the mountains. 


1. The death of Gallus Caesar is reported to the 

1. So far as I could investigate the truth, I have, 
after putting the various events in clear order, re- 
lated what I myself W'as allowed to witness in the 
course of mv life, or to learn by meticulous question- 
ing of those directly concerned. The rest, which the 
text to follow will disclose, we shall set forth to the 
best of our ability with still greater accuracy, feehng 
no fear of critics of the prohxity of our work, as they 
consider it ; for conciseness is to be praised only 
when it breaks off ill-timed discursiveness, without 
detracting at all from an understanding of the coiirse 
of events. 

1 Flor., i. .33, 1.5 ff. ~ Flor., ii. 8, 3 ff. 



2. Nondum apud Noricum exuto penitus Gallo, 
Apodemius quoad vixerat igneus turharum incentor, 
raptos eius calceos vehens, cquonim permutatione 
veloci, ut nimietate cogendi quosdam exstin- 
gueret, praecursorius index Mediolanum advenit 
ingressusque regiam, ante pedes proiecit Constantii, 
velut spolia regis occisi Parthorum ; et perlato nuntio 
repentino, docente rem insperatam et arduam ad 
sententiam tota facilitate completam, hi qui sum- 
mam aulam tenebant, omni placendi studio in 
adulationem ex more collate, virtutem felicitatem- 
que imperatoris extoUebant in caelum, cuius nutu 
in modum gregariorum militum (licet diversis tem- 
poribus) duo exauctorati sunt principes, Veteranio 
nimirum et Gallus. 3. Quo ille studio blanditiarum 
exquisito sublatus, immunemque se deinde fore ab 
omni mortalitatis incommodo fidenter existimans, 
confestim a iustitia declinavit ita intemperanter, ut 
" Aeternitatem meam " aliquotiens subsereret ipse 
dictando, scribendoque propria manu orbis totius se 
dominum appellaret ; quod dicentibus aliis, indig- 
nanter admodum ferre deberet is qui ad aemula- 
tionem civilium principum formare \atam moresque 
suos, ut praedicabat, diligentia laborabat enixa. 
4. Namque etiam si mundorum infinitates Demo- 
criti regeret, quos Anaxarcho incitaute Magnus 
somniabat Alexander, id reputasset legens vel aud- 
iens, quod (ut docent mathematici concinentes). 

^ He joined in the attempt of Magnentius ; see note 2, 
p. 3. The name seems really to be Vetranio. 


XV., 1, 2-4, A.D. 354-5 

2. Hardly had Galliis been wholly stripped in 
Noricuni, when Apodemius, a fiery inciter of disorder 
so long as he lived, seized and carried off Caesar's 
shoes, and with such swift relays of horses that he 
killed some of them by over-driving, was the first to 
arrive in Milan as an advance informer. Entering 
the palace, he cast the shoes at Constantius' feet, as 
if they were the spoils of the slain Parthian king. 
And on the arrival of the sudden tidings, which 
showed that an apparently hopeless and difficult 
enterprise had been carried out to their satisfaction 
with perfect ease, the highest court officials, as usual 
turning all their desire to please into flattery, extolled 
to the skies the emperor's valour and good for- 
tune, since at his beck two princes, though at dif- 
ferent times, Veteranio ^ to wit and Gallus, had been 
cashiered like common soldiers. 3. So Constantius, 
elated by this extravagant passion for flattery, and 
confidently believing that from now on he would 
be free from every mortal ill, swerved swiftly aside 
from just conduct so immoderately that sometimes 
in dictation he signed himself " My Eternity," and 
in writing with his own hand called himself lord of 
the whole world — an expression which, if used by 
others, ought to have been received with just indig- 
nation by one who, as he often asserted, laboured 
with extreme care to model his life and character 
in rivalry wth those of the constitutional emperors. 
4. For even if he ruled the infinity of worlds pos- 
tulated by Democritus, of which Alexander the 
Great dreamed under the stimulus of Anaxagoras, 
yet from reading or hearsay he should have con- 
sidered that (as the astronomers unanimously teach) 



ambitus terrae totius, (juae nobis videtur itnmeiisa, 
ad ^ magnitudinem universitatis instar brevis optinet 
puncti. . 

2. Ursicinus, magister equitum per orientem, Julianus, 
Gain Caesaris frater, et Gorgonius. praepositus 
Caesariani cubiculi, accusantur maiestatis. 

1. lamque post miserandum "^ deleti Caesaris 
cladem, sonante periculorum iudicialium tuba, in 
crimen laesae maiestatis arcessebatur Ursicinus, 
adulescente magis magisque contra eius salutem 
bvore, omnibus bonis infesto. 2. Hac enim super- 
abatur difficultate, quod ad suscipicndas defensiones 
aequas et probabiles, imperatoris aures occlusae, 
patebant ^ susurris insidiantium clandestinis, qui 
Constantii nomine per orientis tractus omnes abolito, 
ante dictum ducem domi forisqiie desiderari, ut 
formidolosum Persicae genti, fingebant. 3. Sed contra 
accidentia vir magnanimus stabat immobilis, ne se 
proiceret abiectius cavens, parum tuto loco inno- 
centiam stare medullitus gemens, hocque uno tristior 
quod amici ante haec frequentes ad potiores des- 
civerant, ut ad successores officiorum. more pos- 
cente, solent transirelictores. 4. Impugnabat autem 
eum per fictae benignitatis illecebras, collegam et 
virum fortem propalam saepe appellans Arbitio, ad 
innectendas letales insidias vitae simplici perquam 

^ ad, added by G ; V omits. - miserandam, E ; 

petiserandam, V ; detestandani, Traube. ' occlusae, 

W*AG ; patebant, BG ; ocduserat chant, \. 


XV., 1, 4—2, 1-4. A.D. 354-5 

the circuit of the whole earth, which to us seems 
endless^compared with the greatness of the universe,- 
has the likeness of a mere tiny point. 

^. Ursicinus, commander of the cavalry in the Orient, 
Julian, brother of Gallus Caesar, and Gorgonius, 
his grand chamberlain, are accused of treason. 

1. And now, after the pitiful downfall of the mur- 
dered Caesar, the trumpet of court trials sounded 
and Ursicinus was arraigned for high treason, since 
jealousy, the foe of all good men, grew more and | ji'^ 
more dangerous to his life. 2. For he fell victim 
to this difficulty, that the emperor's ears were 
closed for receiving any just and easily proved 
defence, but were open to the secret whispers of 
plotters, who alleged that Constantius' name was 
got rid of throughout all the eastern provinces and 
that the above-mentioned general was longed for 
both at home and abroad as being formidable to the 
Persian nation. 3. Yet in the face of events this 
high-souled hero stood immovable, taking care not 
to abase himself too abjectly, but lamenting from 
his heart that uprightness was so insecure, and the 
more depressed for the single reason that his friends, 
who had before been numerous, had deserted him for 
more powerful men, just as lictors are in the habit of 
passing, as custom requires, from magistrates to their 
successors. 4. Furthermore, he was attacked ^vdth 
the blandishments of counterfeit courtesy by Arbitio, 
who kept openly calling him his colleague and a brave 
man, but who was exceedingly shrewd in devising 


VOL. I. H 


callens, et ea tempestate nimium potens. Ut enim 
subterraneus serpens, foramen subsidens occultum, 
adsultu subito singulos transitores observans in- 
cessit, ita ille odio alienae sortis ^ etiam post adeptum 
summum " niilitiae munus, nee laesus aliquando nee 
lacessitus, inexplebili quodam laedendi proposito, 
conscientiam polluebat. 5. Igitur paucis arcanorum 
praesentibus ^ consciis, latenter cum imperatore 
sententia diu digesta,^ id sederat, ut nocte ventura, 
procul a conspectu militarium raptus, Ursicinus 
indemnatus occideretur, ut quondam Domitius 
Corbulo dicitur caesus, in colluvione ilia Neroniani 
saeculi provinciarum fidus defensor et cautus. 
6. Quibus ita compositis, cum ad hoc destinati 
praedictum tempus operirentur, consilio in lenitu- 
dinem flexo, facinus impium ad deliberationem 
secundam differri praeceptum est. 

7. Indeque ad lulianum, recens perductum, 
calumniarum vertitur machina, memorabilem postea 
principem, gemino crimine, ut iniquitas aestimabat, 
implicitum : quod a Macelli fundo, in Cappadocia 
posito, ad Asiam demigrarat, liberaliuni desiderio 
doctrinarum, et ^ per Constantinopolim transeuntem 

1 odio alienae sortis. Pet. ; addiemaesorles, V. - adep- 

tum sumrnum, added in lac. of 15 letters, Clark. ' prae- 

sentibus, Heraeus ; praefectibus, V. * diu digesta, 

added in lac. of 9 letters, Novak (cf. xv. 4, 1 ; xiv. 6, 14). 
' et, added by G ; V omits. 

1 A villa or castle near Caesarea, where Gallus and Julian 
were brought up. 

2 Julian was devoted to the study of Greek literature 
and philosophy. He wrote a great many books, some of 


XV., 2, 4-7, A.D. 354 

deadly snares for a straightforward character and 
was at that time altogether too powerful. For just 
as an underground serpent, lurking below the hidden 
entrance to its hole, watches each passer-by and 
attacks him with a sudden spring, so he, through 
envy of others' fortune even after reaching the 
highest military position, without ever being in- 
jured or provoked kept staining his conscience 
from an insatiable determination to do harm. 5. So, 
in the presence of a few accomplices in the secret, 
after long deliberation it was privately arranged 
with the emperor that on the following night 
Ursicinus should be carried off far from the sight 
of the soldiers and slain without a trial, just as in 
days gone by it is said that Domitius Corbulo was 
murdered, a man who had been a loyal and prudent 
defender of the provinces amid the notorious cor- 
ruption of Nero's time. 6. When this had been so 
arranged and the persons appointed for it were 
awaiting the allotted time, the emperor changed his 
mind in the direction of mercy, and orders were 
given to postpone the wicked deed until after a 
second consultation. 

7. But then the artillery of slander was turned 
against Julian, the future famous emperor, who 
had just arrived, and he was involved, as was un- 
justly held, in a two-fold accusation : first, that he 
had moved from the estate of Macellum,^ situated 
in Cappadocia, into the province of Asia, in his desire 
for a liberal education ; ^ and, second, that he had 
visited his brother Gallus as he passed through 

which have been preserved : orations, letters, satires, and 
a few epigrams. 




viderat Iratrcm. 8. (^iii cum obierta dilueret, 
ostenderetque neutrum sine iussu fecisse, nefando 
assentatorum coetu perisset urgente, ni adspiratione 
superni numinis Eusebia sufFragante regina, ductus 
ad Conaum oppidum Mediolano vicinum, ibique 
paulisper moratus, procudendi ingenii causa (ut 
cupidine flagravit) ad Graeciam ire permissus est, 
9. Nee defuere deinceps ex his emergentia casibus, 
quae diceres ^ secundis avibus contigisse, dum puni- 
rentur ex iure, vel tamquam irrita diffluebant et 
vana. Sed accidebat non numquam, ut opulenti 
pulsantes praesidia potiorum, eisdemque tamquam 
ederae celsis arboribus adhaerentes, absolutionem 
pretiis mercarentur immensis ; tenues vero, qiiibus 
exiguae vires ^ erant ad redimendam salutem aut 
nullae, damnabantur abrupte. Ideoque et Veritas 
mendaciis velabatur, et valuere pro veris aliquotiens 

10. Perductus est eisdem diebus et Gorgonius, cui 
erat thalami Caesariani cura commissa, cumque 
eum ausorum fuisse participem, concitoremque 
interdum, ex confesso pateret, conspiratione spado- 
num iustitia concinnatis mendaciis obumbrata, 
periculo evolutus abscessit. 

1 diceres. Her. ; dispice, V. ^- vires, EA : res, W-G ; 

vers serant, V. 


XV., 2, 7-10, A.D. 355 

Constantinople. 8. And although he cleared him- 
self of these implications and showed that he had 
done neither of these things without warrant, yet 
he would have perished at the instigation of the 
accursed crew of flatterers, had not, through the 
favour of divine power, Queen Eusebia befriended 
him ; so he was brought to the town of Comum, 
near Milan, and after abiding there for a short time, 
he was allowed to go to Greece for the sake of per- 
fecting his education, as he earnestly desired. 
9. Nor were there wanting later actions arising from 
these occurrences which one might say had a happy 
issue, since the accusers were justly punished, or 
their charges came to naught as if void and vain. 
But it sometimes happened that rich men, knocking 
at the gates of the mighty, and clinging to them as 
ivy does to lofty trees, bought their acquittal at 
monstrous prices ; but poor men, who had little 
or no means for purchasing safety, were condemned 
out of hand. And so both truth was masked by 
lies and sometimes false passed for true. 

10. At that same time Gorgonius also, who had 
been appointed the Caesar's head chamberlain, was 
brought to trial ; and although it was clear from his 
own confession that he had been a party in his bold 
deeds, and sometimes their instigator, yet through 
a plot of the eunuchs justice was overshadowed 
with a clever tissue of lies, and he slipped out of 
dauger and went his way. 



3. In Gain Caesaris amicos et ministros animadver- 

1. Haec dum Mediolani aguntur, militarium cater- 
vae ab oriente perductae sunt Aquileiam, cum 
aulicis pluribus, membris inter catenas fluentibus, 
spiritum trahentes exiguum vivendique moras per 
aerumnas detestati multiplices. Arcessebantur enim 
ministri fuisse Galli ferocientis, perque eos Domi- 
tianus discerptus credebatur et Montius, et alii 
post eos acti in exitium praeceps. 2. Ad quos 
audiendos Arbetio ^ missus est et Eusebius, cubiculi 
tunc praepositus, ambo inconsideratae iactantiae. 
iniusti pariter et cruenti. Qui nullo perspicaciter 
inquisito,^ sine innocentium sontiumque differentia, 
alios verberibus vel torraentis afflictos exsulari poena 
damnarunt. quosdam ad infimam trusere militiam, 
residues capitalibus addixere suppliciis. Impletisque 
funerum bustis, reversi velut ovantes. gesta rettu- 
lerunt ad principem, erga haec et similia palam 
obstinatuni et gravem. 3. \ ehementius hinc et 
deinde Constantius, quasi praescriptum fatorum 
ordinem convulsurus. recluse pectore patebat in- 
sidiantibus multis. Unde rumorum aucupes subito 
exstitere complures, honorum vertices ipsos ferinis 
morsibus appetentes, posteaque pauperes et di^^tes 
indiscrete ; non ut Cibvratae illi Yerrini, tribunal 

^ Arbetio, Kellerbauer ; Arbitio, Seeek ; arborviv. V. 
'^ inquisito, added by Hadr. Val. 

1 Two brothers from Cibyra, in Phrygia, Tlepolemus 
and Hiero, tools of Verres ; cf. Cic, Verr., iv. 21, 47 ; 
iv. 13, 30. 


XV., 3, 1-3, A.D. 355 

3. Punishment is inflicted on the friends and tools of 
G(dlus Caesar. 

1. While these events were taking place at Milan, 
troops of soldiers were brought from the East to 
Aquileia together with several courtiers, their 
limbs wasting in chains as they drew feeble breaths 
and prayed to be delivered from longer life amid 
manifold miseries. For they were charged with 
having been tools of the savagery of Gallus, and it 
was through them, it was believed, that Domitianus 
and Montius were torn to pieces and others after 
them were driven to swift destruction. 2. To hear 
their defence were sent Arbetio and Eusebius, then 
grand chamberlain, both given to inconsiderate 
boasting, equally unjust and cruel. They, without 
examining anyone carefully or distinguishing be- 
tween the innocent and the guilty, scourged and 
tortured some and condemned them to banishment, 
others they thrust down to the lowest military 
rank, the rest they sentenced to suffer death. And 
after filling the tombs with corpses, they returned 
as if in triumph and reported their exploits to the 
emperor, who in regard to these and similar cases 
was openly inflexible and severe. 3. Thereupon 
and henceforth Constantius, as if to upset the pre- 
destined order of the fates, more eagerly opened his 
heart and laid it bare to the plotters, many in number. 
Accordingly, numerous gossip - hunters suddenly 
arose, snapping with the jaws of wild beasts at even 
the highest officials, and afterwards at poor and 
rich indifl'erently, not like those Cibyrate hounds 
of \ erres ^ fawning upon the tribunal of only one 



unius legati lambentes, sed rei publicae membra 
totius per incidentia mala vexantes. 4. Inter quos 
facile Paulus et Mercurius eminebant : hie origine 
Persa, ille ^ natus in Dacia : notarius ille, hie a 
ministro triclinii rationalis. Et Paulo quidem, ut 
relatum est supra. Catenae inditum est cognomentum, 
eo quod in complicandis calumniarum nexibus erat 
indissolubilis, mira ^ inventorum sese varietate dis- 
pendens, ut in coUuctationibus callere nimis quidam 
sclent artifices palaestritae. 5. Mercurius vero ^ 
somniorum appellatus est ^ comes, quod ut clam 
mordax cauis interna saevitia ^ submissus agitans 
caudam, epulis coetibusque se crebris inserens, si per 
quietem quisquam, ubi fusius natura vagatur, 
vidisse aliquid amico narrasset, id venenatis artibus 
coloratum in peius, patulis imperatoris auribus 
infundebat, et ob hoc homo tamquam inexpiabifi 
obnoxius culpae, gravi mole criminis pulsabatur. 
6. Haec augente vulgatius fama, tantum aberat, ut 
proderet quisquam visa nocturna, ut contra ^ aegre 
homines dormisse sese praesentibus faterentur 
externis, maerebantque docti quidam. quod apud 
Atlanteos nati non essent, ubi memorantur somnia 
non videri ; quod unde eveniat, rerum scientissimis 

7. Inter has quaestionum suppliciorumque species 
diras, in IlljTrico exoritur aha clades, ad mxdtorum 

1 ille, added by G ; V omits. - mira, Gronov, 

Haupt. ; intra, V. * vero, added by Her. * est, added 
by Clark, c.c. ^ saevitia, Hermami ; vitia, V. * vt 

contra, Traube ; ut, AG, C. F. W. Miiller ; cum, V. 

1 xiv. 5, 8. - Cf. Herodotus, v. 184. 


XV., 3, 3-7, A.D. 355 

governor, but afflicting the members of the whole 
commonwealth with a visitation of evils. 4. Among 
these Paulas and Mercurius were easily the leaders, 
the one a Persian by origin, the other born in Dacia ; 
Paulus was a notary, Mercurius, a former imperial 
steward, was now a treasurer. And in fact this 
Paulus, as was told before,^ was nicknamed " the 
Chain," because he was invincible in weaving coils 
of calumny, exerting himself in a wonderful variety 
of schemes, just as some expert wrestlers are in the 
habit of showing excessive skill in their contests. 
5. But Mercurius was dubbed " Count of Dreams," 
because, like a sUnking, biting cur, savage wthin 
but peacefully wagging its tail, he would often worm 
his way into banquets and meetings, and if anyone 
had told a friend that he had seen anything in his 
sleep, when nature roams more freely, Mercurius 
would give it a worse colour by his venomous skill 
and pour it into the open ears of the emperor ; and 
on such grounds a man, as though really chargeable 
"with inexpiable guilt, would be beaten down by a 
heavy burden of accusation. 6. Since rumour ex- 
aggerated these reports and gave them wide cur- 
rency, people were so far from revealing their 
nightly visions, that on the contrary they would 
hardly admit in the presence of strangers that they 
had slept at all, and certain scholars lamented that 
they had not been born near Mount Atlas, where 
it is said that dreams are not seen ^ ; but how that 
happens we may leave to those who are most versed 
in natural science. 

7. Amid these dire aspects of trials and tortures 
there arose in Illyricum another disaster, which 



pericula ex verborum inanitate progressa. In 
convivio Africani, Pannoniae secundae rectoris, 
apud Sirniium poculis amplioribus madcfacti quidam, 
arbitrum adesse nullum existimantes, licenter im- 
perium praesens ut molestissimum incusabant ; 
quibus alii optatam permutationem tenaporum 
adventare, veluti e praesagiis aflfirmabant, non nulli 
maiorum augurio ^ sibi portendi, incogitabili de- 
mentia promittebant. 8. E quorum numero Gauden- 
tius agens '" in rebus, mente praecipiti stolidus, rem 
ut seriam detulerat ad Rufinum, apparitionis prae- 
fecturae praetorianae tunc principem, ultimorum 
semper avidum hominem, et coalita pravitate 
famosum. 9. Qui confestim quasi pinnis elatus, ad 
comitatum principis advola\dt, eumque ad suspiciones 
huius modi mollem et penetrabilem, ita acriter 
inflammavit, ut sine deliberatione uUa Africanus, et 
omnes letalis mensae participes, iuberentur rapi 
sublimes. Quo facto delator funestus, vetita ex 
more humano validius cupiens, biennio id quod 
agebat (ut postularat) continuare praeceptus est. 
10. Missus igitur ad eos corripiendos Teutomeres 
protector domesticus cum collega onustos omnes 
catenis (ut mandatum est) perducebat. Sed ubi 
ventum est Aquileiam, Marinus tribunus ^ ex campi- 
doctore eo tempore vacans, auctor perniciosi ser- 
monis, et alioqui naturae ferventis, in taberna 

1 augurio, EW- N, Mommsen ; auguria, G ; auirio, \' . 
^ agens, E, Val. ; magis, V ; inagnis, W- BG. ' tri- 

bunus, Val. added in lac. of 8 letters. 

^ The principal city of Pannonia ; see Index. 
2 See note 2, p. 98. 


XV., 3, 7-10, A.D. 355 

began with idle words and resulted in peril to many. 
At a dinner-party given by Africanus, governor of 
Pannonia Secunda, at Sirmium.^ certain men who 
were deep in their cups and supposed that no spy was 
present freely criticized the existing rule as most op- 
pressive ; whereupon some assured them, as if from 
portents, that the desired change of the times was at 
hand ; others with inconceivable follv asserted that 
through auguries of their forefathers it was meant for 
them. 8. One of their number, Gaudentius, of the 
secret ser\ace,'^ a dull man but of a hasty disposition. 
had reported the occurrence as serious to Rufinus, who 
was then chief steward of the praetorian prefecture, 
a man always eager for extreme measures and 
notorious for his natural depravity. 9. Rufinus 
at once, as though upborne on wings, flew to the 
emperor's court and inflamed him, since he was 
easily influenced by such suspicions, to such ex- 
citement that without anv deliberation Africanus 
and all those present at the fatal table were ordered 
to be quickly hoisted up and carried out. That done, 
the dire informer, more stronglv desirous of things 
forbidden, as is the way of mankind, was directed 
to continue for two years in his present service, 
as he had requested. 10. So Teutomeres. of the 
emperor's bodyguard,^ was sent with a colleague 
to seize them, and loading them with chains, as he 
had been ordered, he brought them all in. But when^ 
they came to Aquileia, Marinus, an ex-drillmaster * 
and now a tribune,'^ who was on furlough at the 

■■' See note 3, p. 56. 

* His office was to drill and exercise the soldiers. 

* See Introd., pp. xliii f. 



relictus, dum parantur itineri necessaria, lateri 
cultrum longiorem ^ casu repertum impegit, statim- 
que extractis vitalibus, interiit. 11. Residui ducti 
Mediolanum, excruciatique tormentis, et confess! 
inter epulas petulanter se quaedam locutos, iussi 
sunt attineri poenalibus claustris, sub absolutionis 
aliqua spe (licet incerta). Protectores vero pro- 
nuntiati vertere solum exilic, ut Marino eisdem 
consciis mori permisso, veniam Arbetione meruere 

4. Lentienses Alamanni a Constantio Aug. pars caesi, 
pars fugati. 

1. Re hoc modo finita, . . .^ et Lentiensibus, 
Alamannicis pagis, indictum est bellum, collimitia 
saepe Romana latius irrumpentibus. Ad quem 
procinctum imperator egressus, in Raetias cam- 
posque venit Caninos, et digestis diu consiliis, id 
visum est honestum et utile, ufc eo cum militis parte 
ibidem opperiente,^ Arbetio magister equitum cum 
vaUdiore exercitus manu, relegens margines lacus 

^ longiorem, Xov-ak added in lac. of 9 letters, cf. xvi. 
12, 39 ; xvii. 12, 2. ^ xhe lac. (12 letters) contained 

the name of another tribe of the Alamanni, which cannot 
be supplied. ^ ibidem opperiente, Her. added in lac. 

indicated by Schneider ; pater for parte without lac, V. 

^ Cf. Cod. Just., X. 19, 2, career jjoenaliuin. 
- See critical note. 


XV., 3, 10-11—4, 1, A.D. 355 

time, the originator ot that mischievous talk and 
besides a man of hot temper, being left in a tavern 
while things necessary for their journey were pre- 
paring, and chancing upon a long knife, stabbed 
himself in the side, at once plucked forth his vitals, 
and so died. 11. The rest were brought to Milan 
and cruelly tortured ; and since they admitted 
that while feasting thev had uttered some saucy 
expressions, it was ordered that they be kept in 
close confinement ^ with some hope (though doubt- 
ful) of acquittal. But the members of the emperor's 
guard, after being sentenced to leave the country 
for exile, since Marinus with their connivance had 
been allowed to die, at the suit of Arbetio obtained 

4. Of the Lentienses, a tribe of the Alamanni, a part 
were slain and a part put to flight by Constantius 

1. The aflFair thus ended, war was declared on 
the . . . ^ and Lentienses,^ tribes of the Alamanni, 
who often made extensive inroads through the 
Roman frontier defences. On that expedition the 
emperor himself set out and came to Raetia and 
the Campi Canini ; ^ and after long and careful 
deliberation it seemed both honorable and expedient 
that, while he waited there with a part of the 
soldiers, Arbetio, commander of the cavalry, with 
the stronger part of the army should march on, 

^ Dwelling in the neighbourhood of Lentia, modern 

* Plains in Raetia, roimd about Bellinzona. 



Brigautiae pergeret, protinus barbaris congressurus. 
Cuius loci figuram breviter quantum ratio patitur, 

2. Inter montium celsorum amfractus, immani 
pulsu Rhenus exoriens, per ^ scopulos extenditur 
celsos,^ nullos advenas amnes ^ adoptans, ut per* 
cataractas inclinatione praecipiti funditur JNilus. 
Et navigari ab ortu poterat primigenio copiis ex- 
uberans propriis, ni ruenti curreret similis potius ^ 
quam fluenti lenius amni.^ 3. lamque ad plana 
volutus,' altaque divortia riparum adradens, lacum 
invadit rotundum et vastum, quern Brigantiam 
accola Raetus appellat, perque quadringenta et 
sexaginta stadia longum, parique paene spatio late 
diffusum, horrore silvarum squalentiuni inaccessum, 
nisi qua vetus ilia Romana virtus et sobria iter 
composuit latum, barbaris et natura locorum et caeli 
inclementia refragante. 4. Hanc ergo paludem 
spumosis strependo * verticibus amnis irrumpens, 
et undarura quietem permeans pigram, mediam 
velut finali intersecat libramento, et tamquam 
elementum perenni discordia separatum, nee aucto 
nee imminuto agmine quod intulit, vocabulo et 
viribus absolvitur integris, nee contagia deinde uUa 
perpetiens, oceani gurgitibus intimatur. 5. Quodque 

^ exoriens per, scripsi ; exoriens per praeruptos, Val. in 
lac. of 1 1 letters ; pulsurhen . . . pulos, V. - celsos, 

scripsi. ; ^ nullos advenas atn, Gronov added in lac. of 10 
letters extenditur . . . nes, V. * per, Val. added in 

lac. of 3 letters. * similis potius, Val. ; si7n (lac. of 

8 letters), quam, V. •" lenius amni, scripsi in lac. of 6 

letters. ' ad plana, v'olutus, Petschenig ; ad (lac. 7 letters) 
solutus, V. * strependo, G ; stridendo, Traube ; ster- 

tendo from tertendo, V^. 


XV., 4, 1-5, A.D. 355 

skirting the shores of Lake Brigautia,^ in order to 
engage at once with the savages. Here I will de- 
scribe the appearance of this place as briefly as my 
project allows. 

2. Between the defiles of lofty mountains the 
Rhine rises and pours with mighty current over 
high rocks, without receiving tributary streams, 
just as the Nile with headlong descent pours over 
the cataracts. And it could be navigated from its 
very source, since it overflows with waters of its 
own, did it not run along like a torrent rather than 
a quietly flowing river. 3. And now broadening 
and cutting its way between high and widely 
separated banks, it enters a vast round lake, which 
its Raetian neighbour calls Brigantia ; '^ this is 
four hundred and sixty stades long and in breadth 
spreads over an almost equal space ; it is inacces- 
sible through dread of the forest wilderness except 
where that old-time practical Roman ability, in 
spite of the opposition of the savages, the nature of 
the region, and the rigour of the climate, constructed 
a broad highroad. 4. Into this pool, then, the 
river bursts roaring with frothing eddies, and cleav- 
ing the sluggish quiet of the waters, cuts through its 
midst as if with a boundary line. And as if the element 
were divided by an everlasting discord, without in- 
creasing or diminishing the volume which it carried 
in, it emerges with name and force unchanged, and 
without thereafter suff"ering any contact it mingles 
with Ocean's flood. 5. And, what is exceeding 

1 The Lake of Constance. 
-The Lake of Constance. 



est impendio mirum, nee stagnum aquarum rapido 
transcursu movetur, nee limosa subluvie tardatur 
properans flumen, et confusura misceri non potest 
corpus ; quod, ni ita agi ipse doceret aspectus, 
nulla vi credebatur posse discerni. 6. Sic Alpheus 
oriens in Arcadia, cupidine fontis Arethusae captus, 
scindens Ionium mare, ut fabulae ferunt, ad usque 
amatae confinia proruit nymphae.'^ 7. Arbetio qui 
adventus barbarorum nuntiarent non exspectans 
dum ^ adessent, licet sciret aspera orta bellorum, 
in occultas delatus insidias, stetit ^ immobilis, malo 
repentino perculsus. 8. Namque improvisi ^ e 
latebris hostes exsiliunt, et sine parsimonia quic- 
quid offendi poterat telorum genera multiplici con- 
figebant ; nee enim resistere nostrorum quisquam 
potuit, nee aliud vitae subsidium, nisi discessu 
sperare veloci. Quocirca vulneribus declinandis 
intenti, incomposito agmine milites hue et illuc 
dispalantes, terga ferienda dederunt. Plerique 
tamen per angustas semitas sparsi, periculoque 
praesidio tenebrosae noctis extracti, revoluta iam 
luce, redintegratis viribus agmini quisque proprio 
sese consociavit. In quo casu ita tristi et inopino, 
abundans numerus armatorum, et tribuni desiderati 
sunt decern. 9. Ob quae Alamanni sublatis animis 
ferocius incedentes secuto die ^ prope munimenta 
Romana, adimente matutina nebula lucem, strictis 

^ proruit (progreditur, G) nymphae, Arbetio . . . expectans, 
BG ; progrontusque barbaros (lac. of 2i lines) barbaros 
dum, V. ^ insidias stetit, E, Val. ; insi (lac. of 6 letters), 
V. 3 namque inprovisi, Langen added in lac. of 7 

letters : . . . visi, V. * secuto die, Clark ; se cotidie, V. 

^ The spring of Ortygia, at Sjnracuse in Sicily. 

XV., 4, 5-9, A.D. 355 

strange, neither is the lake stirred by the swift 
passage of the waters nor is the hurrying river 
stayed by the foul mud of the lake, and though 
mingled they cannot be blended into one body ; 
but if one's very sight did not prove it to be so, one 
would not believe it possible for them to be kept 
apart by any power. 6. In the same way the river 
Alpheus, rising in Arcadia and falling in love with 
the fountain Arethusa, cleaves the Ionian Sea, as 
the myth tells us, and hastens to the retreat ^ of 
the beloved nymph. 7. Arbetio did not wait for 
the coming of messengers to announce the arrival 
of the savages, although he knew that a dangerous 
war was on foot, and when he was decoyed into 
a hidden ambuscade, he stood immovable, over- 
whelmed by the sudden mischance. 8. For the 
enemy sprang unexpectedly out of their lurking- 
places and without sparing pierced with many kinds 
of weapons everything within reach ; and in fact not 
one of our men could resist, nor could they hope 
for any other means of saving their lives than swift 
flight. Therefore the soldiers, bent on avoiding 
wounds, straggled here and there in disorderly 
march, exposing their backs to blows. Very many, 
however, scattering by narrow by-paths and saved 
from danger by the protecting darkness of the 
night, when daylight returned recovered their 
strength and rejoined each his own company. In 
this mischance, so heavy and so unexpected, an 
excessive number of soldiers and ten tribunes were 
lost. 9. As a result the Alamanni, elated in spirit, 
came on more boldly the following day against the 
Roman works ; and while the morning mist obscured 



mucronibus discurrebant, frendendo minas tumidas 
intentantes. Egressique repente scutarii, cum 
obiectu turmarum hostilium repercussi stetissent, 
omnes suos conspiratis mentibus ciebant ad pugnam. 
10. Verum cum plerosque recentis aerumnae docu- 
menta terrerent, et ^ intuta fore residua credens 
haereret Arbetio, tres simul exsiluere tribuni, Arin- 
theus agens vicem armaturarum rectoris, et Seni- 
auchus qui equestrem turmam comitum tuebatur, 
et Bappo ducens promotos. 11. Qui cum commissis 
sibi militibus, pro causa communi se velut propria 
Deciorum veterum exemplo voventes, more ^ flu- 
minis hostibus superfusi, non iusto proelio sed dis- 
cursionibus rapidis,^ universos in fugam coegere 
foedissimam. Qui dispersi laxatis ordinibus, dumque 
elabi properant impediti, corpora nudantes intecta, 
gladiorum hastarumque densis ictibus truncabantur. 
12. Multique cum equis interfecti iacentes, etiam 
tum eorum dorsis videbantur innexi : quo viso 
omnes e castris eff'usi, qui prodire in proelium cum 
sociis ambigebant, cavendi immemores, proterebant 

^ et intuta, Val. ; intota, V. ^ Qui cum commissis 

. . . uouentes, more. Her. (cf. xxiii. 5, 19 ; xxviii. 1,4); 
prom,oto (lac. 30 letters) missis sibi (lac. of 11 letters) causa 
comm^unis velut propri (lac. of 18 letters) ueterum exemplo 
usuentere, V. ^ rapidis. Her. in lac. of 9 letters. 

^ See note 3, p. 56. 

^ A picked body of troops, perhaps the same as the 
comitatenses ; they were divided into several bodies, dis- 
tinguished by various names. 


XV., 4, 9-12, A.D. 355 

the light they rushed about with drawn swords, 
gnashing their teeth and giving vent to boastful 
threats. But the targeteers ^ suddenly sallied forth, 
and when they were driven back by the opposition 
of the enemy's battalions, and were at a standstill, 
with one mind they called out all their comrades 
to the fight. 10. But when the majority were 
terrified by the evidence of the recent disaster, and 
Arbetio hesitated, believing that the sequel would 
be dangerous, three tribunes sallied forth together : 
Arintheus, lieutenant-commander of the heavy- 
armed bodyguard, Seniauchus, leader of a squadron 
of the household cavalry,- and Bappo, an officer of 
the veterans.^ 11. They with the soldiers under their 
command, making the common cause their own, 
after the manner of the Decii of old,* poured like a 
torrent upon the enemy, and not in a pitched battle, 
but in a series of swift skirmishes, put them all to 
most shameful flight. And as they scattered with 
broken ranks and encumbered by their haste to 
escape, they exposed themselves unprotected, and 
by many a thrust of swords and spears were cut to 
pieces. 12. And many, as they lay there, slain 
horse and man together, seemed even then to be 
sitting fast upon the back of their mounts. On 
seeing this, all who had been in doubt about going 
into battle with their comrades poured forth from 
the camp, and careless of all precaution trod under 
foot the horde of savages, except those whom flight 

^ Soldiers who were given a higher rank on account of 
good service or favour ; of. Vegetius, ii. 3, legionum robur 
infractum est, cum per gratiam promoverentio- milites, qui 
promoveri consueverant per labores. 

* See Index. 



barbaram plebem, nisi quos fuga exemerat morte, 
calcantes cadaverum strues, et perfusi sanie peremp- 
torum. 13. Hocque exitu proclio termiuato, im- 
perator Mediolanum ad hiberna ovans revertit et 

5. Silranus Francus, magister peditum per Gallias, 
Coloniae Augustus adpellatur, et xxviii. imperi 
die per insidias opprimitur. 

1. Exoritur iam hinc rebus afflictis, haut dispari 
provinciarum malo calamitatum turbo novarum, 
exstincturus omnia simul, ni fortuna moderatrix 
humanorum casuum motum eventu celeri consum- 
mavit, impendio formidatum, 2. Cum diuturna 
incuria Galliae caedes acerbas rapinasque et incendia, 
barbaris licenter grassantibus, nullo iuvante per- 
ferrent, Silvanus pedestris militiae rector, ut efficax 
ad haec corrigenda, principis iussu perrexit,^ Arbet- 
ione id maturari modis quibus poterat adigente, ut 
absenti aemulo quern superesse adhuc gravabatur 
periculosae molis onus impingeret.^ 

3. Dynamius quidam ^ actuarius sarcinalium prin- 
cipis iumentorum, commendaticias ab eo petierat 
litteras ad amicos, ut quasi familiaris eiusdem asset 

^ principis iussu perrexit, Val . ; primum ipsius super - 
rexit, V. - gravabatur . . . impingeret, BG in lac. of 

about 3 lines. ^ Dynamius quidam, Val. added ; G 

has lac. of 3 letters. 

^ He had charge during campaigns and journeys of 
the transportation of the emperor's baggage ; other 
actuarii are inentioned in xx. 5, 9 (see note), and actuarii 


XV., 4, 12-13—5, 1-3, A.D. 355 

had saved from death, trampling on heaps of dead 
bodies and drenched with the blood of the slain. 
13. The battle thus done and ended, the emperor 
returned in triumph and joy to Milan, to pass the 

5. Silvanus the Frank, commander of the infantry in 
Gaul, is hailed as Augustus at Cologne, but is 
treacherously slain on the twenty-eighth day of 
his reign. 

1. Now there arises in this afflicted state of affairs 
a storm of new calamities, with no less mischief to 
the provinces ; and it would have destroyed every- 
thing at once, had not Fortune, arbitress of human 
chances, brought to an end with speedy issue a most 
formidable uprising. 2. Since through long neglect 
Gaul was enduring bitter massacres, pillage, and 
the ravages of fire, as the savages plundered at will 
and no one helped, Silvanus, an infantry commander 
thought capable of redressing these outrages, came 
there at the emperor's order ; and Arbetio urged 
by whatever means he could that this should be 
hastened, in order that the burden of a perilous 
undertaking might be imposed upon an absent rival, 
whose survival even to this time was looked upon 
as an affliction. 

3. A certain Dynamius, superintendent of the 
emperor's pack-animals,^ had asked Silvanus for 
letters of recommendation to his friends, in order 
to make himself very conspicuous, as if he were one 

a rationibus scrutandis in xxv. 10, 7. Actuatius is an aJjec- 
tive, sc. scriba. 



notissimus. Hoc impetrato, cum illc nihil suspicans 
simpliciter praestitisset, servabat epistulas, ut perni- 
ciosum aliquid in tempore moliretur. 4. Memorato 
itaque duce Gallias ex re publica discursante, bar- 
barosque propellente, iam sibi diffidentes et trepi- 
dantes, idem Dynamius inquietius agens, ut versutus 
et in fallendo exercitatus, fraudem comminiscitur 
impiam, subornatore et conscio, ut iactavere rumores 
incerti, Lampadio praefecto praetorio, et Eusebio 
ex comite rei privatae, cui cognomentum erat in- 
ditum Mattyocopi, atque Aedesio ex magistro 
memoriae, quos ad consulatum ut amicos iunctissi- 
mos idem curarat rogari praefectus ; et peniculo 
serie litterarum abstersa, solaque ^ incolumi relicta 
subscriptione, alter multum a vero illo dissonans 
superscribitur textus : velut Silvano rogante verbis 
obliquis, hortanteque amicos agentes intra palatium, 
vel privatos, inter quos et Tuscus erat Albinus, 
aliique plures, ut se altiora coeptantem, et prope 
diem loci principalis aditum petiturum iuvarent.^ 
5. Hunc fascem ad arbitrium figmenti compositum,^ 
vitam pulsaturum insontis, a Dynamio susceptum 

1 solaque, Traube ; sola., V. ^ aditum petiturum 

iuvarent, Petschenig ; aditurum,, without lac, V. ^ com- 
positum, Val. ; co (lac. of 7 letters) sit, V. 

1 See Introd. pp. xli. f. 

*" Glutton," from Konew, "cut," and /narTta, "deli- 
cacies," " delicate food." 


XV., 5, 3-5, A.D. 355 

of his intimates. On obtaining this request, for 
Silvanus, suspecting nothing, had innocently granted 
it, he kept the letters, intending to work some mis- 
chief at the proper time. 4. So when the above- 
mentioned commander was traversing Gaul in the 
service of the government and driving forth the 
savages, who had now lost their confidence and 
courage, this same Dynamius, being restless in 
action, like the crafty man he was and practised 
in deceit, devised a wicked plot. He had as abettors 
and fellow conspirators, as uncertain rumours de- 
clared, Lampadius, the praetorian prefect, and 
Eusebius, former keeper of the privy purse,^ Avho 
had been nicknamed Mattyocopus,^ and Aedisius, 
late master of the rolls,^ all of whom the said prefect 
had arranged to have called to the consulship as his 
nearest friends. With a sponge he effaced the con- 
tents of the letters, leaving only the signature in- 
tact, and wrote above it another text far different 
from the original, indicating that Silvanus in ob- 
scure terms was asking and urging his assistants 
within the palace or without official position, in- 
cluding both Tuscus Albinus and many more, to 
help him, aiming as he was at a loftier position and 
soon to mount to the imperial throne. 5. This 
packet of letters, thus forged at his pleasure to en- 
danger the life of an innocent man, the prefect 
received from Dynamius, and coming into the 

^ The magister memoriae was a subordinate of the 
magister officiorum, and head of the scrinium meinoriae 
(first estabHshed by Caracalla) consisting of 62 clerks 
and 12 adiutores. They sent out the acta prepared by the 
scrinia epistularum et libellorwn, and kept on record 
answers to petitions. 



praefectus imperatori, avide scrutari haec et similia 
consueto, secrete obtulit ^ soli, ingrcssus intimiim 
conclave in tempore,^ deinde sperans accepturum 
se a principe praemium,^ ut pervigilem salutis cus- 
todem et cautum,^ lectaque consistorio astu callido 
consarcinata materia, tribuni iussi sunt custodiri. 
et de provinciis duci privati, quorum epistulae 
nomina designabant. 6. Confestimque iniquitate 
rei percitus Malarichus, gentilium rector, coUegis 
adhibitis strepebat immaniter, circumveniri homines 
dicatos imperio per factiones et dolos minime debere 
proclamans, petebatque ut ipse relictis obsidum loco 
necessitudinibus suis, Mallobaude armaturarum tri- 
buno spondente quod remeabit, velocius iuberetur 
ire ducturus Silvanum, aggredi nihil tale conatum, 
quale insidiatores acerrimi concitarunt ; vel contra 
se paria promittente, Mallobaudem orabat properare 
permitti, haec quae ipse pollicitus est impleturum. 
7. Testabatur enim id se procul dubio scire, quod siqui 
mitteretur externus, suopte ingenio Silvanus etiam 
nulla re perterrente timidior, composita forte turbabit. 
8. Et quamquam utilia moneret et necessaria, 
ventis tamen loquebatur incassum. Namque Ar- 
betione auctore, Apodemius ad eum vocandum cum 

^ consueto, secrete obtuUt, Haupt. ; censue terreret (second 
r added by V^) e (lac. 8 letters) id V. - conclave in tem- 

pore, Novak ; caperem tempore, V. ^ accepturum . . . 

praemium, added by Novak. * et cautum, added by 

Novak in lac. of about 9 letters. 

1 The emperor's council, or secret cabinet ; see In trod., 
pp. xxix. f. 

- The foreign contingent of the household troops ; see 
note 3, p. 56. 


XV., 5, 5-8, A.D. 355 

emperor's private room at an opportune time and 
finding him alone, secretly handed it to him, accus- 
tomed as he was eagerly to investigate these and 
similar charges. Thereby the prefect hoped that 
he would be rewarded by the emperor, as a most 
watchful and careful guardian of his safety. And 
when these letters, patched together with cunning 
craft, were read to the consistory,^ orders were given 
that those tribunes whose names were mentioned 
in the letters should be imprisoned, and that the 
private individuals should be brought to the capital 
from the provinces. 6. But Malarichus, comman- 
der of the gentiles,^ was at once struck with the 
unfairness of the procedure, and summoning his 
colleagues, vigorously protested, exclaiming that 
men devoted to the empire ought not to be made 
victims of cliques and wiles. And he asked that he 
himself — leaving as hostages his relatives and 
having Mallobaudes, tribune of the heavy-armed 
guard, as surety for his return — might be commis- 
sioned to go quickly and fetch Silvanus, who was 
not entering upon any such attempt as those most 
bitter plotters had trumped up. Or as an alterna- 
tive, he asked that he might make a like promise and 
that Mallobaudes be allowed to hurry there and 
perform what he himself had promised to do. 
7. For he declared that he knew beyond question 
that, if any outsider should be sent, Silvanus, being 
by nature apprehensive, even when there was noth- 
ing alarming, would be likely to start a rebelUon. 

8. But although his advice was expedient and 
necessary, yet he was talking vainly to the winds. 
For by Arbetio's advice Apodemius, an inveterate 



litteris mittitur, inimicus bonorum omnium diutur- 
nus et gravis. Qui incidentia parvi ducens ^ cum 
venisset in Gallias, dissidens a niandatis, quae pro- 
ficiscenti sunt data, nee viso Silvano nee oblatis 
scriptis ut veniret admonito,^ remansit adscitoque 
rationali, quasi proseripti iamque necaudi magistri 
peditum clientes et servos hostili tumore vexabat. 
9. Inter haec tamen dum praesentia Silvani speratur, 
et Apodemius quieta perturbat, Dynamius ut 
argumento validiore impie structorum adsereret 
fidem, compositas litteras his concinentes quas ob- 
tulerat principi per praefectum, ad tribunum miserat 
fabricae Cremonensis, nomine Silvani et Malarichi, 
a quibus ut arcanorum conscius monebatur parare 
propere cuncta. 10 Qui cum haec legisset, haerens 
et ambigens diu quidnam id esset — nee enim me- 
minerat secum aliquando super negotio uUo interiore 
hos quorum litteras acceperat coUocutos — epistulas 
ipsas per baiulum qui portarat, iuncto milite ad 
Malarichum remisit,^ obsecrans ut doceret aperte 
quae vellet, non ita perplexe ; nee enim intellexisse 
firmabat, ut subagrestem et simplicem, quid signifi- 
catum esset obscurius. 11. Haec Malarichus subito 
nanctus, etiam tunc squalens et maestus, suamque 

^ incidentia parvi ducens, Val. ; incidentis, lac. of 27 
letters, V ; lac. of 6 letters, G. ^ adinonito, AG ; ad- 

monuit, EB ; admonit, V. Clark indicates lac. ' remisit. 
Her. ; misit, V. 

^ The rationales were suborduiates of the comes rerum 
privatorum and comites sacrarum largitionurn ; they looked 
after the interests of ihe fisciis in the provinces. 

^ I.e. Silvanus. 


XV., 5, 8-11, A.D. 355 

and bitter enemy of every patriot, was sent with 
a letter to recall Silvanus. He, caring little for 
what might happen, on arriving in Gaul, departed 
from the instructions given him on his setting out 
and remained there without either interviewing 
Silvanus or citing him to come to court by delivering 
the letter ; and associating with himself the fiscal 
agent of the province,^ as if the said infantry com- 
mander ^ were proscribed and at once to be executed he 
abused his dependents and slaves with the arrogance 
of an enemy. 9. In the meantime, however, while 
Silvanus' presence Avas awaited and Apodemius 
was disturbing the peace, Dynamius, in order to 
maintain the credibility of his -vv-icked inventions 
with a stronger argument, had made up a letter 
tallj'ing with the one which he had presented to 
the emperor through the prefect, and sent it to the 
tribune of the Cremona armory, in the name of 
Silvanus and Malarichus ; in this letter the tribune, 
as one privy' to their secret designs, was admonished 
to prepare everything with speed. 10. When the 
tribune had read this, hesitating for a long time and 
puzzling as to what in the world it meant (for he 
did not remember that the men whose letter he had 
received had ever talked with him about any con- 
fidential business), he sent the identical letter back 
to Malarichus by the carrier who had brought it, 
and with him a soldier, begging Malarichus to explain 
openly what he wanted, and not so enigmatically. 
For he declared that, being a somewhat rude and 
plain man, he had not understood what had been 
obscurely intimated. 11. Malarichus, on unex- 
pectedly receiving this, being even then troubled and 



et popularis Silvani vicem graviter ingemiscens, 
adhibitis Francis, quorum ea tempestate in palatio 
multitudo florebat, erectius iam loqucbatur ; turaul- 
tuando patefactis ^ insidiis reserataque - iam fallacia, 
per quam ex confesso salus eorum appetebatur. 
12. Hisque cognitis statuit imperator, dispicientibus 
consistorianis et militaribus universis, in negotium 
perspicaciter inquiri.^ Cumque indices resedissent,^ 
Florentius Nigriniani filius agens tunc pro magistro 
officiorum, contemplans diligentius scripta, apicum- 
que pristinorum quasi quandam umbram ^ rep- 
periens animadvertit (ut factum est) priore textu 
interpolato longe alia quam dictarat SilvanUs, ex 
libidine consarcinatae falsitatis adscripta. 13. 
Proinde fallaciarum nube discussa, imperator doctus 
gesta relatione fideli, abrogata potestate praefectum 
statui sub quaestione praecepit, sed absolutus est 
enixa conspiratione multorum. Suspensus autem 
Eusebius ex comite privatarum, se conscio haec 

^ tumultiiando patefactis, Val. ; tumultna (lac. of 10 
letters) factis, V. ^ reserataque, Kiessling ; refe (lac. 

of 3 letters) que, V. ^ perspicaciter inquiri. Her. ; 

praeter morem inquiri, Traube, Novak ; praeterinquiri, V. 
* resedissent, Novak ; festldissent, V. ^ umhram, added 

by Her. ; V omits. 

1 The magister officiorum was a very important of3ficial, 
to whom many of the former functions of the praetorian 
prefect had been transferred (or shared with the prefect). 
Along witli his many duties was complete charge of the 
discii^liiie of the palace. See Introd... pp. xxxvii. f. 


XV., 5, 11-13, A.D. 355 

sad, and grievously lamenting his own lot and that 
of his fellow-countryman Silvanus, called together 
the Franks, who at that time were numerous and in- 
fluential in the palace, and now spoke more boldly, 
raising an outcry over the disclosure of the plot and 
the unveiling of the deceit by which their lives were 
avowedly aimed at. 12. And on learning this, the 
emperor decided that the matter should be investi- 
gated searchingly through the medium of his council 
and all his officers. And when the judges had 
taken their seats, Florentinus, son of Nigrinianus, at 
the time deputy master of the offices,^ on scrutinizing 
the script with greater care, and finding a kind of 
shadow, as it were, of the former letters,^ perceived 
what had been done, namely, that the earher text 
had been tampered with and other matter added 
quite different from what Silvanus had dictated, in 
accordance with the intention of this patched-up 
forgery. 13. Accordingly, when this cloud of deceit 
had broken away, the emperor, learning of the 
events from a faithful report, deprived the prefect 
of his powers, and gave orders that he should be 
put under examination ; but he was acquitted 
through an energetic conspiracy of many persons. 
Eusebius, however, former count of the privy 
purse,^ on being put upon the rack, admitted that 
this had been set on foot with his cognizance. 

- For the meaning of apices, see Amer. Jour, of Philol., 
xlviii. (1927), pp. 1 ff. The word is wrongly translated 
by Holland, " prickes or accents over the letters," and 
by Yonge, " some vestiges of the tops of former words " ; 
rightly by Ti'oss, " einige Spuren der friiheren Buchstaben." 

* See Introd., pp. xli. f. 



dixerat concitata. 14, Aedesius quid actum sit 
pertinaci infitiatione contendens omnino nescisse,^ 
abiit innoxius, et ita finito negotio, omnes sunt 
absoluti quos exhiberi delatio compulit criminosa. 
Dynamius vero ut praeclaris artibus illustratus, 
cum correctoris dignitate regere iussus est Tuscos 
et Umbros.^ 

15. Agens inter haec apud Agrippinam Silvanus, 
assiduisque suorum comperiens ^ nuntiis, quae Apod- 
emius in labem suarum ageret fortunarum, et sciens 
animum tenerum versabilis principis, timensque ne 
trucidaretur ^ absens et inauditus,^ in difficultate 
positus maxima, barbaricae se fidei committere cogi- 
tabat. 16. Sed Laniogaiso vetante (tunc tribune) 
quern dum militaret candidatus solum adfuisse 
morituro Constanti supra rettulimus, docenteque 
Francos, unde oriebatur, interfecturos eum aut 
accepto praemio prodituros, nihil tutum ex prae- 
sentibus ratus, in consilia agitabatur ^ extrema et 
sensim cum principiorum verticibus erectius ' col- 
locutus, eisdemque magnitudine promissae mercedis 
accensis, cultu purpureo a draconum et vexillorum 

^ omnino nescisse, Traube ; eni7n minus scisse, V. 
2 et Umbros, Seeck added in lac. of 15 letters. * con- 

periens, Clark ; conperiis, V. * timensque ne truci- 

daretur (trucidaretur for perageretur reus, Gronov ; -que added 
by Clark), BG; (lac. of 15 letters) aretur, V. * inauditus, 
Val. ; indamnaius, V. * agitabatur, E, Eyssen. ; 

cogitabatur, V. ' erectius, Traube ; erectus, V. 


XV., 5, 13-16, A.D. 355 

14. Aedesius, who maintained with stout denial that 
he had known nothing of what was done, got off 
scot-free. And so at the close of the business all 
those were acquitted whom the incriminating report 
had forced to be produced for trial ; in fact Dyna- 
mius, as if given distinction by his illustrious conduct, 
was bidden to govern Etruria and Umbria Avdth the 
rank of corrector.^ 

15. Meanwhile Silvanus, stationed at Cologne 
and learning from his friends' constant messages 
what Apodemius was undertaking to the ruin of 
his fortunes, knowing the phant mind of the fickle 
emperor, and fearing lest he should be condemned 
to death absent and unheard, was put in a most 
difficult position and thought of entrusting himself 
to the good faith of the savages. 16. But he was 
prevented by Laniogaisus, at that time a tribune, 
whom I have earlier stated to have been the sole 
witness of Constans' death, while he was serving 
as a subaltern." He assured Silvanus that the 
Franks, whose fellow-countryman he was, would 
kill him or on receipt of a bribe betray him. So 
Silvanus, seeing no safety under present conditions, 
was driven to extreme measures, and having grad- 
ually spoken more boldly with the chief officers, 
he aroused them by the greatness of the reward 
he promised ; then as a temporary expedient he 
tore the purple decorations from the standards of 

1 C'orrectores iii the fourth century were governors of 
smaller provinces, ranking between the highest (consulares) 
and the lowest (praesides). Originally a corrector governed 
the whole of Italy. The title graduaUy died out, being 
replaced by consulares or praesides). See Index II. 

* See Index II, s.v. candidatus. 



insignibus ad tempus abstracto, ad culmen imperiale 

17. Dumque haec aguntur in Galliis, ad occasum 
inclinato iam die, perfertur Mediolanum insperabilis 
nuntius, aperte Silvanum demonstrans, dum ex 
magisterio peditum altius nititur, sollicitato exercitu 
ad augustum culmen evectum. 18. Hac mole casus 
inopini Constantio icto, quasi fulmine fati, primates, 
consilio secunda vigilia convocato, properarunt 
omnes in regiam. Cumque nulli ad eligendum quid 
agi deberet, mens suppetere posset aut lingua, sub- 
missis verbis perstringebatur Ursicini ^ mentio, ut 
consiliis rei bellicae praestantissimi, frustraque 
gravi iniuria lacessiti, et per admissionum magis- 
trum — qui mos est honoratior — accito eodem, in- 
gresso consistorium ofFertur purpura multo quam 
antea placidius. Diocletianus enim Augustus ^ om- 
nium primus, externo et regio more ^ instituit adorari, 
cum semper antea ad similitudinem iudicum salu- 
tatos principes legerimus. 19. Et qui paulo antea 
cum insectatione malivola, orientis vorago, inva- 
dendaeque * summae rei per filios afFectator compel- 
labatur, tunc dux prudentissimus, et Constautini ^ 

^ Ursicini, Val. ; sic inimentio, V. ^ Diocletiami^ 

Augustus added by Val. (enim by Gardt.) in lac. of 16 letters. 
* extero [externo, Traube, Novak, Her., cf. Livy, xxix. 19, 4) 
ritu et regio more, G ; extortio ei regio re, V. * vorago 

inuadendaeque, G ; uoragi (lac. of 8 letters) uadendaeque, 
V. * Constanta, suggested by Clark, Her. ; Con- 

stantini, V. 

^ The magister admissionum was a subordinate of the 
magister officiorum ; imperial audiences were obtained 


XV., 5, 16-19, .\.D. 355 

the cohorts and the companies, and so mounted to 
the imperial dignity. 

17. And while this was going on in Gaul, as the 
day was already drawing to its close, an unexpected 
messenger reached Milan, openly declaring that 
Silvanus, aiming higher than the command of the 
infantry, had won over his army and risen to im- 
perial eminence. 18. Constantius, struck down by 
the weight of this unexpected mischance as by 
a thunderbolt of Fate, called a council at about 
midnight, and all the chief officials hastened to the 
palace. And when no one's mind or tongue was 
equal to showing what ought to be done, mention 
in subdued tones was made of Ursicinus, as a man 
conspicuous for his sagacity in the art of war, and 
one who had been without reason provoked by serious 
injustice. And when he had been summoned by 
the master of ceremonies ^ (which is the more 
honourable way) and had entered the council 
chamber, he was offered the purple to kiss much 
more graciously than ever before. Now it was the< 
emperor Diocletian who was the first to introduce 
this foreign and royal form of adoration, whereas 
we have read that always before our emperors 
were saluted like the higher officials.^ 19. So the 
man who shortly before with malicious slander was 
called the maelstrom of the East and a seeker after 
acquisition of imperial power through his sons, 
then became a most politic leader and mighty fellow- 
soldier of Constantine's, and the only person to 

through the latter, and the actual entrance into the 

audience chamber was under the direction of the former. 

- For this meaning of indices, see Index of Officials, s.v. 



magnus erat commilito, solusque ad extinguendum, 
probis quidem sed insidiosis rationibus petebatur. 
Diligens enim opera navabatur, exstingui Silvanum, 
ut fortissimum perduellem, aut (si secus accidisset) 
Ursicinum exulceratum iam penitus aboleri, ne 
superesset scopulus ^ impendio formidandus. 20. 
Igitur cum de profectione celeranda disponeretur, 
propulsationem obiectorum criminiim eundem du- 
cem parantem praegressus, oratione leni prohibet 
imperator, non id esse memorans tempus, ut con- 
troversa defensio causae susciperetur, cum vicissim 
restitui in pristinam concordiam partes necessitas 
subigeret lurgentium rerum, antequam cresceret 
mollienda. 21. Habita igitur deliberatione multi- 
plici, id ^ potissimum tractabatur, quo commento 
Silvanus gesta etiam turn imperatorem ignorare 
existimaret. Et ^ probabili argumento ad ** firman- 
dam fidem reperto monetur honorificis scriptis, ut 
accepto Tjrsicino successore cum potestate rediret 
Intacta. 22. Post haec ita digesta protinus iubetur 
exire, tribunis et protectoribus domesticis decern, 
ut postularat, ad iuvandas necessitates publicas 
ei coniunctis, inter quos ego quoque eram cum 
Veriniano coUega, residui omnes propinqui et 

1 scopulus. Her., cf. Florus, iv. 9, 1 ; scrupuius, EBG ; 
scropulus, V. ^ id, added by Gardt. ; V omits. * et, 

added by Val. ; V omits. * ad, E-C; ; V omits. 


XV., 5, 19-22, A.D. 355 

extinguish the fire ; but he was really being attacked 
under motives honourable, to be sure, but yet insidi- 
ous. For great care was being ta^en that Silvanus 
should be destroyed as a very strong rebel ; or, 
if that should fail, that Ursicinus, already deeply 
gangrened, should be utterly annihilated, in order 
that a rock ^ so greatly to be dreaded should not be 
left. 20. Accordingly, when arrangements were being 
made for hastening his departure, and the general 
undertook the refutation of the charges brought 
against him, the emperor, forestalling him by a 
mild address, forbade it, declaring that it was not 
the time for taking up the defence of a disputed 
case, when the urgency of pressing affairs which 
should be mitigated before it grew worse, demanded 
that parties should mutually be restored to their 
old-time harmony. 21. Accordingly, after a many- 
sided debate, this point was chiefly discussed, 
namely, by what device Silvanus might be led to 
think that the emperor even then had no knowledge 
of his action. And they invented a plausible 
means of strengthening his confidence, advising 
him in a comphmentary letter to receive Ursicinus 
as his successor and return with his dignities un- 
impaired. 22. After this had been thus settled, 
Ursicinus was ordered to set forth at once, accom- 
panied (as he had requested) by some tribunes and 
ten of the body-guard, to assist the exigencies of 
the state. Among these I myself was one, with 
my colleague Verinianus ; all the rest were relatives 

1 Cf. Florus, ii. 19, 1 ; cum scopulus et nodus et mora 
publicae securitatis superesset Antovius, "a rock in his 
path" (L.C.L., p. 316). 



familiares.^ 23. lamque eum egressum solum de 
se metuens quisque per longa spatia deducebat. 
Et quamquam ut bestiarii obiceremur intracta- 
bilibus feris, perpendentes tamen hoc bonum habere 
tristia accidentia,^ quod in locum suum ^ secunda 
substituuut,'* mirabamur illam sententiam TulUanam, 
ex internis veritatis ipsius promulgatam, quae est 
talis : " Et quamquam optatissimum est perpetuo 
fortunam quam florentissimam permanere, ilia 
tamen aequalitas \atae non tantum habet sensum, 
quantum cum ex miseris ^ et perditis rebus ad meli- 
orem statum fortuna revocatur." 

24. Festinamus itaque itineribus magnis, ut am- 
bitiosus magister armorum, ante allapsum per 
Italicos de tyrannide ullum rumorem, in suspectis 
finibus appareret, verum cursim nos properantes 
aeria quadam via ® antevolans prodiderat fama, 
et Agrippinam ingressi, invenimus cuncta nostris 
conatibus altiora. 25. Namque convena undique 
multitudine trepide coepta fundante, coactisquo 
copiis multis, pro statu rei praesentis id aptius 
videbatur, ut ad imperatoris novelli, per ludib- 
riosa auspicia virium accessu firmandi sensum ac 
voluntatem dux flexibilis ' verteretur ; quo variis 

^ omnes propinqui et fainiliares. iamque, BG ; omni 
(lac. of 21 letters) lamque, V. ^tristia, EAG ; acci- 

dentia, Clark ; haberet tristitia recidentia, V. * locum 

suum. Her. ; locos (from locis) sunt, V^. ■• V has 

lac. of 10 lines at end of page ; no lac, BG. * miseris, 

Kiessling ; seris, V. * aeria quadam uia, Novak ; 

aeria uia,- Clark, cf. xviii. 6, 3 ; aeraria quadam, V. 
''flexibilis, Bentley ; flexilis. Pet. ; flebilis, V. 


XV., 5, 22-25, A.i>. 355 

and friends. 23. And when he left, each of us 
attended him for a long distance in fear only for 
our own safety. But although we were, like gladi- 
ators,^ cast before ravening wild beasts, yet re- 
flecting that melancholy events after all have this 
good sequel, that they give way to good fortune, 
we admired that saying of Tully's, delivered even 
from the inmost depths of truth itself, Avhich runs 
as follows : " And although it is most desirable that 
our fortune always remain wholly favourable, yet 
that evenness of life does not give so great a sense 
of satisfaction as when, after Avretchedness and 
disaster, fortune is recalled to a better estate." ^ 

24. Accordingly, we hastened by forced marches, 
since the commander of the forces, in his zeal, 
wished to appear in the suspected districts before 
any rumour of the usurpation had made its way into 
Italy. But for all our running haste, rumour had 
flown before us by her aerial path and revealed our 
coming ; and on arriving at Cologne Me found 
everything above our reach. 25. For since a great 
crowd assembled from all sides gave a firm founda- 
tion to the enterprise so timidly begun, and large 
forces had been mustered, it seemed, in view of 
the state of affairs, more fitting that our general ^ 
should complaisantly favour the upstart * emperor's 
purpose and desire to be strengthened in the growth 
of his power by deceptive omens ; to the end that 
by means of manifold devices of flattery his feeling 

^ The bestiarii were matched against wild beasts. 
* This passage does not occur in Cicero's extant works. 
A similar one appears in Ad Quir. post Reditum, i. 2. 
^ Ursicinus. 
*Novelli is contemptuous; of. xxvi. 6, 15. 



assentandi figmentis in mollius vergente securitate, 
nihil metuens hostile deciperetur. 26. Cuius rei finis 
arduus \-idebatur : erat enim cautius observandum. 
ut appetitus opportunitati obtemperarent, nee prae- 
eurrentes earn nee deserentes. Qui si eluxissent 
intempestive, constabat nos omnes sub elogio uno 
morte multandos. 

27. Susceptus tamen idem dux leniter adactusque, 
inclinante negotio ipso cervices, adorare soUemniter 
anhelantem Celsius purpuratum. ut spectabilis 
colebatur et intimus : facilitate aditus honoreque 
mensae regalis adeo antepositus aliis. ut iam secre- 
tius de rerum summa consultaretur. 28. Aegre 
ferebat Silvanus ad ^ consulatum potestatesque 
sublimes elatis indignis, se et ^ Ursicinum solos post 
exsudatos maguos pro re publica labores et crebros, 
ita fuisse despectos, ut ipse quidem per quaestiones 
familiarium sub disceptatione ignobili crudeliter 
agitatus, commisisse in maiestatem arcesseretur, 
alter vero ab oriente raptus odiis inimicorum addice- 
retur : et haec assidue clam querebatur et palam. 
29. Terrebant nos tamen. cum dicerentur haec et 
similia, circumfrementia undique murmura causan- 
tis inopiam mUitis, et rapida celeritate ardentis 
angustias Alpium perrumpere Cottiarum. 

30. In hoc aestu mentis ancipiti, ad eflfectum 
tendens consilium occulta scrutabamus indagine, 

1 ad, W^BG ; V omits. - et, W-BG : V omits. 

1 In order to march to Italy against Constantius himself. 

XV., 5, 25-30, A.D. 355 

of security might become more assured, and he 
might be caught off his guard against anything 
hostile. 26. But the issue of this project seemed diffi- 
cult ; for special care had to be observed that the 
onsets should take advantage of the right moment, 
neither anticipating it nor falling short of it. Since 
if they should break out prematurely, we were all 
sure to suffer death under a single sentence. 

27. However, our general, being kindly received 
and forcing himself — since our very commission bent 
our necks — formally to reverence the high-aiming 
wearer of the purple, was welcomed as a distin- 
guished and intimate friend. In freedom of access 
and honourable place at the royal table he was so 
preferred to others that he came to be confidentially 
consulted about the most important affairs. 28. Sil- 
vanus took it ill that while unworthy men were raised 
to the consulship and to high positions, he and Ursi- 
cinus alone, after having toded through such heavy 
and repeated tasks for the government, had been so 
scorned that he himself had been cruelly harrassed 
in an unworthy controversy through the examination 
of friends of his, and summoned to trial for treason, 
while Ursicinus, haled back from the East, was 
delivered over to the hatred of his enemies ; and 
these continual complaints he made both covertly 
and openly. 29. We however were alarmed, in 
spite of these and similar speeches, at the uproarious 
complaints of the soldiers on every hand, pleading 
their destitution and eager to burst through the 
passes of the Cottian Alps ^ with all speed. 

30. Amid this perplexing distress of spirit we kept 
casting about in secret investigation for some plan 



sederatque tandem mutatis prae timore saepe senten- 
tiis, ut quaesitis magna industria cautis rei ministris, 
obstricto religionum consecratione colloquio, Brac- 
chiati sollicitarentur atque Cornuti, fluxioris fidei 
et ^ ubertate mercedis ad momentum omne versabiles. 
31. Firmato itaque negotio per sequestres quosdam 
gregarios, obscuritate ipsa ad id patrandum idoneos, 
praemiorum exspectatione accensus solis ortu iam 
rutilo, subitus armatorum globus erupit, atque ut 
solet in dubiis rebus, audentior caesis custodibus, 
regia penetrata, Silvanum ^ extractum aedicula, 
quo exanimatus confugerat, ad conventiculum ritus 
Christiani tendentem, densis gladiorum ictibus 

32. Ita dux haut exsilium meritorum hoc genere 
oppetit mortis, metu calumniarum, quibus factione 
iniquorum irretitus est absens, ut tueri possit 
salutem, ad praesidia progressus extrema. 33. 
Licet enim ob tempestivam illam cum armaturis 
proditionem ante Mursense proelium obligatum 
gratia retineret Constantium, ut dubium tamen et 
mutabilem verebatur, licet patris quoque Boniti 
praetenderet fortia facta, Franci quidem sed pro 
Constantini partibus in bello civili acriter contra 
Licinianos saepe versati. 34. Evenerat autem 

^ fidei et, G in lac. of 22 letters ; two letters are erased 
at the end. ^ Siluanum, W-G ; signorum, Mommsen 

{signiorium. B) ; signarum, V. 

^ Against Magnentius ; see note 2, p. 3. 


XV., 5, 30-34, A.D. 355 

likely to have results ; and in the end, after often 
changing our minds through fear, we resolved to 
search with the greatest pains for discreet representa- 
tives, to bind our communication with solemn oaths, 
and try to win over the Bracchiati and Cornuti, 
troops wavering in their allegiance and ready to 
change sides at any moment for an ample bribe. 31. 
Accordingly, the matter was arranged through some 
common soldiers as go-betweens, men who through 
their very inconspicuousness were suited to accom- 
plish it ; and just as sunrise was reddening the sky, 
a sudden group of armed men, fired by the expec- 
tation of rewards, burst forth ; and as usually 
happens in critical moments, made bolder by slay- 
ing the sentinels, they forced their way into the 
palace, dragged Silvanus from a chapel where he had 
in breathless fear taken refuge, while on his way to 
the celebration of a Christian service, and butchered 
him with repeated sword-thrusts. 

32. So fell by this manner of death a general of 
no slight merits, who through fear due to the slanders 
in which he was ensnared during his absence by 
a clique of his enemies, in order to save his life had 
resorted to the uttermost measures of defence. 
33. For although he held Constantius under obhga- 
tion through gratitude for that timely act of coming 
over to his side with his soldiers before the battle 
of Mursa,^ yet he feared him as variable and uncer- 
tain, although he could point also to the valiant 
deeds of his father Bonitus, a Frank it is true, but 
one who in the civil war often fought vigorously 
on the side of Constantine against the soldiers of 
Licinius. 34. Now it had happened that before 



ut,^ antequam huius modi aliquid agitaretur in 
Galliis, Romae in Circo maximo populus, incertum 
relatione ^ quadam percitus an praesagio, " Silvanus 
devictus est " magnis vocibus exclamaret. 

35. Igitur Silvano Agrippinae (ut relatum est) 
interfecto, inaestimabili gaudio re cognita princeps, 
insolentia coalitus et tumore, hoc quoque felici- 
tatis suae prosperis cursibus assignabat, eo more 
quo semper oderat fortiter facientes, ut quon- 
dam Domitianus, superare taraen quacumque arte 
contraria cupiebat. 36. Tantumque afuit laudare 
industrie gesta, ut etiam quaedam scriberet de Galli- 
canis intercepta thesauris, quos nemo attigerat. 
Idque scrutari iusserat artius interrogate Remigio, 
etiam tum rationario apparitionis armorum magistri, 
cui multo postea Valentianiani temporibus laqueus 
vitam in causa Tripolitanae legationis eripuit. 
37. Post quae ita completa, Constantius ut iam caelo 
contiguus, casibusque imperaturus humanis, magni- 
loquentia sufflabatur adulatorum, quos augebat 
ipse spernendo proiciendoque id genus parum cal- 
lentes, ut Croesum legimus ideo regno suo Solonem ^ 
expulisse praecipitem, quia blandiri nesciebat ; et 
Dionysium intentasse poetae Philoxeno mortem, 
cum eum recitantem proprios versus absurdos et 

^ ut antequam, Traube, Clark (ut before Siluanus, BG ; 
before Romae, Val.) ; tantae quam, V. ^relatione, 

Bentley ; ratione, V. 

^ Cf. Gellius, XV. 18, for a similar prophecy. 

^ Cf. xxviii. 6, 8 and xxx. 2, 10. 

3 Cf. Herodotus, i. 33. 

* Cf. Diod. Sic. XV. 6, and see Index. 


XV., 5, 34-37, A.D. 355 

anything of the kind was set on foot in Gaul, the 
people at Rome in the Great Circus (whether ex- 
cited by some story or by some presentiment is 
imcertain) cried out with a loud voice : " Silvanus 
is vanquished." ^ 

35. Accordingly, when Silvanus had been slain 
at Cologne, as has been related, the emperor learned 
of it mth inconceivable joy, and swollen with 
vanity and pride, ascribed this also to the pros- 
perous course of his own good fortune, in accordance 
with the way in which he always hated brave and 
energetic men, as Domitian did in times gone by, 
yet tried to overcome them by every possible 
scheme of opposition. 36. And so far was he from 
praising conscientious service, that he actually wrote 
that Ursicinus had embezzled funds from the Gallic 
treasury, which no one had touched. And he had 
ordered the matter to be closely examined, question- 
ing Remigius, who at that time was already auditor 
of the general's office of infantry supplies, and whose 
fate it was, long afterwards, in the days of \alen- 
tinian, to take his life with the halter because of the 
afi'air of the embassy to Tripoh.^ 37. After this turn 
of affairs, Constantius, as one that now touched the 
skies with his head and would control all human 
chances, was puffed up by the grandiloquence of 
his flatterers, whose number he himself increased 
by scorning and rejecting those who were not adepts 
in that line ; as we read of Croesus,^ that he drove 
Solon headlong out of his kingdom for the reason 
that he did not know how to flatter ; and of Dio- 
nysius, that he threatened the poet PhUoxenus * with 
death, because when the tyrant was reading aloud 



inconcinnos, laudantibus cunctis, solus audiret 
immobilis. 38. Quae res perniciosa vitiorum est 
altrix. Ea demum enim laus grata esse potestati 
debet excelsae, cum interdum et vituperationi secus 
gestorum pateat locus. 

6. Silvani amici et conscii necati. 

1. lamque post securitatem quaestiones agitaban- 
tur ex more, et vinculis catenisque plures ut noxii 
plectebantur. Exsurgebat enim effervens laetitia 
Paulus, tartareus ille delator, ad venenatas artes 
suas licentius exercendas, et inquirentibus in nego- 
tium consistorianis atque militaribus (ut praeceptum 
est) Proculus admovetur eculeo, Silvani domesticus, 
homo gracilis et morbosus, metuentibus cunctis, 
ne ui nimia tormentorum, levi corpore fatigato, 
reos atrocium criminum proniiscue citari faceret 
multos. Verum contra quam speratum est con- 
tigit. 2. Memor enim somnii quo vetitus erat per 
quietem (ut ipse firmavit) pulsare quendam insontem, 
usque ad confinia mortis vexatus, nee nominavit 
nee prodidit aliquem, sed asserebat factum Silvani 
constanter, id eum cogitasse quod iniit, non cupidi- 
tate sed necessitate compulsum, argumento evidenti 
demonstrans. 3. Causam enim probabilem ponebat 
in medio, multorum testimoniis claram, quod die 
quinto antequam infulas susciperet principatus, 

XV., 5, 37-38—6, 1-3, a.d. 355 

his own silly and unrythmical verses, and every one 
else applauded, the poet alone listened unmoved. 
38. But this fault is a pernicious nurse of vices. 
For praise ought to be acceptable in high places 
only when opportunity is also sometimes given for 
reproach of things ill done. 

6. The friends and accomplices of Silvanus are put to 

1. And now after this relief the usual trials were 
set on foot, and many men were punished with 
bonds and chains, as malefactors. For up rose that 
diabolical informer Paulus, bubbling over with joy, 
to begin practising his venomous arts more freely ; 
and when the councillors and officers (as was ordered) 
inquired into the matter, Proculus, Silvanus' adju- 
tant, was put upon the rack. Since he was a puny 
and sickly man, every one feared that his slight 
frame would yield to excessive torture, and that 
he would cause many persons of all conditions to 
be accused of heinous crimes. But the result was 
not at all what was expected. 2. For mindful of 
a dream, in which he was forbidden while asleep, as 
he himself declared, to strike a certain innocent 
person, although tortured to the very brink of death, 
he neither named nor impeached anyone, but stead- 
fastly defended the action of Silvanus, pro\dng by 
credible evidence that he had attempted his enter- 
prise, not driven on from ambition, but compelled by 
necessity. 3. For he brought forward a convincing 
reason, made clear by the testimony of many persons, 
namely, that four days before Silvanus assumed 



donatum stipendio militem Constanti nomine al- 
locutus est, fortis esset et fidus. Unde apparebat 
quod si praesumere fortunae supcrioris insignia 
conaretur, auri tarn grave pondus largiretur ^ ut 
suum. 4. Post hunc damnatorum sorte Poemenius 
raptus ad supplicium interiit, qui (ut supra rettuli- 
mus) cum Treveii oivitatem Caesari clausissent 
Decentio, ad defendendam plebem electus est. 
Turn Asclepiodotus et Lutto et Maudio comites 
interempti sunt, aliique plures, haec et similia per- 
plexe temporis obstinatione scrutante. 

7. Ab Leontio pracfecto urbi populi R. seditiones 
repressae. Liberius episcopus sede pulsus. 

1. Dum has exitiorum communium clades sus- 
citat turbo feralis, urbem aeternam Leontius regens, 
multa spectati iudicis documenta praebebat, in 
audiendo celerior ^ in disceptando iustissimus, natura 
benevolus, hcet auctoritatis causa servandae acer 
quibusdam videbatur, et inclinatior ad damnaudum.'^ 
2. Prima igitur causa '* seditionis in eum concitandae 
vilissima fuit et levis. Philoromum enim aurigam 
rapi praeceptum, secuta plebs omnis, velut defen- 
sura proprium pignus, terribili impetu praefectum 

1 largiretur, Boxhorn, Val. ; giretur, V. ^ celerior, or 

celerrimus, Clark, c.c. ; celeri, V. " damnandum, 

Bentley, Erfirrdt ; amandum, V. * causa, viilgo ; ars, 

BG ; aut, V. 

1 These were improvised for the occasion; see 5, 16, at 
the end. 

- In one of the lost books. 


XV., 6, 3-4—7, 1-2, A.D. 355-6 

the badges ^ of empire, he paid the soldiers and in 
Constantius' name exhorted them to be brave and 
loyal. From which it was clear that if he were 
planning to appropriate the insignia of a higher 
rank, he would have bestowed so great a quantity 
of gold as his own gift. 4. After him Poemenius was 
condemned as a malefactor, haled to execution and 
perished ; he was the man (as we have told above) ^ 
who was chosen to protect his fellow-citizens when 
Treves closed its gates against Decentius Caesar.^ 
Then the counts Asclepiodotus, Lutto and Maudio 
were put to death, and many others, since the 
obduracy of the times made an intricate investiga- 
tion into these and similar charges. 

7. Riots of the Roman people are suppressed by 
Leontius, prefect of the City. The Bishop 
Liberius is deposed. 

1. While the dire confusion was causing these 
calamities of general destruction, Leontius, governor 
of the Eternal City, gave many proofs of being an 
excellent judge ; for he was prompt in hearing 
cases, most just in his decisions, by nature kindly, 
although for the sake of maintaining his author- 
ity he seemed to some to be severe and too apt to 
condemn. 2. Now the first device for stirring up 
rebellion against him was very slight and trivial. 
For when the arrest of the charioteer Philoromus 
was ordered, all the commons followed, as if to de- 
fend their own darling, and with a formidable 

' Decentius had been given the rank of Caesar by his 
brother Magnentius. 



incessebat ut timidum, sed ille stabilis et erectus, 
immissis apparitoribus, correptos aliquos vexatosque 
tornientis, nee strepente ullo nee obsistente, insulari 
poena multavit. 3. Diebusque paucis seeutis eum 
itidem plebs exeita ealore quo consuevit, vini caus- 
ando inopiam, ad Septemzodiuni convenisset, cele- 
breni locum, ubi operis ambitiosi Nymphaeum 
Marcus condidit imperator, illue de industria pergens 
praefectus, ab omni toga apparitioneque rogabatur 
enixius, ne in multitudinem se arrogantem immit- 
teret et minacem, ex commotione pristina saevien- 
tem ; difficilis ad pavorem, recta tetendit, adeo ut 
eum obsequentium pars ^ desereret, licet in peri- 
culum festinantem abruptum. 4. Insidens itaque 
vehiculo, cum speciosa fiducia contuebatur acribus 
oculis tumultuantium undique cuneorum, veluti 
serpentium vultus, perpessusque multa dici pro- 
brosa, agnitum quendam inter alios eminentem 
vasti corporis rutilique capilli, interrogavit, an ipse 
esset Petrus Valuomeres (ut audierat) cognomento ; 
eumque cum esse sonu respondisset obiurgatorio, ut 
seditiosorum antesignanum olim sibi compertum, 
reclamantibus multis, post ^ terga manibus vinctis, 
suspendi praecepit. 5. Quo viso sublimi, tribulium- 
que adiumentum nequicquam implorante, vulgus 

^ obsequentium pars, G ; obsequens praefecturae apparitio, 
Seeck ; obsequen (lac. of 12 letters), V. ^ pos, V. 

1 Probably the well-known building of Severus at the 
south-eastern corner of the Palatine, named from the 
seven planets ; see Suet., L.C.L. ii. p. 321. 

- Referring to the Septizodium, which was the work of 
Septimius Severus. See Index. 


XV., 7, 2-5, A.D. 355 

onslaught set upon the governor, thinking him to be 
timid. But he, firm and resolute, sent his officers 
among them — seized some and put them to the tor- 
ture, and then without anyone protesting or opposing 
him he punished them with exile to the islands. 

3. And a few days later the people again, excited 
with their usual passion, and alleging a scarcity of 
wine, assembled at the Septemzodium,^ a much fre- 
quented spot, where the emperor Marcus Aurelius 
erected a Nymphaeum ^ of pretentious style. Thither 
the governor resolutely proceeded, although earnestly 
entreated by all his legal and official suite not to 
trust himself to the self-confident and threatening 
throng, which was still angry from the former dis- 
turbance ; but he, hard to frighten, kept straight 
on, so that a part of his following deserted him, 
though he was hastening into imminent danger. 

4. Then, seated in his carriage, with every appear- 
ance of confidence he scanned with keen eyes the 
faces of the crowds raging on all sides of him like 
so many serpents, and allowed many insults to be 
hurled at him ; but recognising one fellow con- 
spicuous among the rest, of huge stature and red- 
headed, he asked him if he were not Peter, surnamed 
Valuomeres, as he had heard. And when the man 
had rephed in insolent tones that he was none 
other, the governor, who had known him of old as 
the ringleader of the malcontents, in spite of the 
outcries of many, gave orders to bind his hands 
behind him and hang him up.^ 5. On seeing him 
aloft, vainly begging for the aid of his fellows, the 

^To be flogged. 



omne paulo ante conf'erlum, prr varia urbis ineinbra 
diffusum, ita cvanuit ixt turharuiii acerrimus con- 
citor, tamquam in iiuliciali secreto exaratis lateribus, 
ad Picenum eiceretur, ubi postea ausus eripere 
virginis non obscurae pudorem, Patruini consularis 
sententia supplicio est ^ capitali addictus. 

6. Hoc administrante Leontio, Liberius Chris- 
tianae legis antistes, a Constantio ad comitatum 
mitti praeceptus est, tamquam imperatoriis iussis 
et plurimorum sui consortium decretis obsistens, 
in re quam brevi textu percurram. 7. Athanasium 
episcopum eo tempore apud Alexandriam, ultra 
professionem altius se efferentem, scitarique cona- 
tum externa, ut prodidere rumores assidui, coetus 
in unum quaesitus eiusdem legis cultorum ^ (synodus 
ut appellant) removit a Sacramento quod optinebat. 
8. Dicebatur enim fatidicarum sortium fidem, 
quaeve augurales portenderent alites, scientissime 
callens, aliquotiens praedixisse futura ; super his 
intendebantur ei alia quoque, a proposito legis 
abhorrentia cui praesidebat. 9. Hunc per sub- 
scriptionem abicere sede sacerdotali, paria sentiens 
ceteris, iubente principe Liberius monitus, persever- 
anter renitebatur, nee visum hominem nee auditum 
damnare nefas ultimum saepe exclamans, aperte 

^ est, W-, viilgo ; periit, Eyssen. ; oppetit, Her. ; ei id, 
V. 2 legis cultorum, Kiessling ; loci mtdtorum, V. 

1 At Mediolanum, where Constantius then was. 

XV., 7, 5-9, A.D. 355 

\vholr mob, until then crowdefl together, scattered 
through the various arteries of the city and vanished 
so completely that this most doughty promoter of 
riots had his sides well flogged, as if in a secret 
dungeon, and was banished to Picenum. There 
later he had the hardihood to off"er violence to a 
maiden of good family, and, under sentence of the 
governor Patruiuus, suffered capital punishment. 

6. During the administration of this Leontius, 
a priest of the Christian religion, Liberius by name, 
by order of Constantius ^ was brought before the 
privy council on the charge of opposing the emperor's 
commands and the decrees of the majority of his 
colleagues in an aff'air which I shall run over briefly. 
7. Athanasius, at that time bishop of Alexandria, 
was a man who exalted himself above his calling 
and tried to pry into matters outside his province, 
as persistent rumours revealed ; therefore an 
assembly which had been convoked of members of 
that same sect — a synod, as they call it — deposed 
him from the rank that he held. 8. For it was 
reported that, being highly skilled in the interpreta- 
tion of prophetic lots or of the omens indicated by 
birds, he had sometimes foretold future events ; 
and besides this he was also charged with other 
practices repugnant to the purposes of the religion 
over which he presided. 9. Liberius, when directed 
by the emperor's order to depose him from his 
priestly position by an official decree, although 
holding the same opinion as the rest strenuously 
objected, crying out that it was the height of in- 
justice to condemn a man unseen and unheard, 
thus, of course, openly defying the emperor's will. 



scilicet recalcitrans imperatoris arbitrio. 10. Id 
enim ille Athanasio semper inl'estus, licet sciret 
impletum, tamen aiictoritate quoque potiore aeter- 
nae urbis episcopi firmari desiderio nitebatur ardenti ; 
quo non impetrato, Liberius aegre populi metu, qui 
eius amore flagrabat, cum magna difficultate noctis 
medio potuit asportari. 

8. Julianus, Galli frater, a Constantio Aug. fratre 
patrueli Caesar creatur, ac praejicitur Galliae. 

1. Et haec quidem Romae (ut ostendit textus 
superior) agebantur. Constantium vero exagitabant 
assidui nuntii,^ deploratas iam Gallias indicantes, 
nuUo renitente ad internecionem barbaris vastanti- 
bus universa ; aestuansque diu qua vi propulsaret 
aerumnas, ipse in Italia residens, ut cupiebat — 
periculosum enim existimabat se in partem contru- 
dere longe dimotam — repperit tandem consilium 
rectum, et lulianum patruelem fratrem haut ita 
dudum ab Achaico tractu accitum, etiam turn 
palliatum, in societatem imperii adsciscere cogitabat. 
2. Id ubi, urgente malorum impendentium mole, 
confessus est proximis, succumbere tot necessitatibus 
tamque crebris unum se (quod numquam fecerat) 
aperte demonstrans, illi in assentationem nimiam 

^ nuntii, added by W-N^BG ; rumores, Traube ; V 

' One of the earliest indications of the growing import- 
ance of the Roman bishops. 

- Cf. Zosimus, iii. 1 ff. 

^ The pallium was the characteristic Greek cloak, 
worn among otlicrs bj' students. 


XV., 7, 10—8, 1-2, A.D. 355 

10. For although Coustantius, who was always 
hostile to Athanasius, knew that the matter had been 
carried out, yet he strove with eager desire to have it 
ratified also by the higher power of the bishop of 
the Eternal City ; ^ and since he could not obtain 
this, Liberius was spirited away, but only with the 
greatest difficulty and in the middle of the night, 
for fear of the populace, who were devotedly attached 
to him. 

8. Julian, brother of Gallus, is appointed Caesar by 
his cousin Coustantius, and given command over 

1. This, then, was the situation at Rome, as the 
preceding text has shown. But Coustantius was 
disquieted by frequent messages reporting that 
Gaul was in desperate case, since the savages were 
ruinously devastating everything without opposition. 
And after worrying for a long time how he might 
forcibly avert these disasters, while himself re- 
maining in Italy as he desired — for he thought it 
risky to thrust himself into a far-distant region — 
he at length hit upon the right plan and thought 
of associating with himself in a share of the empire 
his cousin Julian,^ who not so very long before had 
been summoned from the district of Achaia and 
still wore his student's cloak.^ 

2. When Coustantius, driven by the weight of 
impending calamities, admitted his purpose to his 
intimates, openly declaring (what he had never 
done before) that in his lone state he was giving way 
before so many and such frequent crises, they, 



eruditi, infatuabant hominem,^ nihil esse ita asperum 
dictitantes, quod praepotens eius virtus, fortunaque 
tam vicina sideribus, non superaret ex more. Adde- 
bantque noxarum conscientia stimulante complures, 
deinceps caveri debere Caesaris nomen, replicantes 
gesta sub Gallo. 3. Quis annitentibus obstinate 
opponebat se sola regina, incertum migrationem ad 
longinqua pertimescens, an pro nativa prudentia 
consulens in commune, omnibusque memorans 
anteponi debere propinquum. Post multa itaque ^ 
per deliberationes ambiguas actitata, stetit fixa 
sententia, abiectisque disputationibus irritis, ad 
imperium placuit lulianum assumere. 4. Et cum 
venisset accitus, praedicto die advocato omni quod 
aderat commilitio, tribunali ad altiorem suggestum 
erecto, quod aquilae circumdederunt et signa, 
Augustus insistens ^ eumque manu retinens dextera, 
haec sermone placido peroravit : 

5, " Adsistimus apud vos — optimi rei publicae 
defensores — causae communi uno paene omnium 
spiritu vindicandae, quam acturus tamquam apud 
aequos indices succinctius edocebo. 6. Post interi- 
tum rebellium tyrannorum, quos ad haec temptanda 
quae moverunt, rabies egit et furor, velut impiis 
eorum manibus Romano sanguine parentantes, 
persultant barbari Gallias, rupta limitum pace ; 

^ infatuabmit hominem, V ; infatuabant imperaiorem, 
spirantem iarn ultra hominem. Her. ^ multa itaque, 

Novak ; tnultaque, V. ^ insistens, Val., Haupt. ; 

inscendens, G ; insiginens, V. 

^ I.e. their offences against Julian, which made them 
fear his rise to greater power. 


XV., 8, 2-6, A.D. 355 

being trained to excessive flattery, tried to cajole 
him, constantly repeating that there was nothing 
so difficult that his surpassing ability and a good 
fortune so nearly celestial could not overcome as 
usual. And several, since the consciousness of 
their off'ences ^ pricked them on, added that the title 
of Caesar ought henceforth to be avoided, rehearsing 
what had happened under Gallus. 3. To them in 
their obstinate resistance the queen alone opposed 
herself, whether she dreaded journeying to a far 
country or with her native intelligence took counsel 
for the common good, and she declared that a kins- 
man ought to be preferred to every one else. So, 
after much bandying the matter to and fro in fruit- 
less deliberations, the emperor's resolution stood firm, 
and setting aside all bootless discussion, he decided to 
admit Julian to a share in the imperial power. 4. So 
when he had been summoned and had arrived, on 
an appointed day all his fellow-soldiers there present 
were called together, and a platform was erected 
on a lofty scaff"olding, surrounded by the eagles and 
the standards. On this Augustus stood, and holding 
Julian by the right hand, in a quiet tone delivered 
the following address : 

5. " We stand before you, valiant defenders of 
our country, to avenge the common cause with 
one all but unanimous spirit ; and how I shall 
accomplish this I shall briefly explain to you, as 
impartial judges. 6. After the death of those 
rebellious tyrants whom mad fury drove to attempt 
the designs which they projected, the savages, as 
if sacrificing to their wicked Manes with Roman 
blood, have forced our peaceful frontier and are 



hac animati fiducia, quod nos per disiunctissimas 
terras arduae necessitates adstringunt. 7. Huic 
igitur malo ultra apposita iam proserpenti, si dum 
patitur tempus, occurrerit nostri vestrique consulti 
suffragium, et colla superbarum gentium detume- 
scent, et imperii fines erunt intacti. Restat ut 
venturorum ^ spem quam gero secundo roboretis 
effectu. 8. lulianum hunc fratrem meum patruelem 
(ut nostis,) verecundia qua nobis ita ut necessitudine 
carus est, recte spectatum, iamque elucentis in- 
dustriae iuvenem, in Caesaris adhibere potestatem 
exopto, coeptis (si videntur utilia) etiam vestra 
consensione firmandis." 

9. Dicere super his plura conantem, interpellans 
contio lenius prohibebat, arbitrium summi numinis 
id esse non mentis humanae velut praescia venturi 
proclamans.^ 10. Stansque imperator immobilis dum 
silerent, residua fidentius explicavit : " Quia igitur 
vestrum quoque favorem adesse fremitus indicat 
laetus, adulescens vigoris tranquilli, cuius temperati 
mores imitandi sunt potius quam praedicandi, ad 
honorem prosperante deo delatum ^ exsurgat ; cuius 
praeclaram indolem bonis artibus institutam, hoc 
ipso plene videor exposuisse quod elegi. Ergo eum, 
praesente nutu dei caelestis, amictu principal! 

11. Dixit moxqueindutum avita purpura Iidianum. 

^ ut uenturorum. Her., cf. xxi. 10. 2 ; ucturum, V. 
^ proclamans, W-, Clark, c.c. ; praedayis, V. ^pros- 

perante d£0 delatum, Novak, cf. xviii. 6, 3, etc., pro re 
speratum. Her. ; prope speratum, V. 


XV., 8, 6-11, A.D. 3S5 

over-running Gaul, encouraged by the belief that dire 
straits beset us throughout our far-flung empire. 
7. If this evil therefore, which is already creeping 
on beyond set bounds, is met by the accord of our 
and your ^vills while time permits, the necks of these 
proud tribes will not swell so high, and the frontiers 
of our empire will remain inviolate. It remains 
for you to confirm with happy issue the hope of 
the future which I cherish. 8. This Julian, my 
cousin as you know, rightlv honoured for the modesty 
through which he is as dear to us as through ties of 
blood, a young man of ability which is already con- 
spicuous, I desire to admit to the rank of Caesar, and 
that this project, if it seems advantageous, may be 
confirmed also by your assent." 

9. As he was attempting to say more to this 
effect, the assembly interrupted and gently pre- 
vented him, declaring as if with foreknowledge of 
the future that this was the will of the supreme 
divinity rather than of any human mind. 10. And 
the emperor, standing motionless until they became 
silent, went on with the rest of his speech with greater 
assurance : " Since, then," said he, " your joyful 
acclaim shows that I have your approval also, 
let this young man of quiet strength, whose tem- 
perate behaviour is rather to be imitated than 
proclaimed, rise to receive this honour conferred 
upon him by God's favour. His excellent disposi- 
tion, trained in all good arts, I seem to have fully 
described by the very fact that I have chosen him. 
Therefore with the immediate favour of the God of 
Heaven I will invest him with the imperial robes." 

11. This he said and then, after having clothed 



et Caesarem cum exercitus gaudio declaratum, his 

alloqiiitur contractiore vultu submaestum : 

12. " Recepisti primaevus originis tuae splen- 

didum florem, amantissime mihi omnium frater ; 

aucta gloria mea, confiteor, qui iustius in deferenda 

suppari ^ potestate nobilitati mihi propinquae, quam 

ipsa potestate videor esse sublimis. 13. Adesto 

igitur laborum periculorumque particeps, et tutelam 

ministerii suscipe Galliarum, omni beneficentia 

partes levaturus afflictas : et si hostihbus congredi 

sit necesse, fixo gradu consiste inter signiferos ipsos, 

audendi in tempore consideratus hortator, pugnantes 

accendens praeeundo cautissime, turbatosque sub- 

sidiis fulciens, modesteque ^ increpans desides, veris- 

simus testis adfuturus industriis et ignavis. 14. 

Proinde urgente rei magnitudine, perge vir fortis, 

ducturus viros itidem fortes. Aderimus nobis 

vicissim amoris robusta constantia, militabimus 

simul, una orbem pacatum. deus modo velit quod 

oramus, pari moderatione pietateque recturi. Mecum 

ubique videberis praesens, et ego tibi quodcumque 

acturo non deero. Ad summam i, propera sociis 

omnium votis, velut assignatam tibi ab ipsa re 

publica, stationem cura pervigili defensurus." 

^ suppari, Cornelissen ; superari, V. - modesteque, 

Clark ; modeste **** (formerly quid), V. 


XV., 8, 11-14, A.n. 3SS 

Julian in the ancestral purple and proclaimed him 
Caesar to the joy of the army, he thus addressed 
him, somewhat melancholy in aspect as he was, and 
with careworn countenance : 

12. " My brother, dearest to me of all men, you 
have received in your prime the glorious flower of 
your origin ; with increase of my own glory, I admit, 
since I seem to myself more truly great in bestowing 
almost equal power on a noble prince who is my 
kinsman, than through that power itself. 13. Come, 
then, to share in pains and perils, and undertake the 
charge of defending Gaul, ready to relieve the 
afflicted regions with every bounty. And if it 
becomes necessary to engage with the enemy, take 
your place with sure footing amid the standard- 
bearers themselves ; be a thoughtful advisor of 
daring in due season, animate the warriors by taking 
the lead with utmost caution, strengthen them when 
in disorder with reinforcements, modestly rebuke the 
slothful, and be present as a most faithful witness at 
the side of the strong, as well as of the weak. 14. 
Therefore, urged by the great crisis, go forth, yourself 
a brave man, ready to lead men equally brave. 
We shall stand by each other in turn with firm and 
steadfast aff"ection, Ave shall campaign at the same 
time, and together we shall rule over a pacified 
world, provided only God grants our prayers, 
with equal moderation and conscientiousness. You 
will seem to be present with me everywhere, and 
I shall not fail you in whatever you undertake. 
In fine, go, hasten, with the united prayers of all, 
to defend with sleepless care the post assigned you, 
as it were, by your country herself." 



15. Nemo post haec finita reticiiit, sed militares 
omnes horrendo fragore scuta genibus illidentes 
(quod est prosperitatis indicium plenum ; nam contra 
cum hastis clipei feriuntur, irae documentum est et 
doloris) ^ immane quo quantoque gaudio praeter paucos 
Augusti probavere indicium, Caesaremque admira- 
tione digna suscipiebant, imperatorii muricis fulgore 
flagrantem. 16. Cuius oculos cum venustate ter- 
ribilis, vultumque excitatius gratum, diu multumque 
contuentes, qui futurus sit coUigebant velut scrutatis 
veteribus Libris, quorum lectio per corporum signa 
pandit animorum interna. Eumque ut potiori rev- 
erentia servaretur, nee supra modum laudabant, 
nee infra quam decebat, atque ideo censorum voces 
sunt aestimatae, non militum. 17. Susceptus. deni- 
que ad consessum vehiculi, receptusque in regiam. 
hunc versum ex Homerico carmine susurrabat : 

e'AAa^e Trop(f)vpeos ddvarog Kal jJLolpa KparaLT], 

Haec diem octa^^lm iduum Novembrium gesta 
sunt, cum Arbetionem consulem annus haberet et 
Lollianum. 18. Deinde diebus panels Helena \'lr- 
gine, Constanti sorore, eidem Caesari iugali foedere 

^ Damste regards na^ti contra . . . doloris as a gloss and 
incorrect, citing xx. 5, 8 ; xxi. 5, 9. 

^ See critical note. 

' Cf. Gellius, i. 9, 2, {Pythagoras) iam a principio advl-es- 


XV., 8, 15-18, A.D. 355 

15. After this address was ended, iio our held 
his peace, but all the soldiers with fearful din struck 
their shields against their knees (this is a sign of 
complete approval ; for when, on the contrary, they 
smite their shields with their spears it is an indica- 
tion of anger and resentment), ^ and it was wonder-) 
ful with what great joy all but a few approved! 
Augustus' choice and with due admiration wel- \ 
corned the Caesar, brilliant with the gleam of the 
imperial purple. 16. Gazing long and earnestly 
on his eyes, at once terrible and full of charm, and 
on his face attractive in its unusual animation, they 
divined what manner of man he would be, as if 
they had perused those ancient books, the reading 
of which discloses from bodily signs the inward 
quaUties of the soul.^ And that he might be re- 
garded with the greater respect, they neither praised 
him beyond measure nor less than was fitting, and 
therefore their words were esteemed as those of 
censors, not of soldiers. 17. Finally, he was taken 
up to sit with the emperor in his carriage and con- 
ducted to the palace, whispering this verse from the 
Homeric song ^ : 

" By purple death I'm seized and fate supreme." 
This happened on the sixth of November of the 
year when Arbetio and LolUanus were consuls. 
18. Then, within a few days, Helena, the maiden 
sister of Constantius, was joined" in the bonds of 
wedlock to the Caesar ; and when everything had 

centes e^vaioyvoj^iovei.. Id verbum significat, mores . . .de oris 
et vultus ingenio . . . sciscitari. 

^ Iliad, v. 83 ; cf . § 20 ; a play on noptfujpeos as the colour 
of blood and of royalty. 



(■(»j)ulata. paratisque universis quae inaturita^ pro- 
ficisceudi poscebat, comitatu parvo suscepto, kalen- 
dis Decembribus egressus est dediiotusque ab 
Augusto ad usque locum duabus columnis insignem, 
qui Laumellum interiacet ct Tioinum, itineribus 
rectis Taurinos pervenit. ubi nuntio percellitur 
gravi, qui uuper in comitatum Augusti perlatus, 
de industria silebatur. ne parata diffluerent. 19. In- 
dicabat autem Coloniam Agrippinam, ampli nominis 
urbem in secunda Germauia, pertinaci barbarorum 
obsidione reseratam magnis \iribus et deletam. 
20. Quo maerore perculsus, velut primo adventan- 
tium malorum auspicio, murmurans querulis vocibus 
saepe audiebatur : nibil se plus assecutum. quam ut 
occupatior interiret. 21. Cumque Viennam venis- 
set, ingredientem optatum quidem et impetrabilem ^ 
honorifice susceptura omnis aetas concurrebat et 
dignitas, proculque visum plebs universa, cum 
vicinitate finitima, imperatorem clementem appel- 
lans et faustum, praevia consonis laudibus celebra- 
bat, av-idius pompam regiam in principe legitimo 
cernens : communiumque remedium aerumnarum 
in eius locabat adventu, salutarem quendam genium 
afFulsisse conclamatis negotiis arbitrata. 22. Tunc 
anus quaedam orba luminibus, cum percontando 
quinam esset ingressus, lulianum Caesarem com- 
perisset, exclamavit hunc deorum templa repara- 

^ impetrabtlem, Val. ; insperabiletn. Pet. ; imperabilem, 


XV., 8, 18-22, A.D. 355 

b«!('U prepared which the iiumiuence of hii' departure 
demanded, taking a small suite, he set out on the 
first of December, escorted by Augustus as far as 
the spot marked by two columns, lying between 
Laumello and Pavia, and came by direct marches 
to Turin. There he was staggered by serious news, 
which had lately been brought to the emperor's 
council but had purposely been kept secret, for 
fear that the preparations might come to nothing. 
19. Now^ he learned that Cologne, a city of great 
renown in Lower Germany, after an obstinate siege by 
the savages in great force, had been stormed and des- 
troyed. 20. Overwhelmed by sorrow" at this, the first 
omen, as it were, of approaching ills, he was often 
heard to mutter in complaining tones that he had 
gained nothing, except to die with heavier work. 21. 
But when he reached \ ienne and entered the city, all 
ages and ranks flocked together to receive him with 
honour, as a man both longed for and efficient ; 
and when they saw him afar off, the whole populace 
with the immediate neighboiu-hood, saluted him as 
a commander gracious and fortunate, and marched 
ahead of him with a chorus of praise, the more 
eagerly beholding royal pomp in a legitimate prince. 
And in his coming thev placed the redress of their 
common disasters, thinking that some helpful spirit 
had shone upon their desperate condition. 22. Then 
an old woman, who had lost her sight, on inquiring 
who had entered and learning that it was the Caesar 
Jidian, cried out that he would repair the temples of 
the Gods. 



9. De nrigirip (Jnlloriim ; el unde dicti Celtae ac 
Galatac ; deque eorum doctorihus. 

1. Proinde quoniam — ut Mantuanus vates prae- 
dixit cxcelsus — " maius opus moveo " ^ maiorque mihi 
rerum nascitur ordo, Galliarum tractus et situm 
ostendere puto nunc tempestivum, ne inter procinc- 
tus ardentes, proeliorumque varios casus, ignota 
quibusdam expediens imitari videar desides nauticos, 
attiuta lintea cum rudentibus, quae licuit parari 
securius, inter fluctus resarcire coactos et tempes- 
tates. 2. Ambigentes super origine prima Gallorum, 
scriptores veteres notitiam reliquere negotii semi- 
plenam, sed postea Timagenes, et diligentia Graecus 
et lingua, haec quae diu sunt ignorata coUegit ex 
multiplicibus libris. Cuius fidem secuti, obscuritate 
dimota, eadem distincte docebimus et aperte. 
3. Aborigines primes in his regionibus quidam visos 
esse firmarunt, Celtas nomine regis amabilis et 
matris eius vocabulo Galatas dictos — ita enim 
Gallos sermo Graecus appellat — alii Dorienses anti- 
quiorem secutos Herculem oceani locos inhabitasse 
confines. 4. Drysidae memorant re vera fuisse 

^ So the text of Ammianus ; see note on translation. 

1 Aen. vii. 44 f, maior rerum mihi nascitur ordo, Maius 
opus moveo. 

- Timagenes of Alexandria, who, according to Suidas, 
was brought to Rome as a prisoner of war by Pompej-. 
He wrote a History of Alexander and a History of the Gauls. 
Cf . Hor., Epist. i. 19, 15 ; Quint., i. 10, 10 ; x. i. 75. 

^■'Earlier" seems to be contrasted with "the son of 
Amphytrion " in 9, 6, below and "the Theban Hercules" 
in 10, 9, whom Ammianus identifies with the son of Amphy- 
trion. The story of a hero similar to Hercules is found in 


XV., 9, 1-4 

9. Of the origin of the Gauls ; and ivhy the Celts and 
Galatians were so called ; and of their learned 

1. Now, since — as the lofty bard of Mantua said 
of old ^ — a greater work I undertake, a greater train 
of events ariseth before me, I think now a suitable 
time to describe the regions and location of the 
Gauls, for fear that amid fiery encounters and shift- 
ing fortunes of battle I may treat of matters unknown 
to some and seem to follow the example of slovenly 
sailors, who are forced amid surges and storms to 
mend their worn sails and rigging, which might have 
been put in order with less danger. 2. The ancient 
writers, in doubt as to the earUest origin of the Gauls, 
have left an incomplete account of the matter, but 
later Timagenes,^ a true Greek in accuracy as well 
as language, collected out of various books these 
facts that were long unknown ; which, following his 
authority, and avoiding any obscurity, I shall state 
clearly and plainly. 3. Some asserted that the 
people first seen in these regions were Aborigines, 
called Celts from the name of a beloved king, and 
Galatae (for so the Greek language terms the Gauls) 
from the name of his mother. Others stated that 
the Dorians, following the earlier Hercules,^ settled 
in the lands bordering on the Ocean. 4, The 

Greece, Italy, Egyj^t, the Orient, and among the Celts and 
Germans. Cicero, De Nat. Deor. iii. 16, 42, names six 
Hereuleses, Serv., ad Aen. viii. 564, four: the Tirynthian, 
Argive, Theban, and Libyan. The Theban Hercules is 
generally regarded as the son of Amphitryon, but the one 
here referred to seems to have been the Italic hero, locally 
called Recaranus and Garanus, who was later identified 
with the Greek Heracles. 


VOL. I. M 


populi partem indigenam, sed alios quoque ab insulis 
extimis confluxisse et ^ tractibus transrhenanis, cre- 
britate bellorum et alluvione fervidi maris sedibus 
suis expulsos. 5. Aiunt quidam paucos post ex- 
cidium Troiae fugitantes Graecos ubique disperses 
loca haec occupasse tunc vacua. 6. Regionum 
autem incolae id magis omnibus asseverant, quod 
etiam nos legimus in monumentis eorum incisum, 
Amphitryonis filium Herculem ad Geryonis et 
Taurisci saevum ^ tyrannorum perniciem fcstinasse, 
quorum alter Hispanias, alter Gallias infestabat ; 
superatisque ambobus, coisse cum generosis femiuis 
suscepisseque liberos plures, et eos partes quibus 
imperitabant suis nominibus appellasse. 7. A Pho- 
caea vero Asiaticus populus, Harpali inclenaentiam 
vitans, Cyri regis praefecti, Italiam navigio petit. 
Cuius pars in Lucania Veliam, alia condidit in 
Viennensi Massiliam : dein secutis aetatibus oppida, 
aucta virium copia, instituere non pauca. Sed de- 
clinanda varietas saepe satietati coniuncta. 8. Per 
haec loca hominibus paulatim excultis, viguere 
studia laudabibum doctrinarum, inchoata per bar- 
dos et euhagis et drysidas. Et Bardi quidemi fortia 
virorum illustrium facta, heroicis composita versibus, 

^ et, G ; ex, V. - saeuum, V, Norden (cf. xxix. 5, 

48) ; saevium, Val., Clark ; saevoruni, BG. 

1 Druids. 

- An error for Harpagus, see Index. 
* Modern Castellamare della Bruca. 
■* Marseilles. 


XV., 9, 4-8 

Drysidae ^ say that a part of the peopk- was in fact 
indigenous, but that others also poured in from the 
remote islands and the regions across the Rhine, 
driven from their homes by continual wars and by 
the inundation of the stormy sea. 5. Some assert 
that after the destruction of Troy a few of those who 
fled from the Greeks and were scattered everywhere 
occupied those regions, which were then deserted. 
6. But the inhabitants of those countries affirm 
this beyond all else, and I have also read it inscribed 
upon their monuments, that Hercules, the son of 
Amphytrion, hastened to destroy the cruel tyrants 
Geryon and Tauriscus, of whom one oppressed 
Spain, the other, Gaul ; and having overcome them 
both that he took to wife some high-born women and 
begat numerous children, who called by their own 
names the districts which they ruled. 7. But in fact 
a people of Asia from Phocaea, to avoid the severity of 
Harpalus,^ prefect of king Cyrus, set sail for Italy. 
A part of them founded Velia ^ in Lucania, the rest, 
Massilia * in the region of Vienne. Then in subse- 
quent ages they established no small number of towns, 
as their strength and resources increased. But I must 
avoid discursiveness, which is often linked with sati- 
ety. 8. Throughout these regions men gradually grew 
civilised and the study of the liberal arts flourished, 
initiated by the Bards, the Euhages and the Druids.^ 
Now, the Bards sang to the sweet strains of the lyre 
the valorous deeds of famous men composed in heroic 

^ The three are connected also by Strabo (iv. 4. 4), who 
says that the bards were poets; the euhages {Ovdreis), 
diviners and natural philosophers ; while the Druids studied 
both natural and moral philosophy. L.C.L. ii. p. 245. 



cum dulcibus lyrae modulis cantilarunt, Euhages 
vero scrutantes sublimia, leges ^ naturae pandere 
conabantur internas.^ Drysidae ingeniis celsiores, ut 
auctoritas Pythagorae decrevit, sodaliciis astricti 
consortiis, quaestionibus occultarum rerum altar- 
umque erecti sunt, et despectantes humana, pro- 
nuntiarunt animas immortales. 

10. De Alpibus Gnllicanis ; et dp variis per ens 

1. Hanc Galliarum plagam ob suggestus montium 
arduos, et horrore nivali semper obductos, orbis 
residui incohs antehac paene ignotam, nisi qua 
litoribus est vicina, munimina claudunt undique 
natura velut arte circumdata. 2. Et a latere qui- 
dem australi, Tyrrhene alluitur et Gallico mari ; 
qua caeleste suspicit plaustrum, a feris gentibus 
fluentis distinguitur Rheni ; ubi occidentali subiecta 
est sideri, oceano et altitudine Pyrenaea arcetur ; ^ 
unde ad solis ortus attollitur, aggeribus cedit 
Alpium Cottiarum ; quas rex Cottius perdomitis 
Galliis, solus in angustiis latens, inviaque locorum 

1 sublimia, leges naturae, Novak ; serviani et sublimia 

naturae, V. ^ internas, Novak ; inter es, V. 

^ Pyrenaea arcetur, Clark ; Pyrenaei saltus urgetur, 
F. Walter ; pyrenei surgitur, V. 

1 Properly, Vates (Ouareis). 

^ The septentriones, the oonstellatioii of ursa major, 
representing the north. 


XV., 9, 8—10, 1-2 

verse, but the Euhages,^ investigating the subhme, 
attempted to explain the secret laws of nature. The 
Druids, being loftier than the rgst in intellect, and 
bound together in fraternal organisations, as the 
authority of Pythagoras determined, were elevated 
by their investigation of obscure and profound sub- 
jects, and scorning human affairs, pronounced the 
soul immortal. 

10. Of the Gallic Alps and the various passes through 

1. This country of Gaul, because of its lofty chains 
of mountains always covered with formidable snows, 
was formerly all but unknown to the inhabitants 
of the rest of the globe, except where it borders on 
the coast ; and bulwarks enclose it on every side, 
surrounding it naturally, as if by the art of man. 
2. Now on the southern side it is washed by the 
Tuscan and the Gallic Sea ; where it looks up to 
the heavenly Wain,- it is separated from the wild 
nations by the channels ^ of the Rhine. Where it 
lies under the west-sloping sun ^ it is bounded by 
the Ocean and the Pyrenaean heights ; and where 
it rises towards the East it gives place to the bulk 
of the Cottian Alps. There King Cottius, after the 
subjugation of Gaul, lay hidden alone in their 
defiles, trusting to the pathless ruggedness of the 

'As it enters the sea, the Rhine divides into several 

* As there is no specific western constellation, sidus seems 
to mean "sun"; cf. Pliny, N.H. ii. 12; etc., and solis 
orLus, below, of the east. 



asperitate confisus, lenito tandem tumore, in ami- 
citiam Octaviani principis ^ receptus molibus magnis 
exstruxit, ad vicem memorabilis muneris, compen- 
diarias et viantibus oportunas, medias inter alias 
Alpes vetustas, super quibus comperta paulo postea 
referemus. 3. In his Alpibus Cottiis, quarum in- 
itium a Segusione est oppido, praecelsum erigitur 
iugum, nuUi fere sine discrimine penetrabile. 4. Est 
enim e Galliis venientibus prona humilitate devexum, 
pendentiiim saxorum altrinsecus visu terribile prae- 
sertim verno tempore,^ cum liquente gelu nivibusque 
solutis flatu calidiore ventorum. per diruptas utrim- 
que angustias et lacunas, pruinarum congerie late- 
brosas, descendentes cunctantibus plantis homines 
et iumenta procidunt et carpenta ; idque remedium 
ad arcendum exitium repertum est solum, quod 
pleraque vehicula vastis funibus illigata pone 
cohibente virorum vel bourn nisu valido vix gressu 
reptante, paulo tutius devoluuntur, Et haec (ut 
diximus) anni verno contingunt. 5. Hieme vero 
humus crustata frigoribus et tamquam levigata 
ideoque labilis incessum praecipitantem impellit ; et 
patulae valles per spatia plana glacie perfidae vorant 
non numquam transeuntes. Ob quae locorum callidi 
eminentes ligneos stilos per cautiora loca defigunt, 
ut eoruni series viatorem ducat innoxium ; qui si 

1 principis, V ; deleted by Damste, obelized by Clark 
c.c. ; recepfMS and p?-i>icjj)is transposed by Novak; principiis, 
Her. ^ tepore, Damste ; tempore, V. 


v., 10, 2-5 

region ; finally, when his disaffection was allayed, 
and he was admitted to the emperor Octavian's 
friendship, in lieu of a memorial gift he built with 
great labour short cuts convenient to travellers, 
since they were midway between other ancient 
Alpine passes, about which I shall later tell what 
I have learned. 3. In these Cottian Alps, which 
begin at the town of Susa, there rises a lofty ridge, 
which scarcely anyone can cross without danger. 
4. For as one comes from Gaul it falls off with sheer 
incline, terrible to look upon because of overhanging 
cliffs on either side, especially in the season of 
spring, when the ice melts and the snows thaw under 
the warmer breath of the wind ; then over pre- 
cipitous ravines on either side and chasms rendered 
treacherous through the accumulation of ice, men 
and animals descending with hesitating step slide 
forward, and waggons as well. And the only 
expedient that has been devised to ward off des- 
truction is this : they bind together a number of 
vehicles with heavy ropes and hold them back from 
behind with powerful efforts of men or oxen at 
barely a snail's pace ; and so they roll down a little 
more safely. And this, as we have said, happens 
in the spring of the year. 5. But in winter the 
ground, caked with ice, and as it were polished and 
therefore slipperv, drives men headlong in their gait 
and the spreading valleys in level places, made treach- 
erous bv ice, sometimes swallow up the traveller. 
Therefore those that know the country well drive 
projecting wooden stakes along the safer spots, in 
order that their line may guide the traveller in 
safety. But if these are covered with snow and 



nivibus operti latuerint, aut montanis ^ defluentibus 
rivis eversi, calles ^ agrestibus praeviis difficile per- 
vadunt. 6. A summitate autem huius Italici clivi, 
planities ad usque stationem nomine Martis per 
septem extenditur milia, et hinc alia celsitudo 
erectior, aegreque superabilis, ad Matronae porri- 
gitur verticem, cuius vocabulum casus feminae 
nobilis dedit. Unde declive quidem iter sed ex- 
peditius ad usque castellum Brigantiam patet. 7. 
Huius sepulcrum reguli, quern itinera struxisse ret- 
tulimus, Segusioue est moenibus proxiniuni, manes- 
que eius ratione gemina religiose ^ coluntur, quod 
iusto moderamine rexerat suos, et asscitus in socie- 
tatem rei Romanae, quietem genti praestitit sem- 
piternam. 8. Et licet haec quam diximus viam 
media sit et compendiaria, magisque Celebris, tamen 
etiam aliae multo antea temporibus sunt con- 
structae diversis. 9. Et primam Thebaeus Her- 
cules, ad Geryonem exstinguendum (ut relatum est) 
et Tauriscuni lenius gradiens. prope maritimas 
composuit Alpes, bisque ^ Graiarum ^ indidit nomen ; 
Monoeci similiter arcem et portum ad perennem sui 
memoriam consecra%dt. Deinde emensis postea sae- 
culis multis, hac ex causa sunt Alpes excogitatae 
Poeninae. 10. Superioris Africani pater Publius 

1 aut montanis, W^, Bentley ; montanistie, Gardt. ; 
montanis, V. - calles. Pet. ; glades, Bentlej' ; gnaris, 

Haupt. ; graves, V. ' religiose, ^-ulgo ; religione, V. 

* hisque, T, Val. ; hique, V. * Graiarum, Val. ; harum, 



XV., 10, 5-10 

hidden, or are overturned by the streams running 
down from the mountains, the paths are difficult to 
traverse even with natives leading the way. 6. But 
from the peak of this Italian slope a plateau extends 
for seven miles, as far as the post named from Mars ^ ; 
from there on another loftier height, equally difficult 
to surmount, reaches to the peak of the Matrona,^ 
so called from an accident to a noble lady. After 
that a route, steep to be sure, but easier to tra- 
verse extends to the fortress of Briangon. 7. The 
tomb of this prince, who, as we said, built these 
roads, is at Susa next to the walls, and his shades 
are devoutly venerated for a double reason : be- 
cause he had ruled his subjects with a just govern- 
ment, and when admitted to alliance with the 
Roman state, procured eternal peace for his nation. 
8. And although this road which I have d.escribed 
is the middle one, the short cut, and the more fre- 
quented, yet there are also others, constructed long 
before at various times. 9. Now the first of these 
the Theban Hercules,^ when travelling leisurely to 
destroy Geryon and Tauriscus, constructed near 
the Maritime Alps and gave them the name of the 
Graian ^ Alps. And in like manner he consecrated the 
castle and harbour of Monaco to his lasting memory. 
Then, later, after the passage of many centuries, 
the name Pennine was devised for these Alps for 
the following reason. 10. Publius Cornelius Scipio, 

^ Modern Oulx, in the Ant. Itin. called mansio Martis ; 
in the Itin. Burdigalensis, ad Martis. Amm. uses statio 
both of a military post, and of a station on the cursus 
■publicus ; 2 Mont Genevre. 

^ See note, p. 176. * Grecian. 



Cornelius Scipio, Saguntinis memorabilibus aerumnis 
et fide, pertinaci destinatione Afrorum obsessis, 
iturus auxilio, in Hispaniam traduxit onustam manu 
valida classem, sed civitate potiore Marte deleta, 
Hannibalem sequi nequiens, triduo ante transito 
Rhodano, ad partes Italiae contendentem, naviga- 
tione veloci intercurso spatio maris haut longo, 
degressurum montibus apud Genuam observabat, 
Liguriae oppidum, ut cum eo (si copiam fors dedisset) 
viarum asperitate fatigato decerneret in planitie. 
11. Consulens tamen rei communi, Cn. Scipionem 
fratrem ire monuit in Hispanias, ut Hasdrubalem 
exinde similiter erupturum arceret. Quae Hannibal 
doctus a perfugis, ut erat expeditae mentis et callidae, 
Taurinis ducentibus accolis, per Tricasinos et oram 
Vocontiorum extremam, ad saltus Tricorios venit. 
Indeque exorsus, aliud iter antehac insuperabile 
fecit ; excisaque rupe in immensum elata, quam 
cremando \i magna flammarum acetoque infuso 
dissolvit, per Druentiam flumen, gurgitibus vagis 
intutum, regiones occupavit Etruscas. Hactenus 
super Alpibus. Nunc ad restantia veniamus. 

1 That is, the Carthaginians, in 219 B.C. 

^ After a siege of eight months. 

'Cf. Livy, xxi. 37, 1-3; Juvenal, x. l.-)3 : etc. Plmy, 
N.H. xxiii. 57, attributes this power to vinegar, but Poly- 
bius does not mention the .stor\% which is doubted for 
various reasons. 


XV., 10, 10-11 

father of the elder Africanus, when the Saguntiues, 
famous both for their catastrophies and their loyalty, 
were besieged by the Africans ^ with persistent 
obstinacy, wishing to help them, crossed to Spain 
with a fleet manned by a strong army. But as 
the city had been destroyed by a superior force,- 
and he was unable to overtake Hannibal, who had 
crossed the Rhone three days before and was hasten- 
ing to the regions of Italy, by swift sailing he crossed 
the intervening space — which is not great — and 
watched at Genoa, a town of Liguria, for Hannibal's 
descent from the mountains, so that if chance 
should give him the opportunity, he might fight with 
him in the plain while exhausted by the roughness 
of the roads. 11. At the same time, having an eye 
to the common welfare, he advised his brother, 
Gnaeus Scipio, to proceed to Spain and hold off 
Hasdrubal, who was planning to burst forth in like 
manner from that quarter. But Hannibal learned 
of this from deserters, and being of a nimble and 
crafty wit, came, under the guidance of natives from 
among the Taurini, through the Tricasini and the 
extreme edge of the \ ocontii to the passes of the 
Tricorii. Starting out from there, he made another 
road, where it hitherto had been impassable; he hewed 
out a cliff" which rose to a vast height by burning 
it with flames of immense power and crumbling it 
by pouring on vinegar ; ^ then he marched along the 
river Druentia, dangerous with its shifting eddies, 
and seized upon the district of Etruria. So much 
about the Alps ; let us now turn to the rest of the 



11. Brevis divisio ac descriptio Galliarum ; et 
cursus fluminis Rhodani. 

1. Temporibus priscis, cum laterent hae partes 
ut barbarae, tripcrtitae fuisse creduutur in Celtas 
eosdemque Gallos divisae, et Aquitanos et Belgas, 
lingua institutis legibusque discrepantes. 2. Et 
Gallos quidem (qui Celtae sunt) ab Aquitanis 
Garumna disterminat flumen, a Pyrenaeis oriens 
coUibus, postque oppida multa transcursa, in oceano 
delitescens. 3. Belgis vero eandem gentem Matrona 
discindit et Sequana, amnes magnitudinis geminae ; 
qui fluentes per Lugdunensem, post circumclausuni 
ambitu insulari Parisiorum castellum, Lutetiam 
nomine, consociati, meantesque protinus prope 
castra Constantia funduntur in mare. 4. Horum 
omnium apud veteres Belgae dicebantur esse for- 
tissimi, ea propter quod ab humaniore cultu longe 
discreti, nee adventiciis efFeminati deliciis, diu cum 
transrhenanis certavere Germanis. 5. Aquitani 
enim, ad quorum litora ut proxima placidaque, 
merces adventiciae convehuntur, moribus ad moUi- 
tiem lapsis, facile in dicionem venere Romanam. 
6. Regebantur autem Galliae omnes, iam inde uti 
crebritate bellorum urgenti cessere lulio dictatori, 
potestate in partes divisa quattuor, quarum Nar- 
bonensis una Viennensem intra se continebat et 
Lugdunensem ; altera Aquitanis praeerat universis ; 

^ With this part of the accoiuit, cf. Caesar, B.G., i. 1. 

- Paris. 

' The site of Harfleur. 

* Referring to Caesar's campaigns, 58-49 B.C. 


XV., 11, 1-6 

11. A brief description of the various parts of Gaul 
and of the course of the Rhone. 

1. lu early times, when these regions lay in dark- 
ness as savage, they were thought to have been 
threefold,^ divided into Celts (the same as the Gauls), 
the Aquitanians, and the Belgians, differing in 
language, habits and laws. 2. Now the Gauls (who 
are the Celts) are separated from the Aquitanians 
by the Garonne river, which rises in the hills of the 
P^Tenees, and after running past many towns 
empties into the Ocean. 3. But from the Belgians 
this same nation is separated by the Marne and the 
Seine, rivers of identical size ; they flow through 
the district of Lyous, and after encircling in the 
manner of an island a stronghold of the Parisii called 
Lutetia,^ they unite in one channel, and flowing 
on together pour into the sea not far from Castra 
Constantia.^ 4. Of all these nations the Belgae \ 
had the reputation in the ancient writers of being the ; 
most vahant, for the reason that being far removed 
from civilised hfe and not made effeminate by im- 
ported luxuries, they warred for a long time with 
the Germans across the Rhine. 5. The Aquitanians, 
on the contrary, to whose coasts, as being near at 
hand and peaceable, imported wares were conveyed, 
had their characters weakened to effeminacy and 
easily came under the sway of Rome. 6. All the 
Gauls, ever since under the perpetual pressure of 
wars ^ they yielded to the dictator Julius, have 
been governed by an administration divided into 
four parts. Of these Gallia Narbonensis by itself 
comprised the districts of V ienne and Lyons ; the 



superiorem et inferiorem Germaniam Belgasque duae 
iurisdictiones eisdem rexere temporibus. 7. At nunc 
numerantur provinciae per omnem ambitum Gal- 
liarum : secunda Germania, prima ab occidentali 
exordiens cardine, Agrippina et Tungris munita, 
civitatibus amplis et copiosis. 8. Dein prima 
Germania, ubi praeter alia municipia Mogontiacus 
est et Vangiones, et Nemetae et Argentoratus, 
barbaricis cladibus nota. 9. Post has Belgica prima 
Mediomatricos praetendit et Treviros, domicilium 
principuin clarum. 10. Huic annexa secunda est 
Belgica, qua Ambiani sunt, urbs inter alias eminens, 
et Catelauni et Remi. 11. Apud Sequanos Bisontios 
videmus et Rauracos, aliis potiores oppidis multis. 
Lugdunensem primam Lugdunus ornat et Cabyllona 
et Senones et Biturigae et moenium Augustuduni 
magnitude vetusta. 12. Secundam enim Lugdunen- 
sem Rotomagi et Turini, Mediolanum ostenduut et 
Tricasini ; Alpes Graiae et Poeninae exceptis 
obscurioribus ^ habent et Aventicum, desertam 
quidem civitatem sed non ignobilem quondam, ut 
aedificia semiruta nunc quoque demonstrant. Haec 
provinciae urbesque sunt splendidae Galliarum. 
13. In ^ Aquitania quae Pyrenaeos montes et earn 
partem spectat oceani quae pertinet ad Hispanos, 

^obscurioribus, followed by lac. of 4 letters, V; no lac, 
G. 2 in, added by A ; ' VBG omit. 

' At tlie battle of Argentoratus (Strasbiirg) ; see xvi. 

^ Augusta Trevirorum was the headquarters of the Roman 
coirunanders on the Rhine, and a frequent residence of the 


XV., 11, 6-] 3 

second had control of all Aquitania ; Upper and 
Lower Germany, as well as the Belgians, were 
governed by two administrations at that same time. 
7. But now the provinces over the whole extent of 
Gaul are reckoned as follows : The first province 
(beginning on the western front) is Lower, or Second, 
Germany, fortified by the wealthy and populous 
cities of Cologne and Tongres. 8. Next comes 
First, or Upper, Germany where besides other free 
towns are Mayence and Worms and Spires and 
Strasburg, famous for the disasters of the savages.^ 

9. After these the First province of Belgium displays 
Metz and Treves, splendid abode of the emperors.^ 

10. Adjoining this is the Second province of Belgium, 
in which are Amiens, a city eminent above the rest, 
and Chalons ^ and Rheims. 11. In the Seine pro- 
vince we see Besangon and Augst, more important 
than its many other towns. The first Lyonnese 
province is made famous by Lyons, Chalons-sur- 
Saone, Sens, Bourges, and Autun with its huge 
ancient walls. 12. As for the second Lyonnese 
province, Rouen and Tours make it distinguished, 
as well as Evreux and Troyes. The Graian and 
Pennine Alps, not counting towns of lesser note, 
have Avenche, a city now abandoned, to be sure, 
but once of no sHght importance, as is even yet 
evident from its half-ruined buildings. These are 
the goodly provinces and cities of Gaul. 13. In 
Aquitania, which trends towards the Pyrenees 
mountains and that part of the Ocean which extends 

Roman emperors ; Ausonius, in his Ordo Urbiuni Nobilium 
gives it sixth place. 
^ Chalons-sur-Marne. 



prima provincia est Aquitanica, amplitudine civi- 
tatum admoduni culta omissis aliis multis, Burdi- 
gala et Arverni excellunt, et Santones et Pictavi. 
14. Novem populos Ausci commendant et Vasatae. 
In Narbonensi Elusa et Narbona et Tolosa ^ princi- 
patum urbium tenent. Viennensis civitatum ex- 
ultat decore multarum, e " quibus potiores sunt 
Vienna ipsa et Arelate et Yalentia ; quibus Massilia 
iungitur, cuius societate et viribus in discriminibus 
arduis fultam aliquotiens leginius Romaui. 15. His 
prope Salluvii sunt et Nicaea et Antipolis, insulaeque 
Stoechades. 16. Et quoniam ad has partes opere 
contexto pervenimus, silere super Rhodano, maximi 
nominis flumine, incongruum est et absurdum. A 
Poeninis Alpibus effusiore copia fontium Rhodanus 
fluens, et proclivi impetu ad planiora degrediens, 
proprio agmine ripas occultat, et paludi sese ingur- 
gitat, nomine Lemanno, eamque intermeans, nus- 
quam aquis miscetur externis, sed altrinsecus sum- 
mitates undae praeterlabens segnioris, quaeritans 
exitus, viam sibi impetu veloci moUtur. 17. Unde 
sine iactura rerum per Sapaudiam fertur et Sequanos, 
longeque progressus, Viennensem latere sinistro 
perstringit, dextro Lugdunensem, et emensus spatia 
flexuosa, Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, inter 

1 Tolosa, N, Val. ; Tolosa et, V ; Tolosa quae, BG. 
2 e, added by Daniste ; V omits. 

^ The country between the Garonne and the Pyrennees, 
Aquitania in the narrower sense. The nanaes of the nine 
nations are not known. 


XV., 11, 13-17 

towards Spain, the first province is Acquitania, 
much adorned by the greatness of its cities ; lea%ang 
out numerous others, Bordeaux and Clermont are 
conspicuous, as well as Saintorige and Poitiers. 
14. The " Nine Nations " ^ are ennobled by Auch 
and Ba2ias. In the Narbonese province Eauze, 
Narbonne, and Toulouse hold the primacy among 
the cities. The Viennese province rejoices in the 
distinction conferred by many cities, of which the 
most important are Vienne itself, Aries and Valence ; 
and joined to these is Marseilles, by whose alliance 
and power we read that Rome was several times 
supported in severe crises. 15. Near these are 
Aix-en-Provence, Nice, Antibes, and the Isles 
d'Hy^res. 16. And since we have reached these 
parts in the course of our work, it would be unfit- 
ting and absurd to say nothing of the Rhone, a river 
of the greatest celebrity. Rising in the Pennine Alps 
from a plenteous store of springs, the Rhone flows 
in headlong course towards more level places. It 
hides its banks with its own stream - and bursts 
into the lagoon called Lake Leman. This it flows 
through, nowhere mingling with the water outside, 
but gliding over the surface of the less active 
water on either hand, it seeks an outlet and forces 
a way for itself by its swift onset. 17. From there 
without any loss of volume it flows through Savoy 
and the Seine Province, and in a long detour it 
bounds the Viennese Province with its left bank 
and the Lyonnese with its right. Next, after de- 
scribing many meanders, it receives the Arar, which 

* That is, it receives no tributaries, yet fills its channel 


VOL. I. N 


Germaniam primam fluentem et Sequanos,^ suum 
in nomeii assciscit, qui locus exordium est Galliarum. 
Exindeque non millenis passibus sed leugis itinera 
metiuntur. 18. Dein Isarae ^ Rhodanus aquis ad- 
venis locupletior, vehit grandissimas naves, ven- 
toruni difllatu iactari saepius assuetas, finitisque 
intervalJis quae ei natura praescripsit, spumeus 
Gallieo mari concorporatur, per patulum sinum 
queni vocant Ad gradus, ab Arelate octavo decimo 
fernie lapide disparatum. Sit satis de situ locorum. 
Nunc figuras et mores hominum designabo. 

12. De moribus Gallorum. 

1. Celsioris staturae et candidi paene Galli sunt 
omnes et rutili, luminumque torvitate terribiles, 
avidi iurgiorum, et sublatius insolentes. Nee enim 
eorum quemquam adhibita uxore rixantem, multo 
se ^ fortiore et glauca, peregrinorum ferre poterit 
globus, turn maxime cum ilia inflata cervice suf- 
frendens, ponderansque niveas ulnas et vastas, 
admixtis calcibus emittere coeperit pugnos, ut 
catapultas tortilibus nervis excussas. 2. Metuendae 
voces complurium et minaces, placatorum iuxta et 
irascentium, tersi tamen pari diligentia cuncti et 
niundi, nee in tractibus ilbs, maximeque apud 
Aquitanos, uir ^ poterit aliquis videri vel femina. 

^ et Sequanos, Novak ; lac. after fluentem, Val. ; no lac, V. 
^ Dein Isarae, Clark ; hinc Rhodanus, Val.; (lac. 3 letters) 
lian (lac. 2 letters) Eliodanus, V. ^ multo se, Her. ; 

multos, V. '' Aquitanos, Val. ; A., uir. Her. ; aqua 

(lac. 12 letters) poterit, V. 


XY.. 11, 17-18—12, 1-2 

they call the Sauconna,^ floMing between Upper 
Germany and the Seine Province, and gives it its 
own name. This point is the beginning of Gaul, 
and from there they measure distances, not in miles 
but in leagues. 18. After this the Rhone, enriched 
by the tributary waters of the Iser, carries very 
large craft, which are frequently wont to be tossed 
by gales of wind, and having finished the bounds 
which nature has set for it, its foaming waters are 
mingled with the Gallic Sea through a broad bay 
which they call Ad Gradus ^ at about the eighteenth 
milestone distant from Aries. Let this suffice for 
the topography of the region ; I shall now describe 
the appearance and manners of its people. 

12. The Manners and Customs of the Gauls. 

1. Almost all the Gauls are of tall stature, fair 
and ruddy, terrible for the fierceness of their eyes, 
fond of quarrelling, and of overbearing insolence. 
In fact, a whole band of foreigners will be unable 
to cope with one of them in a fight, if he call in his 
wife, stronger than he by far and with flashing eyes ; 
least of all when she swells her neck and gnashes 
her teeth, and poising her huge white arms, begins 
to rain blows mingled with kicks, Hke shots dis- 
charged by the twisted cords of a catapult. 2. The 
voices of most of them are formidable and threaten- 
ing, alike when they are good-natured or angry. 
But all of them with equal care keep clean and 
neat, and in those districts, particularly in Aqui- 
tania, no man or woman can be seen, be she never 

1 Saono. - The Gulf of Lyons ; cf. Grau-du-Roi. 




licet perquam pauper, ut alibi frustis squalere pan- 
norum. 3. Ad militanduin omnis aetas aptissima, 
et pari pectoris robore senex ad procinctum ducitur 
et adultus, gelu duratis artubus et labore assiduo, 
multa contempturus et forraidajida. Nee eorum 
aliquaudo quisquam (ut in Italia) munus Martium 
pertimescens, pollicem sibi praecidit, quos localiter 
murcos appellant. 4. Vini avdduin genus, affectans 
ad vini similitudinem multiplices potus, et inter 
eos humiles quidam, obtunsis ebrietate continua 
sensibus, quam furoris voluntariam speciem esse 
Catoniana sententia definivit, raptautur discursibus 
vagis, ut verum illud videatur quod ait defendens 
Fonteium TuUius : " Gallos post haec dilutius esse 
poturos quod illi venenum esse arbitrabantur." 

5. Hae regiones, praecipueque confines Italicis, 
paulatim levi sudore sub imperium veuere Romanum, 
prime temptatae per Fulvium, deinde proeliis 
parvis quassatae per Sextium, ad ultimum per 
Fabium Maximum domitae. Cui negotii plenus 
eflfectus, asperiore AUobrogum gente devicta, hoc 
indidit cognomentum. 6. Nam omnes Gallias (nisi 
qua paludibus inviae fuere, ut ^ Sallustio docetur 
auctore) post decennalis belli mutuas clades subegit 
Caesar dictator,^ societatique nostrae foederibus 

1 Mi, E^ G ; V omits. ^ svbegit Caesar, socief-atique, 

Lind. {dictator, addidi) ; s^lb (lac. 13 letters) societatisque, V. 

1 Cf. Suet., Aug. 24, 1. ^ pj-o Font, 4, 8. 

^ M. Fulvius Flaccus ; see Index and cf . Liv^i', Periochae, 
Ix. and Ixi. 


XV., 13, 2-6 

so poor, in soiled and ragged clothing, as elsewhere. 
3. All ages are most fit for military service, and the 
old man marches out on a campaign with a courage 
equal to that of the man in the prime of life ; since 
his limbs are toughened by cold and constant toil, 
and he will make light of many formidable dangers. 
Nor does anyone of them, for dread of the service 
of Mars, cut off his thumb, as in Italy ^ : there they 
call such men " murci,*' or cowards. 4. It is a race 
greedy for wine, devising numerous drinks similar 
to wine, and some among them of the baser sort, 
with wits dulled by continual drunkenness (which 
Cato's saying pronounced a voluntary kind of 
madness) rush about in aimless revels, so that those 
words seem true which Cicero spoke when defending 
Fonteius " : " The Gauls henceforth will drink wine 
mixed with water, which they once thought poison." 
5. These regions, and especially those bordering 
on Italy, came gradually and with sUght effort under 
the dominion of Rome ; they were first essayed by 
Fulvius,"^ then undermined in petty battles by 
Sextius,* and finally subdued by Fabius Maximus,^ 
on whom the full completion of this business (when 
he had vanquished the formidable tribe of the 
Allobroges) ^ conferred that surname.^ 6. Now the 
whole of Gaul (except Avhere, as the authority of 
Sallust ' informs us, it was impassable with marshes), 
after losses on both sides during ten years of war the 
dictator Caesar subdued and joined to us in the 

* C. Sextius Calvinus ; see Index and cf. Livj% Periocha, 
Ixi. 5 jjj J21 B.C. 

* Allobrogicus. ' Hist. i. 11, Maureiibrccher. 



iunxit aeternis. Evectus sum longius ; sed remcabo 
tandem ad coepta. 

13. De Musaniano praefecto praetorio per Orientem. 

1. Domitiano crudeli morte consumpto, Musoni- 
anus eius sucessor orientem praetoriani regebat 
potestate praefecti, facundia sermonis utriusque 
clarus. Unde sublimius quam sperabatur cluxit. 
2. Constantinus enim cum limatius superstitionum 
quaereret sectas, Maiiichaeorum et similium, nee 
interpres inveniretur idoneus, hunc sibi commen- 
datum ut sufficientem elegit ; quem, officio func- 
tum perite, Musonianum voluit appellari, ante 
Strategium dictitatum, et ex eo percursis honorum 
gradibus multis, ascendit ad praefecturam, prudens 
alia tolerabilisque provinciis, et mitis et blandus, 
sed ex qualibet occasione, maximeque ex con- 
troversis litibus (quod nefandum est) et in totum ^ 
lucrandi aviditate sordescens, ut inter alia multa, 
evidenter apparuit in quaestiouibus agitatis super 
morte Theophili Syriae consularis, proditione Cae- 
saris Galli, impetu plebis promiscuae discerpti, ubi 
damnatis pauperibus, quos cum haec agerentur, 
peregre fuisse constabat, auctores diri facinoris 
exutis patrimoniis absoluti sunt di\'ites. 

1 in totum, V ; inlotum, Her. 

iCf. xiv. 7, 16. 

^ Greek and Latin ; cf. Suet., Claud. 42, 1. 


XV., 12, 6—13, 1-2, A.D. 354-5 

everlasting covenant of alliance. I have digressed 
too far, but I shall at last return to my subject. 

13. The doings of the praetorian prefect., Musonianus, 
in the Orient. 

1. After Domitianus was dispatched by a cruel 
death, ^ his successor Musonianus governed the East 
with the rank of pretorian prefect, a man famed for 
his command of both languages,- from which he 
won higher distinction than was expected. 2. For 
when Constantine was closely investigating the 
different religious sects, Manichaeans and the like, 
and no suitable interpreter could be found, he chose 
him, as a person recommended to him as competent ; 
and when he had done that duty skilfully, he wished 
him to be called Musonianus, whereas he had hitherto 
had the name of Strategius. From that beginning, 
having run through many grades of honour, he rose 
to the prefecture, a man intelUgent in other respects 
and satisfactory to the pro\ances, mild also and 
well-spoken, but on any and every occasion, and 
especially (which is odious) in hard-fought lawsuits 
and under all circumstances greedily bent upon filthy 
lucre. This became clearly evident (among many other 
instances) in the investigations set on foot regarding 
the death of Theophilus, governor of Syria, who, 
because of the betrayal of Gallus Caesar, was torn 
to pieces in an onslaught of the rabble upon him ; 
on which occasion sundry poor men were con- 
demned, although it was known that they had been 
away when this happened, while the wealthy per- 
petrators of the foul crime were set free after being 
stripped of their property. 



3. Hiinc Prosper adaequabat, pro magistro equi- 
tum agente etiam turn in Galliis, militem regens, 
abiecte ignavus et (lit ait comicus) arte despecta 
rurtorum rapiens propalam. 

4. Quis concordantibus, mutuaque commercia 
vicissim sibi conciliando locupletatis, Persici duces 
vicini fluminibus, rege in ultimis terrarum suarum 
terminis occupato, per praedatorios globos nostra 
vexabant, nunc Arrneniam aliquotiens Mesopo- 
taniiam confidentius incursantes, Romanis ductori- 
bus ad colligendas oboedientium exuvias occupatis. 


1. luliani Caesaris laiis. 

1. Haec per orbem Romanum fatorum ordine 
contexto versante, Caesar apud Viennam in col- 
legium fastorum a consule octiens Augusto adscitus, 
urgente genuino vigore, pugnarum fragores caedesque 
barbaricas somniabat, colligere provinciae frag- 
menta iam parans, si adfuisset fortuna ^ flatu 
tandem secundo. 2. Quia igitur res magnae quas 
per Gallias virtute felicitateque correxit, multis 
veterum factis fortibus praestant, singula serie 

^fortuna, added by Wagner. 

1 Ursicinus (see xiv. 11, 5). 

- Plautus, Epidictis, 12, minus iam furtificu-s sum quam 
antehac. Quid ita ? Rapio propalam,. 
^ That is, Constantius Augustus. 


XV., 13, 3-4— XVI., 1, 1-2, A.D. 356 

3. He was matched by Prosper, who was at that 
time still representing the cavalry commander ^ in 
Gaul and held military authority there, an abject 
coward and, as the comic poet says,^ scorning artifice 
in thieving and plundering openly. 

4. While these men were in league and enriching 
themselves by bringing mutual gain one to the 
other, the Persian generals stationed by the rivers, 
while their king was busied in the farthest bounds 
of his empire, kept raiding our territories with pre- 
datory bands, now fearlessly invading Armenia and 
sometimes Mesopotamia, while the Roman officers 
were occupied in gathering the spoils of those who 
paid them obedience. 


1. Praise of Julianus Caesar. 

1. While the linked course of the fates was bring- 
ing this to pass in the Roman world, Julian Caesar 
at Vienne was admitted by Augustus,^ then consul 
for the eighth time, into the fellowship of the con- 
sular fasti. Urged on by his native energy, he 
dreamed of the din of battle and the slaughter of 
savages, already preparing to gather up the broken 
fragments of the province, if only fortune shoidd 
at last aid him v.ith her favouring breeze. 

2. Accordingly, since the great deeds that he had 
the courage and good fortune to perform in Gaul 
surpass many valiant achievements of the ancients, 
I shall describe them one by one in ascending order, 



progrediente monstrabo, instrumenta omnia mcdio- 
cris ingenii (si suffecerint) commoturus. 3. Quic- 
quid autem narrabitur, quod non falsitas arguta 
concinnat, sed fides Integra rerum absolvit, docu- 
mentis evidentibus fulta, ad laudativam paene 
materiam pertinebit. 4. Videtur enim lex quaedam 
vitae melioris hunc invenem a nobilibus cunis ad 
usque spiritum comitata supremum. Namque in- 
crementis velocibus ita domi forisque colluxit, ut 
prudentia Vespasiani filius Titus alter aestimaretur, 
bellorum gloriosis cursibus Traiani similiimus, 
clemens ut Antoninus, rectae perfectaeque rationis 
indigine congruens Marco, ad cuius aemulationem 
actus suos effingebat et mores. 5. Et quoniam (ut 
Tulliana docet auctoritas) " omnium magnarum 
artium sicut arborum altitudo nos delectat, radices 
stirpesque non item," sic praeclarae huius iiidolis 
rudimenta, tunc multis obnubilantibus tegebantur, 
quae anteferri gestis eius postea multis et miris, 
hac ratione deberent, quod adulescens primaevus, 
ut Erechtheus in secessu Minervae nutritus, ex Aca- 
demiae quietis umbraculis, non e militari tabernaculo, 
in pulverem Martium tractus, strata Germania, 
pacatisque rigentis Rheni meatibus, cruenta spiran- 
tium regum hie sanguinem fudit, alibi manus catenis 

^ This is also stated by Eutropius, x. 16, 5, and by 
Julian himself in his Letter to Themistitis, p. 253, 13 ; ii. p. 
203, L.C.L. 

^ De Oratare, iii. 46, 179 ; a very free quotation. 


XVI., 1, 2-5, A.D. 356 

endeavouring to put in play all the resources of my 
modest ability, if only they will suffice. 3. Now 
whatever I shall tell (and no wordy deceit adorns 
my tale, but untrammelled faithfulness to fact, based 
upon clear proofs, composes it) will almost belong 
to the domain of the panegyric. 4. For some law i 
of a higher life seems to have attended this youth 
from his noble cradle even to his last breath. For 
with rapid strides he grew so conspicuous at home 
and abroad that in his foresight he was esteemed 
a second Titus, son of Vespasian, in the glorious 
progress of his wars as very like Trajan, mild as 
Antoninus Pius, and in searching out the true and 
perfect reason of things in harmony with Marcus 
Aurelius, in emulation of whom he moulded his 
conduct and his character.^ 5. And since (as the 
authority of Cicero informs us) ^ " we take delight in 
the loftiness of all noble arts, as we do of trees, but 
not so much in their roots and stumps," just so the 
beginnings of his surpassing ability were then veiled 
by many overshadowing features. Yet they ought 
to be preferred to his many admirable later achieve- 
ments, for the reason that while still in early youth, 
educated like Erectheus ^ in Minerva's retreat, 
and drawn from the peaceful shades of the Academy, 
not from a soldier's tent, to the dust of battle, he 
vanquished Germany, subdued the meanders of the 
freezing Rhine, here shed the blood of kings breath- 
ing cruel threats, and there loaded their arms with 

^ One of the earliest kings of Athens, because of his 
discovery of many useful arts said to have been educated 
by Minerva ; cf . Iliad, ii. 546 f . 



2. lulianus Caesar Alamannos adoritur, caedit, 
capit, et fugat. 

1. Agens itaque negotiosam hiemem apud oppi- 
dum ante dictum, inter rumores, qui volitabant 
assidui, comperit Augustuduni civitatis antiquae 
muros spatiosi quidem ambitus sed carie vetustatis 
invalidos, barbarorum impetu repentino insessos, 
torpente praesentium inilitum manu, veteranos con- 
cursatione pervigili defendisse, ut solet abrupta 
saepe discrimina salutis ultima desperatio propul- 
sare. 2. Nihil itaque remittentibus curis, ancillari 
adulatione posthabita, qua eum proximi ad amoeni- 
tatem flectebant et luxum, satis omnibus comparatis, 
octavum kalendas lubas Augustudunum pervenit, 
velut dux diuturnus viribus eminens et consiliis, 
per diversa palantes barbaros ubi dedisset fors 
copiam aggressurus. 3. Habita itaque delibera- 
tione assistentibus locorum peritis, quodnam iter 
eligeretur ut tutum, multa ultro citroque dicebantur 
aliis per Arbor ^ . . . quibusdam per Sedelaucum 
et Coram iri debere firmantibus. 4. Sed cum 
subsererent quidam, Silvanum paulo ante magis- 
trum peditum per compendiosas vias, verum sus- 
pectas, quia ramorum tenebris - multis umbrantur, 
cum octo auxiliarium milibus aegre transisse, fiden- 
tius Caesar audaciam viri fortis imitari magnopere 

^ Arbor (lac. 13 letters), V. 'ramorum tenebris, 

Fletcher, cf. xvi. 12, 59 ; nemorum t.. Her. ; tenebris, G, 
Clark ; quiante mumibris, V. 

^ I.e. Vienne. 

- The name cannot be completed. 

* In the department Cote d'Or. 


XVI., 2, 1^, A.D. 356 

2. Julianiis Caesar attacks the Alamarini, slaughters, 
captures, and vanquishes them. 

1. Accordingly, while he was passing a busy winter 
in the above-mentioned town,^ in the thick of rumours 
which kept persistently flying about, he learned that 
the walls of the ancient city of Autun, of wide 
circuit, to be sure, but weakened by the decay of 
centuries, had been besieged by a sudden onset of 
the savages ; and then, though the force of soldiers 
garrisoned there was paralysed, it had been defended 
by the watchfulness of veterans who hurried together 
for its aid, as it often happens that the extreme of 
desperation wards off" imminent danger of death. 2. 
Therefore, without putting aside his cares, and disre- 
garding the servile flattery with which his courtiers 
tried to turn him to pleasure and luxury, after making 
adequate preparation he reached Autun on the 24th of 
June, like some experienced general, distinguished for 
power and poUcy, intending to fall upon the savages, 
who were straggling in various directions, whenever 
chance should give opportunity. 3. Accordingly, 
when he held a council, with men present who knew 
the country, to decide what route should be chosen 
as a safe one, there was much interchange of opinion, 
some saying that they ought to go by Arbor "^ . . . 
others by way of SauUeu ^ and Cora."* 4. But when 
some remarked that Silvanus, commander of the 
infantry, with 8000 reserve troops had shortly 
before passed (though with difficulty) by roads 
shorter but avoided because of the heavy shade of 
the branches, the Caesar with the greater confidence 

* A small place in the neighbourhood of Autun. 



iiitebatur. 5. Et nequa iuterveniat mora, adhibitis 
cataphractariis solis et ballistariis, parum ad tuen- 
dum rectorem idoneis, percurso eodem itinere, 
Autosudorum pervenit. 6. Ubi brevi (sicut solebat) 
otio cum milite recreatus, ad Tricasinos tendebat, 
et barbaros in se catervatiin ruentes partim, cum 
timeret ut ampliores, confertis lateribus observabat, 
alios occupatis habilibus locis, decursu facili pro- 
terens, non nuUos pavore traditos cepit, residuos in 
curam celeritatis omne quod poterant conferentes, 
quia sequi non valebat, gravitate praepeditus 
armorum, innocuos abire perpessus est. 7. Proinde 
certiore iam spe ad resistendum ingruentibus con- 
firmatus, per multa discrimina venit Tricasas, adeo 
insperatus, ut eo portas paene pulsante, diffusae 
niultitudinis barbarae metu, aditus urbis non sine 
anxia panderetur ambage. 8. Et pauHsper moratus, 
dum fatigato consulit militi, civitatem Remos, 
nihil prolatandum existimans, petit, ubi in unum 
congregatum exercitum vehentem mensis unius 
cibaria ^ iusserat operiri praesentiam suam ; cui 
praesidebat Ursicini successor Marcellus, et ipse 
Ursicinus, ad usque expeditionis finem agere praecep- 
tus eisdem in locis. 9. Post variatas itaque sententias 

^ mensis cibaria, added by Val., unius by Novak (in 
lac. 18 letters). 

1 The cataphractarii were mounted warriors : both horses 
and men were heavily clad in armour ; see xvi. 10, 4. 

2 The ballistarii had charge of the ballistae, which took 
the place of modern artillery ; described in xxiii. 4, 1. 


XVI., 2, 4-9, A.D. 356 

made a strong resolve to emulate the daring of that 
hardy man. 5. And to avoid any delay, he took 
only the cuirassiers ^ and the crossbowmen,^ who 
were far from suitable to defend a general, and 
traversing the same road, he came to Auxerre. 6. 
There with but a short rest (as his custom was) he re- 
freshed himself and his soldiers and kept on towards 
Troyes ; and when troops of savages kept making 
attacks on him, he sometimes, fearing that they might 
be in greater force, strengthened his flanks and re- 
connoitered ; sometimes he took advantage of 
suitable ground, easily ran them down and trampled 
them under foot, capturing some who in terror gave 
themselves up, while the remainder exerted all their 
powers of speed in an effort to escape. These he 
allowed to get away unscathed, since he was unable 
to follow them up, encumbered as he was with 
heavy-armed soldiers. 7. So, as he now had firmer 
hope of success in resisting their attacks, he pro- 
ceeded among many dangers to Troyes, reaching 
there so unlooked for, that when he was almost 
knocking at the gates, the fear of the widespread 
bands of savages was such, that entrance to the city 
was vouchsafed only after anxious debate. 8. And 
after staying there a short time, out of considera- 
tion for his tired soldiers, he felt that he ought not 
to delay, and made for the city of Rheims. There 
he had ordered the whole army to assemble with 
provisions for a month and to await his coming ; 
the place was commanded by Ursicinus' successor 
Marcellus, and Ursicinus himself was directed to 
serve in the same region until the end of the cam- 
paign. 9. Accordingly, after the expression of 



plurew, '•u!u placuisset per Decern pagos Alamannam 
aggredi plebem densatis agmiuibus, tendebat illuc 
solito alacrior miles. 10. Et quia dies umectus et 
decolor, vel contiguum eripiebat aspectum, iuvante 
locorum gnaritate hostes trainite obliquo discurso, 
post Caesaris terga legiones duas arraa cogentes 
adorti, paeiie delessent, ni siibito concitus clamor 
sociorum auxilia coegisset. IL Hinc et delude 
nee itinera nee flumina transire posse sine insidiis 
putans, erat providus et cunctator, quod ^ praeci- 
pium bonum in magnis ductoribus, opem ferre solet 
exercitibus et salutem. 12. Audieus itaque Argen- 
toratum, Brotomagum, Tabernas, Salisonem, Neme- 
tas et Vangionas et Mogontiaciun civitates barbaros 
possidentes, territoria earum habitare (nam ipsa 
oppida lit circumdata retiis busta declinant) pri- 
mam omnium Brotomagum occupavit, eique iam 
adventanti Germanorum maniis ^ pugnam intentans 
occurrit. 13. Cumque in bicornem figuram acie 
divisa, collato pede res agi coepisset. exitioque 
hostes urgerentur ancipiti, captis non nullis, aliis 
in ipso proeUi fervore truncatis, residui discessere, 
celeritatis praesidio tecti. 

1 quod, G ; V omits. ^ G. mantis p., W^ G ; G. jmg- 

nam (without lac), V. 

1 Dieuse. 

2 In xxxi. 2, 4, a similar statement is made of the Hmis, 
that they avoid houses as the}' would tombs. E. Maass, 


XVI., 2, 9-13, A.D. 356 

many various opinions, it was agreed to attack the 
Alamanuic horde by way of the Ten Cantons ^ 
and the soldiers closed ranks and went on in that 
direction with unusual alacrity. 10. And because 
the day was misty and overcast, so that even objects 
close at hand could not be seen, the enemy, aided 
by their acquaintance with the country, went around 
by a crossroad and attacked two legions behind the 
Caesar's back while they were gathering up their 
equipment. And they would nearly have anni- 
hilated them, had not the shouts that they suddenly 
raised brought up the reinforcements of our allies. 
11. Then and thereafter, thinking that he could 
cross neither roads nor rivers without ambuscades, 
Julian was wary and hesitant, which is a special 
merit in great commanders, and is wont both to 
help and to save their armies. 12. Hearing therefore 
that Strasburg, Brumath, Saverne, Seltz, Worms, 
and Mayence were in the hands of the savages, who 
were living on their lands (for the towns themselves 
they avoid as if they were tombs surrounded by 
nets),- he first of all seized Brumath, but while he 
was still approaching it a band of Germans met him 
and offered battle. 13. Julian drew up his forces in 
the form of a crescent, and when the fight began 
to come to close quarters, the enemy were over- 
whelmed by a double danger ; some were captured, 
others were slain in the very heat of the battle, and 
the rest got away, saved by recourse to speed. 

Neue Jahrb., xlix. (1922) pp. 205 ff., says that graves of 
women who died in childbed, and might return to get their 
offspring, were surrounded with nets. 


VOL. I. O 


3. luliunus Caesar Coloniam a Francis captum 
recipit, et pacem ihi cum Francorum regibus 

1. NuUo itaque post haec repugnante, ad recupe- 
ranflam ire placuit Agrippinam, ante Caesaris in 
Gallias adventiini excisam, per quos tractus nee 
civitas ulla visitur nee castellum, nisi quod apud 
Confluentes, locum ita cognominatum, ubi amnis 
Mosella coufuuditur Rheno, Rigomagum oppidum 
est et una prope ipsam Coloniam turris. 2. Igitur 
Agrippinam ingressus, non ante motus est exinde, 
quam Francorum regibus furore mitescente perterri 
tis, pacem firmaret rei publicae interim profuturam 
et urbem reciperet munitissimam. 3. Quibus vin 
cendi primitiis laetus, per Treveros hiematurus 
apud Senonas oppidum tunc opportunum abscessit 
Ubi bellorum inundantium molem umeris suis 
(quod dicitur) vehens, scindebatur in multiplices 
curas, ut milites qui a solitis descivere praesidiis 
reducerentur ad loca suspecta, et conspiratas gentes 
in noxam Romani nominis disiectaret, ac provideret 
ne alimenta deessent exercitui per varia discursuro. 

iSeexv. 8, 19. 

^ Near Coblenz, which gets its name from Confluentes. 


XVI., 3, 1-3, A.D. 356 

3. Julian recovers Cologne, uliich had been captured 
by the Franks, and there makes peace tvith the 
kings of the Franks. 

1. Accordingly, as after this no one offered resist- 
ance, Julian decided to go and recover Cologne, 
which had been destroyed before his arrival in 
Gaul.^ In all that region there is no city to be seen 
and no stronghold, except that at the Confluence, 
a place so called because there the river Moselle 
mingles with the Rhine, there is the town of Rhein- 
magen - and a single tower near Cologne itself. 
2. So, having entered Cologne, he did not stir 
from there until he had overawed the Frankish 
kings and lessened their pugnacity, had made a 
peace with them which would benefit the state in the 
future, and had recovered that very strongly forti- 
fied city. 3. Pleased with these first-fruits of victory, 
he went to winter at Sens, a town of the Treveri 
then available. There, bearing on his shoulders, as 
the saying is, the burden of a flood of wars,^ he 
was distracted by manifold cares — how the soldiers 
who had abandoned their usual posts might be 
taken back to danger-points, how he might scatter 
the tribes that had conspired to the hurt of the 
Roman cause, and how to see to it that food should 
not fail his army, as it was about to range in different 

3 See p. 82, n. tT. '' f 



4. luliaiius Caesar apiid Seiionas oppidnm ah 
Atemannis obsidctur. 

1. Haec soUicite perpensantem, hostilis aggreditur 
multitudo, oppidi capiundi spe in maius accensa, 
ideo confidenter quod ei nee scutarios adesse pro- 
dentibus perfugis didieerant nee gentiles, per 
municipia distributes, ut commodius veseerentur 
quam antea.^ 2, Clausa ergo urbe murorumque 
intuta parte firniata, ipse cum armatis die noctuque 
inter propugnacula visebatur et pinnas, ira exun- 
dante substridens, cum erumpere saepe conatus, 
paucitate praesentis manus impediretur. Post tri- 
cesimum denique diem, abiere barbari tristes, inaniter 
stulteque cogitasse civitatis obsidium mussitantes. 

3. Et ^ (quod indignitati rerum est assignandum) 
periclitanti Caesari distulit suppetias ferre Marcellus, 
magister equitum agens in stationibus proximis, cum 
etiam si ci\'itas absque principe vexaretur, opposita 
multitudine malis obsidionalibus expediri deberet. 

4. Hoc metu solutus, efficacissimus Caesar providebat 
constanti sollicitudine, ut militum diuturno labori 
quies succederet aliqua licet brevis, ad recreandas 
tamen sufficiens vires, quamquam ultima squalentes 

1 quam antea (without, lac), Heraeus ; cum autem (lac. 42 
letters) clausa, V. ^ et, V (Pet. defends) ; set, Clark ; 

at, Lind. 

1 See note 3, p. 56. 


XVI., 4, 1-4, A.D. 356 

4. Julian is besieged by the Alemanni in the town of 

1. As he was anxiously weighing these problems, 
a host of the enemy attacked, fired with increased 
hope of taking the town, and full of confidence 
because they had learned from the statements of 
deserters that neither the targeteers nor the gen- 
tiles ^ were at hand ; for they had been distributed 
in the towns, so as to be more easily provisioned 
than before. 2. So, having shut the city gates 
and strengthened a weak section of the walls, Julian 
could be seen day and night with his soldiers among 
the bulwarks and battlements, boihng over with 
rage and fretting because however often he tried to 
sally forth, he was hampered by the scanty numbers 
of the troops at hand. Finally, after a month the 
savages withdrew crestfallen, muttering that they 
had been silly and foolish to have contemplated the 
blockade of the city. 3. But — a thing to be assigned \ 
to the irony of fate — while Caesar was in jeopardy, \ 
Marcellus, master of the horse, although he was 
stationed in neighbouring posts, postponed sending 
him reinforcements ; whereas even if the city alone 
was endangered, to say nothing of the prince's pres- 
ence there, it ought to have been saved from the 
hardships of blockade by the intervention of a large 
force. 4. Once relieved of this fear, Caesar pro- 
vided with the greatest efficiency and with unfaihng 
solicitude that some rest should follow the long 
continued toil of the soldiers, a short one perhaps, 
but enough, at least, to restore their strength ; 
and yet that region, a wilderness in its extreme 



inopia terrae, saepe vastitatae exigua quaedam 
victui congrua suggerebant. 5. Verum hoc quoque 
diligentia curato pervigili, affusa laetiore spe pro- 
sperorum, sublato animo ad exsequanda plurima 

5. luliani Caesaris lirtutes. 

1. Priinum igitur factuque difficile, temperantiam 
ipse sibi indixit atque retinuit, tamquam adstrictus 
sumptuariis legibus viveret, quas ex rhetris Lycurgi 
(id est axibus) Romam translatas, diuque obser- 
vatas et senescentes, paulatim reparavit Sulla 
dictator, reputans ex praedictis Democriti, quod 
ambitiosam mensam fortuna, parcam virtus apponit. 
2. Id enim etiam Tusculanus Cato prudenter de- 
finiens, cui Censorii cognomentum, castior vitae 
indidit cultus : " Magna " inquit " cura cibi, magna 
virtutis incuria." 3. Denique cum legeret libellum 
assidue, quem Constantius, ut privignum ad studia 
mittens, manu sua conscripserat, praelicenter dis- 
ponens quid in convivio Caesaris impendi deb'eret. 

1 The rhetrae (prJTpai) were oracular utterances which 
Lycurgus professed to have received directly from Apollo 
at Delphi ; later the word was used generally for the laws 
of Lycurgus. 

' The laws of Solon were called amoves [axes) because 
they were written on wooden tablets. R. Scholl inserted 
Solonis, but the term may be used of the rhetrae ; cf. 
Gellius, ii. 12, 1, in legibus Solonis . . . quae Athenis 


XVI., 4, 4-5—5, 1-3, A.D. 356 

destitution through having often been ravaged, 
provided very httle suitable for rations. 5. But 
when this too had been provided for by his ever- 
watchful care, a happier hope of success was shed 
upon him, and with spirits re\'ived he rose to the 
achievement of numerous enterprises. 

5. The merits of Julianus Caesar. 

1. First, then (and a hard thing to accomplish) 
he imposed moderation on himself, and kept to it, 
as if he were living bound by the sumptuary laws 
which were brought to Rome from the Edicts,^ 
that is, the w^ooden tablets,^ of Lycurgus ; and when 
they had long been observed, but were going out of 
use, the dictator Sulla gradually renewed them,^ 
taking account of one of the sayings of Democritus, 
that a pretentious table is set by Fortune, a frugal 
one by \irtue. 2. Furthermore, Cato of Tusculum, 
whose austere manner of living conferred upon 
him the surname Censorius, wisely defined that 
point, saying : " Great care about food implies 
great neglect of virtue." * 3. Lastly^ though he con- 
stantly read the booklet which Constantius, when 
sending his stepson to the university, had written 
with his own hand, making lavish provision for what 
should be spent on Caesar's table, he forbade the 

axibus ligneis incisae sunt. There is, however, some 
coiifusion here, and perliaps Lycurgi should be Solonis, 
or id est axones sliould be deleted. 

3 See GeUius, ii. 24, 1 1 ; i. 204 f . L.C.L., for details of this 
and other sumptuary laws. 

*P, 110, 22, Jordan. 



phasianum et vulvam et sumen exigi vetuit et 
inferri, munificis militis vili et fortuito cibo contentus. 
4. Hinc contingebat ut noctes ad officia divideret 
tripertita, quietis et publicae rei et rausarum, quod 
factitasse Alexandrum legimus Magnum ; sed multo 
hie fortius. Ille namque aenea eoncha supposita, 
brachio extra cubile protento pilam tenebat argen- 
tcam, ut cum nervorum vigorem sopor laxasset 
infusus, gestaminis lapsi tinnitus abrumperet som- 
num. 5. lulianus vero absque instrumento, quo- 
tiens vohiit evigilavit, et nocte dimidiata semper 
exsurgens, non e plumis vel stragulis sericis ambiguo 
fulgore nitentibus, sed ex tapete et sisyra ^, quam 
vulgaris simplicitas susurnam appellat, occulte 
Mercurio supplicabat, quem mundi velociorem 
sensum esse motum mentium suscitantem, theo- 
logicae prodidere doctrinae ; atque in tanto rerum 
defectu, explorate rei publicae munera cuncta " 
curabat. 6. Post quae ut ardua et seria terminata, 
ad procudendum ingenium vertebatur, et incredi- 
bile quo quantoque ardore, principalium rerum 
notitiam celsam indagans, et quasi pabula quaedam 
animo ad sublimiora scandenti conquirens, per 
omnia philosophiae membra prudenter disputando 
currebat. 7. Sed tamen cum haec cfFecte pleneque 

^ ^vaipa, bG ; ^lavpa, B ; aiovpa, Lind. ; (lac. 7 
letters at end of page) syra, V. ^ explorate rei publicae 

munera, T, Val. {cuncta added by Novak, c.c.) ; exploranter. 
ei.p.,\i\ (lac. 5 letters), V {nto- . . . H] , V^). 


XVI., 5, 3-7, A.D. 356 

ordering and serving of pheasants and of sow's 
matrix and udders, contenting himself with the 
coarse and ordinary rations of a common soldier. 

4. So it came about that he divided his nights 
according to a threefold schedule — rest, affairs of 
state, and the Muses, a course which Alexander the 
Great, as we read, used to practise ; but Julian 
was far more self-reliant. For Alexander used to 
set a bronze basin beside his couch and with out- 
stretched arm hold a silver ball over it, so that when 
the coining of sleep relaxed the tension of his muscles, 
the clanging of the ball as it fell might break off his 
nap. 5. But Julian could wake up as often as he 
wished, without any artificial means. And when 
the night was half over, he always got up, not from 
a downy couch or silken coverlets glittering with 
varied hues, but from a rough blanket and rug, 
which the simple common folk call susiirna.^ Then 
he secretly prayed to Mercury, whom the teaching 
of the theologians showed to be the swft intelligence 
of the universe, arousing the activity of men's minds ; 
and in spite of such great lack of material things 
he paid diligent heed to all his public duties. 6. 
And after bringing these (as his lofty and serious 
tasks) to an end, he turned to the exercise of his 
intellect, and it is unbelievable with what great ; 
eagerness he sought out the sublime knowledge of \ 
all chiefest things, and as if in search of some \ 
sort of sustenance for a soul soaring to loftier ! 
levels, ran through all the departments of philo- 
sophy in his learned discussions. 7. But yet, 

^A coarse blanket made from the fur or hide of an 



colligeret, nee humiliora despexit, poeticam medio- 
criter et rhetoricam tractans ^ (ut ostendit orationum 
epistularumque eius cum gravitate comitas in- 
corrupta) et nostrarum externarumque rerum his- 
toriam multiformem. Super his aderat Latine 
quoque disserendi sufficiens sermo. 8. Si itaque 
verum est, quod scriptores varii memorant, Cyrum 
regem et Simonidem lyricum, et Hippian Eleum 
sophistarum acerrimum, ideo valuisse memoria, 
quod epotis quibusdam remediis id impetrarunt, 
credendum est hunc etiam turn adultum totum 
memoriae dolium (si usquam repperiri potuit) ex- 
hausisse. Et haec quidem pudieitiae virtutumque 
sunt signa nocturna. 

9. Diebus vero quae ornate dixerit et facete, 
quaeve in apparatu vel in ipsis egerit congressibus 
proeliorum, aut in re civili magnanimitate correxit 
et libertate, suo quaeque loco singulatim ^ demon- 
strabuntur. 10. Cum exercere proludia disciplinae 
castrensis philosophus cogeretur ut princeps, artem- 
que modulatius incedendi per pyrricham concinenti- 
bus disceret fistulis, vetus illud proverbium " clitellae 
bov-i sunt impositae ; plane non est nostrum onus " 
Platonem crebro nominans exclamabat. 11. Cum 
inducti essent iussu eius ^ quadam soUemnitate 
agentes in rebus * in consistorium, ut aurum 

1 tractans, added by Novak ; V omits. - singulatim, 

Her. ; singula, V. ^ Cu7n inducti essent iussu eius, 

Novak ; inducet et eius, V ; lac. after indticet, Seeck. 
* sollemnitate agentes, Heraeus ; sollemni (lac. 5 letters) 
ngens, V. 

^ Cic, ad Att. v. 15, 3, with ilia or illane for ]jlane. 

XVI., 5, 7-11, A.D. 356 

though he gained full and exhaustive knowledge in 
this sphere, he did not neglect more humble sub- 
jects, studying poetry to a moderate degree, and 
rhetoric (as is shown by the undefiled elegance and 
dignity of his speeches and letters) as well as the 
varied history of domestic and foreign affairs. 
Besides all this he had at h is command adequate 
fluency al sp_ in^Xatiii. joaiwexsaliQir 87 If, then7~it 
is true (as divers writers report) that King Cyrus 
and the lyric poet Simonides, and Hippias of Elis, 
keenest of the sophists, had such powerful memories 
because they had acquired that gift by drinking 
certain potions, we must believe that Julian, w^hen 
only just arrived at manhood, had drained the 
entire cask of memory, if such could be found any- 
where. These, then, were the nightly evidences of 
his self-restraint and his virtues. 

9. But how he passed his days in brilliant and 
wittv conversation, in preparation for war or in 
the actual clash of battle, or in lofty and liberal 
improvements in civil administration, shall later 
be shown in detail, each in its proper place. 
10. When this philosopher, being a prince, was 
forced to practise the rudiments of military training 
and learn the art of marching rhythmically in 
pyrrhic measure to the harmony of the pipes, he 
often used to call on Plato's name, quoting that 
famous old saying : ^ "A pack-saddle is put on an 
ox ; that is surely no burden for me." 11. When 
the agents ^ had been summoned by his order on 
a festal day to his council chamber, to receive their 

^ The agentes in rehus formed the imperial secret service 
under the Magister Officiorum ; see note 2, p. 98. 



acciperent inter alios, quidam ex eorum consortio, 
non (ut moris est) pansa chlamyde, sed utraque manu 
cavata suscepit. Et imperator " rapere " inquit 
" non accipere sciunt agentes in rebus." 12. Aditus 
a parentibus virginis raptae, eum qui violarat 
convictura relegari decrevit. Hisque indigna pati 
querentibus, quod non sit mortc multatus, res- 
ponderat hactenus : " Incusent iura clementiam, 
sed imperatorem mitissimi animi legibus praestare 
ceteris decet." 13. Egressurum eum ad ex- 
peditionem plures interpellabant ut laesi, quos 
audiendos provinciarum rectoribus commendabat ; 
et reversus, quid egerint singuli quaerens, delic- 
torum vindictas genuina lenitudine mitigabat. 
14. Ad ultimuni exceptis victoriis, per quas caden- 
tcs ^ saepe incolumi contumacia barbaros fudit, 
quod profuerit anhelantibus extrema penuria Gallis, 
hinc maxime claret, quod primitus partes eas 
ingressus, pro capitulis singulis tributi nomine 
vicenos quinos aureos repperit flagitari, discedens 
vero septenos tantum munera universa complentes : 
ob quae tamquam solem sibi serenum post squa- 
lentes tenebras affulsisse, cum alacritate et tri- 
pudiis laetabantur. 15. Denique id eum ad usque 
imperii finem et vitae scinius utiliter observasse, 
ue per indulgentias (quas appellant) tributariae 

^ audentes, Birt ; uagantes, Novak. 

^ The auretis was the standard gold coin of Rome, equal 
to 100 sesterces. 


XVI., 5, 11-15, A.D. 356 

gold with the rest, one of the company took it, not 
(as the custom is) in a fold of his mantle, but in both 
his open hands. Whereupon the emperor said, 
" It is seizing, not accepting, that agents under- 
stand." 12. When approached by the parents of 
a girl who had been assaulted, he ordered that her 
ravisher, if convicted, shoiUd be banished ; and 
when they complained of the indignity suffered in 
that he was not punished with death, the emperor 
merely repUed : " The laws may censure my clem- 
ency, but it is right for an emperor of very merci- 
ful disposition to rise above all other laws." 13. 
When he was on the point of leaving on a campaign, 
many persons would appeal to him, as ha\dng griev- 
ances ; but he used to recommend them to the pro- 
vincial governors for their hearings. On his return 
he would inquire what had been decided in each case, 
and with his native kindliness would mitigate the 
punishment of the offences. 14. Last of all, not to 
speak of the victories in which he routed the savages, 
who often fell with spirits unbroken, what good he did 
to Gaul, labouring as it was in utmost destitution, 
appears most clearly from this fact : when he first 
entered those parts, he found that twenty-five 
pieces of gold ^ were demanded by way of tribute 
from every one as a poll-tax ; but when he left, 
seven only for full satisfaction of all duties. And on 
account of this (as if clear sunshine had beamed upon 
them after ugly darkness), they expressed their joy 
in gaiety and dances. 15. To conclude, we know that 
to the very end of his reign, and of his life, he ob- 
served this rule profitably, not to remit arrears of 
tribute by so-called " indulgencies." For he had 



rei coucederct rcliqua. Norat cuiin hoc faclo sc 
aliquid locupletibus addituruni, cum constat ubique, 
pauperes inter ipsa indictorum ^ exordia solvere 
universa sine laxamento compelli. 

16. Inter has tamen regendi moderandique vias, 
bonis principibus aemulandas, barbarica rajjies 
exarserat rursus in ^ maius. 17. Utque bestiae 
custodum neglegentia raptu vivere soUtae, ne his 
quidem remotis, appositisque fortioribus abscesse- 
runt, sed tumescentes inedia, sine respectu salutis, 
armenta vel greges incursant, ita etiam illi, cunctis 
quae diripuere consumptis, fame urgente, agebant 
aliquotiens praedas, interdum antequam contingerent 
aliquid, oppetebant. 

6. Arbetio vir consularis accusatur, et absolvitur. 

1. Haec per eum annum spe dubia eventu tamen 
secundo per Gallias agebantur. In comitatu vero 
Augusti, circumlatrabat Arbetionem invidia, velut 
summa mox adepturum, decora cultus imperatorii 
praestruxisse, instabatque ei strepens immania, 
comes Verissimus nomine, arguens coram, quod a 
gregario ad magnum militiae culmen evectus, hoc 
quoque non contentus (ut parvo) locum appeteret 
principalem. 2. Sed specialiter eum insectabatur 

^ indictorum, Pithoeus ; indictionum, Seeck ; dictorum, 
V. ^ rursus in, added bj^ Heraeus ; in, by BG ; 

without lac, V. 


XVI., 5, 15-17—6, 1-2, A.D. 356-7 

learned that by so "tloiug he would somewhat better 
the condition of the rich, since it is generally known 
that poor people at the very beginning of the tax- 
levying are forced to pay in full without easement. 
16. However, in the midst of these courses of 
wise governing, worthy jof_the^ imitatio n of goo d 
emperors, the fury of the savages hadT>lazed forth 
again more than ever. 17. And as wild beasts 
accustomed to live by plundering when their guards 
are slack do not cease even when these guards are 
removed and stronger ones put in their place, but 
ravening with hunger rush upon flocks or herds 
without regard for their own lives : so they too, 
when they had used up all that they had gotten by 
pillage, urged on by hunger, were continually driving 
off booty, and sometimes perishing of want before 
finding anything. 

6. Arbetio, a man of consular rank, is accused and 

1. These were the events in Gaul during that year 
dubious in prospect, but successful in outcome. But 
in the court of the Augustus envy kept barking on 
every side at Arbetio, as one that would soon attain 
the highest rank and had already prepared the 
insignia of imperial dignity ; and a certain count, 
Verissimus by name, assailed him with unbridled 
outcry, openly charging that although he had risen 
from the common soldiery to the chief military 
command, he was not satisfied even with this, 
but (as though it were a slight thing) was aiming at 
the imperial position. 2. But in particular one 



Dorus quidam ex medico scutariorum, quern niten- 
tium rerum centurionem sub Magnentio Romae 
provectum, retulimus accusasse Adelphium, urbi 
praefectum, ut altiora coeptantem. 3. Cumque 
res in ^ inquisitionem veniret, necessariisque negotio 
tentis, obiectorum probatio speraretur, tamquara 
per saturam subito cubiculariis sufFragantibus, ut 
loquebatur pertinax rumor, et vinculis sunt exutae 
personae quae stringebantur ut consciae, et Dorus 
evanuit, et Verissimus ilico tacuit, velut aulaeo 
deposito scenae. 

7. lulianus Caesar a praeposito cubiculi sui Eutherio 
apud imperatorem defenditur adversus Marcel- 
luin ; et laus Eutherii. 

1. Eisdem diebus, allapso rumore Constantius 
doctus, obsesso apud Senonas Caesari auxilium 
non tulisse Marcellum, eum Sacramento solutum 
abire iussit in larem. Qui tamquam iniuria gravi 
perculsus, quaedam in lulianum moliebatur, auri- 
bus Augusti confisus, in omne patentibus crimen. 

1 in, added by EGB ; ad, by Novak : V omits ; in 
qtutestionem. Her. 

1 In one of the lost books. 

- Commander of the night-patrol in charge of public 
buildings and montmients. 

2 Cf. Sallust, Jug., xxix. .'5, where the reference is to 
votmg on several questions at once ; lex multis rebus con- 
ferta, Festus, s.v. 


XVI., 6, 2-3—7, 1-2, A.D. 356-7 

Dorus, ex-surgeon of the targeteers, kept pursuing 
him ; he it was who (as I stated) ^ when promoted 
under Magnentius to be centurion in charge of 
works of art at Rome,^ accused Adelfius, prefect 
of the city, of aiming at a higher station. 3, And 
when the matter came to an investigation, and 
everything needful for the business was at hand, 
aproof of the charges was looked for ; when suddenly, 
as if by an irregular vote,^ at the instance of the 
chamberlains (as persistent rumour reported) both 
those persons under restraint as implicated were 
released from their fetters ; Dorus disappeared, and 
Verissimus at once held his peace, just as when on 
the stage the curtain is lowered and put away.* 

7. Julianus Caesar is defended against Marcellus 
before the emperor by Eutherius, his chief 
chamberlain ; and praise of Eutherius. 

1. At that same time Constantius, apprised by 
approaching rumour that when Caesar was blockaded 
at Sens, Marcellus had not brought aid,^ discharged 
the latter from the army and commanded him to 
depart to his home. Whereupon Marcellus, as if 
staggered by a grievous insult, began to contrive 
a plot against JuUan, presuming on Augustus, 
whose ears were openjto every slander. 2. And so,^ 

* We might say "The curtain is dropped," but the 
lowering of the curtain revealed the stage of the Roman 
theatre. Here the reference is to putting the curtain away 
and closing the theatre, as in Juvenal, vi. 67 ff., quotiens 
aulaea recondita ceasant et vacuo clu.soque sonant fora sola 
theatro. ^ Cf. xvi. 4, 3. 


VOL. I. P 


2. Ideoque cum discederet, Eutherius praepositus 
cubiculi mittitur statim post eum, siquid finxerit 
convicturus. Verum ille hoc nesciens, mox venit 
Mediolanum, strepens et tumultuans, (ut erat vani- 
dicus et amenti propior) ; admissus in consistorium, 
lulianum ut procacem insimulat, iamque ad eva- 
gandum altius validiores sibi pinnas aptare ; ita 
enim cum motu quodam corporis loquebatur in- 
genti. 3. Haec eo fingente licentius, Eutherius (ut 
postulavit) inductus, iussusque loqui quod vellet, vere- 
cunde et modice docet, velari veritatem mendaciis. 
Magistro enim armorum, ut credebatur, cessante 
consulto, industria vigili Caesarem obsessum apud 
Senonas diu barbaros reppulisse, apparitoremque 
fidum auctori suo quoad vixerit fore, obligata cervice 
sua spondebat. 

4. Res monuit super hoc eodem Eutherio pauca 
subserere, forsitan non credenda, ea re quod si 
Numa Pompilius vel Socrates bona quaedam dicerent 
de spadone, dictisque religionum adderent fidem, 
a veritate descivisse arguebantur. Sed inter vepres 
rosae nascuntur, et inter feras non nullae mitescunt, 
itaque carptim eius praecipua, quae sunt comperta, 
raonstrabo. 5. Natus in Armenia sanguine libero, 
captusque a finitimis hostibus, etiam turn parvulus 


XVI., 7, 2-5, A.D. 356-7 

when Marcellus was on his way, Eutherius, the head 
chamberlain, was sent immediately after him, to 
confute him in case he should trump up anything. 
But Marcellus, unware of this, presently came to 
Milan, blustering and making trouble, being a vain 
talkative fool and all but mad ; and when admitted 
to the council, he charged Julian with being arrogant 
and already fitting himself with s-tronger pinions, so 
as to soar up higher ; for these were his words, accom- 
panied by mighty gesticulations. 3. While he was 
freely forging these accusations, Eutherius (as he 
requested) was brought in, and being commanded 
to say what he wished, modestly and in few words 
showed that the truth was veiled with hes. For 
while the commander of the heavy-armed infantry 
(as was believed) deliberately held back, Caesar, 
who had long been blockaded in Sens, had by his 
watchful energy driven back the barbarians ; and 
Eutherius staked his own head on the promise that . 
Julian would be a loyal servitor to his superior, so 
long as he should live. 

4. The subject prompts me to add a few facts 
about this same Eutherius, perhaps hardly to be 
credited, for the reason that if a Numa Pompilius or 
a Socrates should give any good report of a eunuch, 
and should back their statements by a solemn oath, 
they would be charged with having departed from 
the truth. But among brambles roses spring up, \ <n 
and among savage beasts some are tamed. Accord- ' 
ingly, I shall give a brief summary of the chief facts 
known about him. 5. He was born in Armenia of 
free parents, but when still very young he was kid- 
napped by hostile tribesmen in that neighbourhood, 



abstractis geminis Romanis mercatoribus venun- 
datus, ad palatium Constantini deducitur ; ubi 
paulatim adulescens rationem ^ recte vivendi, soUer- 
tiamque ostendebat, litteris quantum tali fortunae 
satis esse poterat eruditus, cogitandi inveniendique 
dubia et scrupulosa, acumine nimio praestans, 
immensum quantum memoria vigens, benefaciendi 
avidus plenusque iusti consilii, quem si Constans 
imperator olim ex adulto iamque ^ maturum au- 
diret, bonesta suadentem et recta, nulla vel venia 
certe digna peccasset. 6. Is praepositus cubiculi 
etiam lulianum aliquotiens corrigebat, Asiaticis 
coalitum moribus, ideoque levem. Denique di- 
gressus ad otium, asscitusque postea in palatium, 
semper sobrius et in primis consistens, ita fidem 
continentiamque virtutes coluit amplas, ut nee 
prodidisse aliquando arcanum, nisi tuendae causa 
alienae salutis, nee exarsisse cupidine plus habendi 
arcesseretur, ut ceteri. 7. Unde factum est ut 
subinde Romam secedens, ibique fixo domicilio 
cousenescens, comitem circumferens conscientiam 
bonam, colatur a cunctis ordinibus et ametur, cum 
soleant id genus homines post partas ex iniqui- 
tate divitias latebras captare secretas, ut luci- 
fugae vitantes multitudinis laesae conspectus. 8. 
Cui spadonum veterum hunc comparare debeam, 

^ paulatim adulescens rationem, Val. ; paulatim (lac. 
14 letters) acules (lac. 9 letters) i rationem, V. ^ adulto 

iamque, Val. ; adulto (lac. 14 letters) tamque, V. 

^ Text and meaning are uncertain. On the faults of Con- 
stans, cf. Aurel. Victor, 41, and Zosimus, ii. 42. 
- See note 6, p. 81. 


XYL, 7, 5-8, A.D. 356-7 

who gelded him and sold him to some Roman traders 
and brought to Constautine's palace. There, as he 
grew up, he gradually gave evidence of virtuous 
living and ambition. He received as much training 
in letters as might suffice for one of that station ; 
conspicuous for his remarkable keenness in devising 
and finding out difficult and knotty problems, he 
had extraordinary powers of memory ; he was eager 
to do kindnesses and full of sound counsel. And if 
the emperor Constans had listened to him in times 
past, when Eutherius had grown up and was already 
mature, and urged honourable and upright conduct 
upon him, he would have been guilty of no faults, 
or at least of only pardonable ones.^ 6. When he had 
become head chamberlain,^ he would sometimes 
criticise even Jidian, as trained in the manners of 
Asia and therefore inconstant. Finally going into 
retirement, but afterwards summoned to the 
palace, always temperate and especially consistent, 
he so cultivated the noble virtues of loyalty and\ a 
self-restraint that he was never charged, as the rest ■ « > 
have been, with having disclosed a secret, unless 
it were to save another's life, or to have been kindled 
with a desire to increase his wealth. 7. The result 
was, that when he presently retired to Rome and 
grew old there in a permanent home, he carried about 
with him a good conscience as his companion ; he 
was honoured and loved by all classes, whereas 
that type of man, after amassing wealth by iniquitous 
means, usually seeks out secret lurking-places, Uke 
creatures of darkness shunning the sight of the 
multitude they have wronged. 8. In unrolhng 
many records of the past, to see to which of the 



antiquitates replicando complurcs invenire non 
potui. Fuerunt cnim aputl vctercs (licet oppido 
pauci) fideles et frugi, sed ob quaedam vitia macu- 
losi. Inter praecipua enim, quae eorum quisque 
studio possederat vel ingenio, aut rapax aut feritate 
contemptior fuit, aut propensior ad laedendum", vel 
regentibus ^ nimiuni blandus, aut potentiae fastu 
superbior ; ex omni latere autem ita paratum,- neque 
legisse me neque audisse confiteor, aetatis nostrae 
testimonio locupletL confisus. 9. \erum si forte 
scrupulosus quidam lector antiquitatum, Menophilum 
Mithridatis Pontici regis eunuchum, nobis opponat, 
hoc monitu recordetur, nihil super eo relatum praeter 
id solum, quod in supremo discrimine gloriose mon- 
stravit. 10. Ingenti proelio superatus a Romanis 
et Pompeio rex praedictus, fugiensque ad regna 
Colchorum, adultam filiam nomine Drypetinam, 
vexatam asperitate morborum, in castello Sinhorio 
huic Menophilo commissam reliquit. Qui virginem 
omni remediorum solacio plene curatam, patri 
tutissime servans, cum a Mallio Frisco, imperatoris 
legato, munimentum quo claudebatur obsideri 
coepisset, defensoresque eius deditionem meditari 
sentiret, veritus ne parentis opprobrio puella nobiUs 
captiva superasset et violata, interfecta ilia mox 

1 regentibuj?, Erfurdt, IMommsen ; clientibu~s, Val. ; lar- 
gientibiis, Novak ; ligendi mus, V. - paratum, Damste, 

cf. Cic. in Cat. iii. 7, 17 ; peritum, V. 


XVI., 7, 8-10, A.D. 356-7 

euuuchs of old I ought to compare him, I could find 
none. True, there were in times gone by those that 
were loyal and virtuous (although very few), but 
they were stained with some vice or other. For 
along with the excellent qualities which anyone of 
them had acquired by studious endeavour or natural 
ability he was either extortionate and despicable 
for his cruelty, or prone to do mischief, or too 
subservient to the rulers, or insolent through pride 
of power ; but of one so well equipped in every 
direction I confess I have neither read nor heard, 
although I have relied on the abundant testimony of 
our age. 9. But if haply any curious student of 
ancient history should confront me with Menophilus, 
the eunuch of Mithridates, king of Pontus, let this 
reminder recall to him that nothing was recorded 
of Menophilus save this one fact, that in the supreme 
crisis he made a glorious showing. 10. The afore- 
said king, after having been defeated in a mighty 
battle by Pompey and the Romans, fled to the 
kingdom of Cholcis ; he left his grown daughter, 
Drypetina by name, who was afflicted with a 
grievous disease, in the fortress of Sinborium under 
the charge of this Menophilus. He, resorting to 
every healing remedy, completely cured the girl 
and was guarding her in complete security for her 
father, when the fortress in which he was beleagured 
began to be blockaded by Mallius Priscus, the 
Roman commander's lieutenant-general ; and when 
Menophilus learned that its defenders w^ere thinking 
of surrender, fearing lest, to her father's reproach, 
the high-born girl might be taken ahve and suffer 
outrage, he killed her and then plunged the sword 



gladium in viscera sua compegit. Wunc redeam 
unde diverti. 

8. Delationes et calumniae in castris Constantii 
Augusti, et uuHcorum rapacitas. 

1. Superato ut dixi Marcello, reversoque ' Serdi- 
cam, unde oriebatur, in castris Augusti per simula- 
tionem tueudae maiestatis imperatoriae, multa et 
nefanda perpetrabantur.^ 2. Nam si super occentu 
soricis vel occursu mustelae, vel similis signi gratia 
consuluisset quisquam ^ peritum, aut anile incanta- 
mentum ad leniendum adhibuisset dolorem, quod 
medicinae quoque admittit auctoritas, reus unde 
non poterat opinari delatus, raptusque in iudiciura, 
poenaliter iuteribat. 

3. Per id tempus fere servum "* quendam, nomine 
Danum, terrore tenus uxor rerum levium incusarat : 
banc incertum unde notam ^ Rufinus subsedit,^ — quo 
indicante quaedam cognita per Gaudentium, agen- 
tem in rebus, consularem Pannoniae tunc Africanum, 
cum convivis rettulimus interfectum — apparitionis 
praefecturae praetorianae tuna etiam princeps ob 
devotionem. 4. Is ' (ut loquebatur iactantius) ver- 
sabilem feminam, post nefandum concubitum, in 

1 reuersoque, Lind ; euersoque, V. ^ perpetrabantur 

G ; j)crpelrahant, V. ^ quisquam, Heraeiis, cf. xxii. 

16, 19 ; quenujuam, V. *fere or ferme, Wagner, 

seruum, Heraeus ; fer (lac. 11 letters) num, V. ^ hanc 

incertum unde notam, Heraeus ; incusarat (lac. of 7 letters) 
certum an*cinccrtum (c after * added by V-) undenso tarn, V. 
* subsedit, Clark ; subsidehnt, Val. ; subseda, V. ^ is, 

Val ; bis, V. 


XVI., 7, 10—8, 1-4, A.D. 356-7 

into his own vitals.^ Now let me leturu to the point 
from which I digressed. 

8. Slatidcrs and ((ihunnics in the cami> of ( .(iiis(<inlius 
Augustus, (tiid the grrcd of the courtiers. 

1. After Marcellus had been worsted, as I have 
said, and had returned to Serdica,'^ his native place, 
in the camp of Augustus, under pretext of uphold- 
ing his imperial majesty, many abominable acts 
were committed. 2. For if anyone consulted a 
soothsayer about the squeaking of a field-mouse, 
the meeting with a weasel on the way, or any like 
portent, or used some old wife's charm to relieve pain 
(a thing which even medical authority allows), he was 
indicted (from what source he could not guess), was 
haled into court, and suffered death as the penalty. 

3. At about that time a certain slave, Danus by 
name, was accused by his Avife on trifling charges 
merely to intimidate him ; this woman was 
approached by Rufinus, who had come to know her 
in some way or other. He was the man who had 
given certain information that he had learned 
through Gaudentius, one of the agents,^ and had 
caused the death of Africanus, then governor- 
general of Pannonia, along with his guests, as I 
have related ; "* he was even then, because of his 
obsequiousness, chief steward of the praetorian pre- 
fecture. 4. This Rufinus (as he kept boastfully 
saying) led the fickle woman, first into shameful 

^ This action is not mentioned elsewhere, not even by 
Val. Max., i. 8, 13, where he speaks of Drypetina. 

^Modern Sophia, Bulgaria. *Seenote2, p. 98. *xv. 3, 7. 



periculosam Iraudcm illexit ; suasit consarcinatis 
mendaciis laesae maiestatis arcessere raaritum in- 
sontem, et fingerc quod velamen purpureum, a 
Diocletiani sepulcro furatus, quibusdam consciis 
occultabat. 5. Hisque ad multorum exitium ita 
formatis, ipse spe potiorum ad imperatoris pervolat 
castra, excitaturus calumnias consuetas. Reque 
comperta, iubetur Mavortius, tunc praefectus prae- 
torio, vir sublimis constantiae, crimen acri inquisi- 
tione spectare, iuncto ad audiendi societatem 
Ursulo (largitionum comite) severitatis itidem non 
improbandae. 6. Exaggerate itaque negotio ad 
arbitrium temporum, cum nihil post tormenta 
multorum inveniretur, iudicesque haererent ambigui, 
tandem Veritas respiravit oppressa, et in abrupto 
necessitatis mulier Rufinum totius machinae con- 
fitetur auctorem, nee adulterii foeditate suppressa ; 
statimque legibus contemplatis, illi amore recti 
Concordes et iusti,^ ambos sententia damnavere 
letali. 7. Quo cognito Constantius fremens, et 
tamquam vindicem salutis suae lugens exstinctum, 
missis equitibus citis, Ursulum redire ad comitatum 
minaciter iussit. Qui cum eo venisset adireque 
principem vellet, ab aulicis arcebatur, ne def'endendae 

1 contemplatift, Val. ; illi amore recti, Novak {indices idem, 
scripseram) ; Concordes et iusti, Eyssen. ; contem (lac. 24 
letters) ordes. V. 

> See Introd., pp. xl f. 

XVI., 8, 4-7, A.D. 356-7 

relations with him, and then into a dangerous deceit ; 
he induced her by a tissue of Hes to charge her 
guiltless husband with high treason, and to allege 
that he had stolen a purple robe from Diocletian's 
tomb and with several accomplices was concealing 
it. 5. And having thus framed these matters to 
the destruction of many persons, Rufinus himself, 
in hope of greater profit, flies to the emperor's camp, 
to stir up his customary scandals. And when the 
fact was divulged, Mavortius, then praetorian pre- 
fect, a man of high resolution, was bidden to look 
into the charge with a keen investigation, having 
associated with him, to hear the case in common, 
Ursulus, count of the largesses,^ likewise a man of 
praiseworthy severity. 6. So when the affair had 
been exaggerated, after the standard of the times, 
and after the torture of many persons nothing was 
discovered, and the judges were hesitating in per- 
plexity, at last truth, crushed to earth, breathed 
again, and at the point of necessity the woman 
confessed that Rufinus was the contriver of the 
whole plot, and did not even keep back the shame of 
her adultery. And at once the laws were consulted 
and the judges, unanimous in their love of right and 
justice, condemned them both to death. 7. Constan- 
tius, on learning this, raged and lamented, as if the 
defender of his own life had perished ; he sent fast 
horsemen and commanded Ursulus in threatening 
terms to return to the court. And when he had 
come there and wished to approach the emperor, 
the courtiers tried to keep him from being able to 
appear in defence of the truth. But he, scorning 
those who would hold him back, burst through 



posset assistere ^ veritati ; sed ille spretis qui pro- 
hibcbant, perrupit iutrepidus, ingressusque con- 
sistorium, ore ct pectore libero docuit gesta ; hacque 
liducia Unguis adulatorum occlusis, ct pracfectum et 
se discrimine gravi subtraxit. 

8. Tunc illud apud Aquitanos evenit, quod lalior 
fama vulgarat. Veterator quidam ad lautum con- 
vivium rogatus et mundum, qualia sunt in his regioni- 
bus plurima, cum vidisset linteorum toralium pur- 
pureos ^ clavos ita latissimos, ut sibi vicissim arte 
ministrantium cohaererent, mensamque operimentis 
paribus tectani, anteriorem chlamydis partem utra- 
que manu vehcns intrinsecus, structuram omncm 
ut amictus adornaverat principalis ; quae res patri- 
monium dives evertit. 

9. Malignitate simili quidam agens in rebus in 
Hispauia ad cenam itidem invitatus, cum infercntes 
vespertina lumina pueros exclamasse audisset ex 
usu " vincamus," verbum soUemne ^ interpretatum 
atrociter delevit nobilem domum. 

10. Haec taliaque ideo magis magisque cresce- 
bant, quod Constantius impendio timid us et de vita 
sollicitus,'* semper se ferro peti ^ sperabat, ut Diony- 
sius tyrannus ille Siciliae, qui ob hoc idem vitium 

1 qui cum eo . . . adnstere, Novak ; posse adsistere ueri- 
tatis et tale, V. - purpureas, Giinther ; per duos, V. 

3 uerbum. Her., sollenme, Lind. ; perun (lac. 8 letters) 
Zemne (lac. 1 1 letters), V. * et . . . solHcitics, Novak 

in lac. of 18 letters. ^ ferro jjeti, Novak; feriri, 

EBG ; ferri, V. 

1 The veterator showed that the table decorations could 
be used for au ini])erial cloak, and implied that they had 
been so used. 


XVI., 8, 7-10, A.D. 3S6-7 

fearlessly and, entering the council-chamber, with 
frank speech and bold heart told what had been 
done ; and by this confidence having stopped the 
mouths of the flatterers, he delivered both the 
prefect and himself from a grave danger. 

8. Then a thing happened in Aquitania which 
fame bruited more widely abroad. A crafty old fellow 
who was invited to a sumptuous and elegant banquet, 
such as are very frequent in that country, noticed 
that the purple borders of the linen couch-covers were 
so very broad that the skill of the attendants made 
them seem all one piece, and that the table was 
covered with similar cloths ; and by turning the 
front part of his cloak inward with both hands, he 
so adorned its whole structure, that it resembled an 
emperor's garment ^ ; and this action ruined a rich 

9. With like malice a certain member of the 
secret service in Spain, who also was invited to 
a dinner, when he heard the slaves who were bringing 
in the evening lights cry (as the manner is) : " May 
we conquer," ^ he gave the expression a serious mean- 
ing, and wickedly destroyed a noble house. ^ 

10. These and similar actions kept growing more 
and more common, for the reason that Constantius, 
who was excessively timid and fearful for his life, 
always anticipated that a knife was at his throat, like 
that famous Sicilian despot, Dionysius, who because 

- I.e. the darkness, a formula at lighting up ; cf. Varro, 
Ling. Lat. vi. 4, Graeci quoque, cum lumen affertur, solent 
dicere ^w? dyaOov ; perun (see crit. note) may possibly be for 
pereundutn est nocti. 

^ Vincamus was interpreted as referring to some plot. 



et tonstrices docuit filias, necui alieno ora commit- 
teret leviganda, aedemque brevem, ubi cubitare 
sueverat, alta circumdedit fossa eamque ponte 
solubili superstravit, cuius disiectos asseres et axi- 
culos secum in somnum abiens transferebat, eos- 
demque compaginabat, lucis initio processurus. 11. 
Inflabant itideni has naalorum civilium bucinas 
potentes in regia, ea re ut damnatorum petila bona 
suis accorporarent, essetque materia per vicinitates 
eorum late grassandi. 12. Nanaque ut documenta 
liquida prodiderunt, proximorum fauces aperuit 
primus omnium Constantinus, sed eos medullis 
provinciarum saginavit Constantius. 13. Sub hoc 
enim ordinum singulorum auctores, infinita cupidine 
divitiarum arserunt, sine iustitiae distinctione vel 
recti, inter ordinarios indices Rufinus primus prae- 
fectus praetorio, et inter mihtares equitum magister 
Arbetio, praepositusque cubiculi Eusebius,^ . . . 
anus quaestor, et in urbe Anicii, quorum ad ^ avorum 
aemulationem posteritas tendens, satiari numquam 
potuit cum possessione multo maiore. 

^ Eusehius, Lind. ; Lucillianus (?), Val. ; laps (lac. 19 
letters) anus, V. - quorum ad. Pet. ; amciique (lac. 

27 letters) uoriim, V. 


XVI., 8, 10-13, A.D. 356-7 

of that same infirmity actually taught his daughters 
to be barbers, in order that he might not trust the 
shaving of his cheeks to an outsider ; and he sur- 
rounded the little house in which he used to sleep, 
with a deep trench and spanned it with a knock- 
down bridge,^ the planks and pins of which he took 
apart and carried with him when he went off to bed ; 
and reassembled them at daybreak, when he was 
on his way out. 11. These trumpet-blasts of in- 
ternal revolt ^ were likewise increased by powerful 
courtiers, to the end that they might lay claim to 
the property of condemned persons and incorporate 
it with their own, and thus have the means of en- 
croaching widely on their neighbours. 12. For as 
clear proofs bore witness, the first of all to open the 
jaws of those nearest to him was Constantine, but it 
was Constantius who fattened them with the marrow 
of the provinces. 13, For under him the leading 
men of every rank were inflamed with a boundless 
eagerness for riches, without consideration for 
justice or right ; among the civil functionaries first 
came Rufinus, the praetorian prefect ; among the 
military, Arbetio, master of the horse, and the 
head-chamberlain Eusebius, . . . anus,^ the quaes- 
tor, and in Rome itself the members of the Anician 
family, whose younger generation, striving to outdo 
their forefathers, could never be satisfied with even 
much greater possessions. 

1 That is, a bridge whicli could be taken apart. 
^ I.e. signs of coming disturbances in the state. 
^ Only the ending of tlie name has been preserved. 



9. Agitur de pace cum Persis. 

1. At Persae in oriente per furta et latrocinia 
potius quam (ut solebant antea) per concursatorias 
pugnas, hominum praedas agitabant et pecorum, 
quas ^ non numquam lucrabautur ut repentini, 
aliquotieus superati multitudine militum amitte- 
bant, interdum nihil conspicere ^ prorsus quod 
poterat rapi permittebantur. 2. Musonianus tamen 
praefectus praetorio, multis (ut ante diximus) bonis 
aitibus eruditus, sad venalis et flecti a veritate 
pecunia facilis, per emissaries quosdam, fallendi 
perstringendique gnaros, Persarum scitabatur con- 
silia, assumpto in deliberationes huius modi Cassiano 
Mesopotamiae duce, stipendiis et discriminibus 
indurato diversis. 3. Qui cum fide concinente 
speculatorum aperte cognossent Saporem in extremis 
regni limitibus, suorum sanguine fuso multiplici, 
aegre propulsare gentes infestas, Tamsaporem ducem 
parti nostrae contiguum, occultis per ignotos mibtes 
temptavere colloquiis, ut si copiam fors dedisset, 
suaderet regi per litteras pacem tandem abquando 
cum principe Romano firmare, ut hoc facto ab 
occidcntali latere omni ^ securus, perduelles invol- 
aret * assiduos. 4. Paruit Tamsapor, bisque fretus 
refert ad regem, quod bellis acerrimis Constantius 
implicatus, pacem postulat precativam. Dunique ad 

1 gua^, C. F. W. Miiller ; quis, V. ^ conspicere, 

C. F. W. Miiller (con from cu in percumittebantur of V) ; 
prospicere, V. ^ ab occidentali latere omni (ab uno 

latere, scripseram), Novak ; a latere damni, Clark, Momnisen ; 
latere adomnis, V. * inuolaret, Novak ; adnolaret, V. 


XVI., 9, 1^, A.D. 3S6 

9. Negotiations for peace ivith the Persians. 

1, But the Persians in the East, rather by thieving 
and robbery than (as their former manner was) in 
set battles, kept driving off booty of men and 
animals ; sometimes they were successful, being 
unexpected ; again they lost, overmatched by the 
great number of our soldiers ; occasionally they were 
not allowed to see anything at all which could be 
carried ofl. 2. None the less, Musonianus, the prae- 
torian prefect, a man (as I have said before) gifted 
with many excellent accomplishments, but corrupt 
and easy to turn from the truth by a bribe, in- 
quired into the designs of the Persians through 
emissaries of his who were adepts in deceit and in- 
crimination ; and he took into his counsels on this 
subject Cassianus, duke of Mesopotamia, who had 
been toughened by various campaigns and dangers. 
3. When the two had certain knowledge from the 
unanimous reports of their scouts that Sapor, on 
the Remotest frontiers of his realm, was with diffi- 
culty and with great bloodshed of his troops' driving 
back hostile tribesmen, they made trial of Tamsipor, 
the commander nearest to our territory, in secret 
interviews through obscure soldiers, their idea being 
that, if chance gave an opportunity, he should by 
letter advise the king finally to make peace with 
the Roman emperor, in order that by so doing he 
might be secure on his whole western frontier and 
could rush upon his persistent enemies. 4. Tamsapor 
consented and relying on this information, reported 
to the king that Constantius, being involved in 
very serious wars, entreated and begged for peace. 



Chionitas et Eusenos haec scripta mittuntur, in 
quorum confiniis agebat hiemem Sapor, tempus in- 
terstitit longum. 

10. Constantii Aug. militaris ac velut triumphalis 
in urbeni Romam adventus. 
1. Haec dum per eoas partes et Gallia pro 
captu temporum disponuntur, Constantius quasi 
cluso ^ lani templo stratisque hostibus cunctis, 
Romam visere gestiebat, post Magnenti exitiura 
absque nomine ex sanguine Romano triumphaturuS' 
2. Nee enim gentem uUam bella cientem per se 
superavit, aut victam fortitudine suorum comperit 
ducum, vel addidit quaedam imperio, aut usquara 
in necessitatibus summis primus vel inter primos 
est visus, sed ut pompam nimis extentam, rigen- 
tiaque auro vexilla, et pulcritudinem stipatorum 
ostenderet agenti tranquillius populo, haec vel 
simile quicquam videre nee speranti umquam nee 
optanti. 3. Ignorans fortasse, quosdam veterum 
principum in pace quidem lictoribus fuisse contentos, 
ubi vero proeliorum ardor nihil perpeti poterat 
segne, alium anhelante rabido flatu ventorum 
lenunculo se commisisse piscantis, alium ad Deciorum 
exempla vovisse pro re publica spiritum, alium 

^ quasi cluso. Her. ; quom recluso, V. 

XVI., 9, 4—10, 1-3, A.D. 357 

But while these communications were being sent 
to the Chionitae and Euseni, in whose territories 
Sapor was passing the winter, a long time elapsed. 

10. Constantiiis Augustus in military attire and like 
a triumphator arrives in Rome. 

1. While these events were so being arranged in 
the Orient and in Gaul in accordance with the times, 
Constantius, as if the temple of Janus had been 
closed and all his enemies overthrown, was eager to 
visit Rome and after the death of Magnentius to 
celebrate, without a title, a triumph over Roman 
blood. 2. For neither in person did he vanquish any 
nation that made war upon him, nor learn of any 
conquered by the valour of his -wierals ; nor did 
he add anything to his empire ; nor at critical 
moments was he ever seen to be foremost, or among 
the foremost ; but he desired to display an inordin- 
ately long procession, banners stiff with goldwork, 
and the splendour of his retinue, to a populace living 
in perfect peace and neither expecting nor desiring to 
see this or anything like it. 3. Perhaps he did not 
know that some of our ancient commanders in time 
of peace were satisfied with the attendance of their 
lictors ; but when the heat of battle could tolerate 
no inaction, one, with the mad blast of the winds 
shrieking, entrusted himself to a fisherman's skiff ; ^ 
another, after the example of the Decii, vowed his 
life for the commonwealth ; '^ a third in his own 
person together with common soldiers explored the 

^ Julius Caesar ; see Lucan, v. 533 ft". 
- Claudivis II., in the Gothic war. 



hostilia castra per seniet ipsum cum niilitibus in- 
fimis explorasse, diversos denique actibus inclaruisse 
magnificis, ut glorias suas posteritatis celebri 
memoriae ^ commendarent. 

4. Ut igitur multa quaeque consumpta sunt in 
apparatu regio, pro meritis cuilibet munera reddita,^ 
secunda Orflti praefectura, transcurso Ocriculo, 
elatus bonoribus magnis, stipatusque agminibus 
formidandis, tamquam acle ducebatur instructa, 
omnium oculis in eum ^ contuitu pertinaci intentis. 
5. Cumque urbi propinquaret, senatus officia, reve- 
rendasque patriciae stirpis effigies, ore serene con- 
templans, non ut Cineas ille Pyrri legatus, in unum 
coactam multitudinem regum, sed asylum mundi 
totius adesse existimabat. 6. Unde cum se ver- 
tisset ad plebem, stupebat qua celebritate * omne 
quod ubique est hominum genus confluxerit Romam. 
Et tamquam Euphraten armorum specie territurus 
aut Rlienum, altrinsecus praeeuntibus signis, in- 
sidebat aureo solus ipse carpento, fulgenti clari- 
tudiue lapidum variorum, quo micante lux quaedam 
misceri videbatur alterna. 7. Eumque post ante- 
gressos multiplices alios, purpureis subtegminibus 
texti, circumdedere dracones, hastarum aureis 
gemmatisque summitatibus illigati, hiatu vasto 
perflabiles, et ideo velut ira perciti sibilantes, cau- 
darumque volumina relinquentes in ventum. 8. Et 

^ memoriae, Kiessling ; memoria, V. - regio . . . 

reddita, BG in lac. of 17 letters. ^ emn, Bentley, 

Giinther ; eo, V. * celebritate, Bentley ; celeritate, V. 

1 Galeriu.s Maxiniiann.s. who in person reconnoitred 
the Persian camp. - Tlie imperial standards. 


XVI., 10, 3-8, A.D. 357 

enemy's camp ; ^ in short, various among them 
became famous through splendid deeds, so that they 
commended their glories to the frequent remembrance 
of posterity. 

4. So soon, then, as much had been disbursed in 
regal preparation, and every sort of man had been re- 
warded according to his services, in the second prefec- 
ture of Orfitus he passed through Ocriculi, elated with 
his great honours and escorted by formidable troops ; 
he was conducted, so to speak, in battle array and 
everyone's eyes were riveted upon him with fixed 
gaze. 5. And when he was nearing the city, as he 
beheld with calm countenance the dutiful attend- 
ance of the senate and the august likenesses of the 
patrician stock, he thought, not like Cineas, the 
famous envoy of Pyrrhus, that a throng of kings was 
assembled together, but that the sanctuary of the 
whole world was present before him. 6. And when 
he turned from them to the populace, he was amazed 
to see in what crowds men of every type had flocked 
from all quarters to Rome. And as if he were 
planning to overawe the Euphrates with a show of 
arms, or the Rhine, while the standards preceded 
him on each side, he himself sat alone upon a golden 
car in the resplendent blaze of various precious 
stones, whose mingled glitter seemed to form a 
sort of second daylight 7. And behind the manifold 
others that preceded him he was surrounded by 
dragons,^ woven out of purple thread and bound to 
the golden and jewelled tops of spears, with wide 
mouths open to the breeze and hence hissing as if 
roused by anger, and leaving their tails winding 
in the wind. 8. And there marched on either side 



incedebat hinc inde ordo geminus arinatorum, 
clipeatus atque cristatiis. corusco luniinc radians, 
nitidis loricis indutus, sparsique cataphracti eqiiites 
(quos clibanarios dictitant) personati thoracum 
muniti tegminibus, et limbis ferreis cincti, ut Praxi- 
telis manu polita crederes simulacra, non viros ; 
quos laminarum circuli tenues, apti corporis 
flexibus anibiebant, per omnia membra diducti, 
ut quocumque artus necessitas commovisset, vesti- 
tus congrueret, iunctura cohaerenter aptata. 9. 
Augustus itaque faustis vocibus appellatus, non 
montium ^ litorumque intonante fragore cohorruit, 
talem se tamque immobilem, qualis in provinciis 
suis visebatur, ostendens. 10. Nam et corpus 
perhumile curvabat portas ingrediens celsas, et 
velut coUo munito, rectam aciem luminum tendens, 
nee dextra vultum nee laeva flectebat et ^ (tamquam 
figmentum hominis) nee ^ cum rota concuteret 
nutans, nee spuens, aut os aut nasum tergens vel 
fricans. manumve agitans visus est umquam. 11, 
Quae licet afFectabat, erant tamen haec et alia 
quaedam in citeriore vita, patientiae non mediocris 
indicia, ut existimari dabatur, uni illi concessae. 
12. Quod autem per omne tempus imperii, nee in 
consessum vehiculi quemquam suscepit, nee in 
trabea socium privatum asscivit, ut fecere principes 
consecrati, et similia multa elatus in arduum super- 

1 appellahts, EG ; non, added by Her. ; montium, Val. ; 
apella (lac. 10 letters) otium, V. ^ et, added by Clark ; 

V omits; asyndeton def. Heilmann. ^ne.c, Clark : nam, 

V ; non, AG. 

1 Cuirassiers ; the word is derived from KXi^avov, " oven." 
and means entirely encased in iron ; see Index of Officials, 
or Index II. 

XVL, 10, 8-12, A.D. 357 

twin lines of infantrymen with shields and crests 
gleaming with glittering light, clad in shining mail ; 
and scattered among them were the full-armoured 
cavalry (whom they call clibanarii),^ all masked, 
furnished with protecting breastplates and girt with 
iron belts, so that you might have supposed them 
statues polished by the hand of Praxiteles, not men. 
Thin circles of iron plates, fitted to the curves of 
their bodies, completely covered their limbs ; so 
that whichever way they had to move their members, 
their garment fitted, so skilfully were the joinings 
made. 9. Accordingly, being saluted as Augustus 
with favouring shouts, while hills and shores thun- 
dered out the roar, he never stirred, but showed 
himself as calm and imperturbable as he was com- 
monly seen in his provinces. 10. For he both 
stooped when passing through lofty gates (although 
he was very short), and as if his neck were in a vise, 
he kept the gaze of his eyes straight ahead, and turned 
his face neither to right nor to left, but (as if he were 
a lay figure) neither did he nod when the wheel 
jolted nor was he ever seen to spit, or to wipe or 
rub his face or nose, or move his hands about. 

11. And although this was affectation on his part, 
yet these and various other features of his more 
intimate life were tokens of no slight endurance, 
granted to him alone, as was given to be understood. 

12. Furthermore, that during the entire period of 
his reign he neither took up anyone to sit beside 
him in his car, nor admitted any private person to 
be his colleague in the insignia of the consulship, 
as other anointed princes did, and many like habits 
which in his pride of lofty conceit he observed as 



cilium, tamquam leges aequissimas observavit, 
praetereo, memor ea me rettulisse cum incidissent. 
13. Proinde Romam ingressus imperii virtutum- 
que omnium larein, cum venisset ad rostra, perspec- 
tissimum priscae potentiae forum, obstipuit, perque 
omne latus quo se oculi contulissent, miraculorum 
densitate praestrictus, allocutus nobilitatem in 
curia, populumque e ^ tribuuali, in palatium receptus 
favore multiplici, laetitia fruebatur optata, et saepe, 
cum equestres ederet ludos, dicacitate plebis oblec- 
tabatur, nee superbae nee a libertate coalita des- 
ciscentis, reverenter modum ipse quoque debitum 
servans. 14. Non enim (ut per civitates alias) 
ad arbitrium suum certamina finiri patiebatur, sed 
(ut mos est) variis casibus permittebat. Deinde 
intra septem montium culmina, per acclivitates 
planitiemque posita urbis membra collustrans et 
suburbana, quicquid viderat - primum, id eminere 
inter alia cuncta sperabat : lovis Tarpei delubra, 
quantum terrenis divina praecellunt ; lavacra in 
modum provinciarum exstructa ; amphitheatri 
molem solidatam lapidis Tiburtini compage, ad 
cuius summitatem aegre visio humana conscendit ; 
Pantheum velut regionem teretem speciosa celsi- 
tudine fornicatam ; elatosque vertices qui ^ scansili * 

1 e, Val. ; pro, BG ; V omits. ^ uiderat, Val. ; 

erat, V. ^ qui, added by Novak. * uertice scan- 

sili, G ; vertices rasili, B ; u. s., Liiul ; u. casaili, V. 


XVI., 10, 12-14, A.D. 357 

though they were most just laws, I pass by, re- 
uiembering that I set them down when they occurred. 
13. So then he entered Rome, the home of empire 
and of every virtue, and when he had come to the 
Rostra, the most renowned forum of ancient 
dominion, he stood amazed ; and on every side on 
which his eyes rested he was dazzled by the array 
of marvellous sights. He addressed the nobles 
in the senate-house and the populace from the 
tribunal, and being welcomed to the palace with 
manifold attentions, he enjoyed a longed-for pleas- 
ure ; and on several occasions, when holding eques- 
trian games, he took delight in the sallies of the 
commons, who were neither presumptuous nor 
regardless of their old-time freedom, while he him- 
self also respectfully observed the due mean. 14. 
For he did not (as in the case of other cities) permit 
the contests to be terminated at his own discretion, 
but left them (as the custom is) to various chances. 
Then, as he surveyed the sections of the city and 
its suburbs, lying within the summits of the seven 
hills, along their slopes, or on level ground, he 
thought that whatever first met his gaze towered 
above all the rest : the sanctuaries of Tarpeian 
Jove so far surpassing as things divine excel those of 
earth ; the baths bmlt up in the manner of provinces ; 
the huge bulk of the amphitheatre, strengthened 
by its framework of Tiburtine stone,^ to whose top 
human eyesight barely ascends ; the Pantheon 
like a rounded city-district,^ vaulted over in lofty 

^ Travertine. 

^ Regio here refers to one of the regions, or districts, 
into which the city was divided. 



suggestu consurgunt, priorum principum imita- 
raenta portantes, et Urbis templum forumque 
Pacis, et Pompei theatrum et Odeum ct Stadium, 
aliaque inter haec decora urbis aeternae. 15. Verum 
cum ad Traiani forum venisset, singularem sub 
omni caelo structuram, ut ^ opinamur, etiam numi- 
num assensione mirabilem, haerebat attonitus, per 
giganteos contextus circumferens mentem, nee 
relatu efFabiles, nee rursus mortalibus appetendos. 
Omni itaque spe huius modi quicquam conandi 
depulsa, Traiani equum solum, locatum in atrii 
medio, qui ipsum principem vehit, imitari se velle 
dicebat ct posse. 16. Cui prope adstans regalis 
Ormisda, cuius e Perside discessum supra mon- 
stravimus, respondit astu gentili : " Ante '' inquit 
" imperator, stabulum tale condi iubeto, si vales ; 
equus - quem fabricare disponis, ita late succedat, 
ut iste quem videmus." Is ipse interrogatus quid 

1 et ul. Her. ^ ut equus. Her. 

1 The columns of Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus 
Aurelius. The platform at the top was reached by a stair- 
way within the column. 

2 The double temple of Venus and Roma, built by 
Hadrian on the Velia and dedicated in a.d. 13.5. 

' The Forum Pacis^ or Vespasiani, was begun by 
Vespa,sian in a.d. 71, after the taking of Jerusalem, and 
dedicated in 7.5. It lay behind the basilica Aemilia. 

* Built in 55 B.C. in the Campus Martins. 

5 A building for musical performances, erected by 
Domitian, probably near his Stadium. 

8 The Stadiiun of Domitian in the Campus Martius, 
the shape and size of which is almost exactly preserved 
by the modern Piazza Navona. 


XVI.. 10, 14-16, A.D. 357 

beauty ; and the exalted columns which rise with 
platforms to which one may mount, and bear 
the likenesses of former emperors ; ^ the Temple of 
the City,^ the Forum of Peace,^ the Theatre of 
Pompey,^ the Odeum,^ the Stadium,^ and in their 
midst the other adornments of the Eternal City. 
15. But when he came to the Forum of Trajan, a 
construction unique under the heavens, as we be- 
lieve, and admirable even in the unanimous opinion 
of the gods, he stood fast in amazement, turning his 
attention to the gigantic complex about him, beggar- 
ing description and never again to be imitated by 
mortal men. Therefore abandoning all hope of 
attempting anvthing like it, he said that he would 
and could copy Trajan's steed alone, which stands in 
the centre of the vestibule, carrying the emperor 
himself. 16. To this prince Ormisda, who was 
standing near him, and whose departure from 
Persia I have described above,' replied with native 
wit : " First, Sire," said he, " command a like 
stable to be built, if you can ; let the steed which 
you propose to create range as widely as this which 
we see." When Ormisda was asked directly what 
he thought of Rome, he said that he took comfort ^ 

' In 323 (Zosimus, ii. 27) ; hence in one of the lost books 
of Ammianiis. 

* Valesius read displicuisse, and was followed by Gibbon. 
Robert Heron (pseudonym of John Pinkerton) in Letters 
of Ldterature {London, 1789), xii., p. 68, discusses this 
remark at some length, disagreeing with Gibbon. He 
thinks that " the prince's envy at the pleasures of the 
inhabitants of Rome could only be moderated by the 
reflection that their pleasures were transitory." 



de Roma sentiret, id tantum sibi placuisse aiebat, 
quod didicisset ibi quoque homines mori. 17. 
Multis igitur cum stupore visis horrendo, impera- 
tor de ^ fama querebatur, ut invalida vel maligna,^ 
quod augens omnia semper in mains, erga haec 
explicanda quae Romae sunt obsolescit, delibe- 
ransque diu quid ibi^ ageret, urbis addere statuit 
ornamentis, ut in maximo * circo erigeret obeliscum, 
cuius originem formamque loco competenti mon- 

18. Inter haec Helenae sorori Constanti, luliani 
coniugi Caesaris, Romam affectionis specie ductae, 
regina tunc insidiabatur Eusebia, ipsa quoad vixerat 
sterilis, quaesitumque venenum bibere per fraudem 
illexit, ut quotienscumque concepisset, immaturum 
abiceret partum. 19. Nam et pridem in Galliis, 
cum marem genuisset infantem, hoc perdidit dolo, 
quod obstetrix corrupta mercede, mox ^ natum, 
praesecto plus quam convenerat umbilico, necavit ; 
tanta tamque diligens opera navabatur, ne fortissimi 
viri soboles appareret. 

20. Cupiens itaque augustissima omnium sede 
morari diutius imperator, ut otio puriore frueretur 
et voluptate, assiduis nuntiis terrebatur et certis, 
indicantibus Suebos Raetias incursare, Quadosque 

^ imperator de, AG ; imperator in, Gronov ; imperatori, 
V. ^ maligna, A ; magna, V. ^ quid ibi, sug- 

gested by Clark ; q^dd, E- BG ; V omits. * maximo, 

E*, Val. ; proximo, V. * mox, V, (.f. Columella, iii. 

20, 4 ; mx>do, Damste. 


XVI., 10, 16-20, A.D. 357 

ill this fact alone, that he had learned that even there 
men were mortal. 17. So then, when the emperor 
had viewed many objects with awe and amazement, 
he complained of Fame as either incapable or spite- 
ful, because while always exaggerating everything, 
in describing what there is in Rome, she becomes 
shabby. And after long deliberation what he should 
do there, he determined to add to the adornments of 
the city by erecting in the Circus Maximus an obelisk, 
the provenance and figure of which I shall describe 
in the proper place. ^ 

18. Meanwhile Constantius' sister Helena, wife 
of Julian Caesar, had been brought to Rome under 
pretence of affection, but the reigning queen, Eusebia, 
was plotting against her ; she herself had been child- 
less all her life, and by her wiles she coaxed Helena 
to drink a rare potion, so that as often as she was 
with child she should have a miscarriage. 19. For 
once before, in Gaul, when she had borne a baby 
boy, she lost it through this machination : a mid- 
\vife had been bribed with a sum of money, and as 
soon as the child was born cut the umbilical cord 
more than was right, and so killed it ; such great 
pains and so much thought were taken that this 
most valiant man might have no heir. 

20. Now the emperor desired to remain longer in 
this most majestic abode of all the world, to enjoy 
freer repose and pleasure ; but he was alarmed by 
constant trustworthy reports, stating that the 
Suebi were raiding Raetia and the Quadri Valeria,^ 

1 xvii. 4, 6 ff. 

* A division of Pannonia, named from Valeria, daughter 
of Diocletian and wife of Galerius ; see xix. 11, 4. 



Valeriam, et Sarmatas, latrociiiandi peritissimum 
genus, superiorem Moesiam et secundam popular! 
Pannoniam ; quibus percitus tricensimo postquam 
ingressus est die, quartum kal. lunias ab urbe 
profectus, per Tridentum iter in Illyricum festinavit. 
21. Unde misso in locum Marcelli Severo, bellorum 
usu et inaturitate firmato, Ursicinum ad se venire 
praecepit. Et ille litteris gratanter acceptis, Sir- 
mium venit, comitantibus sociis,^ libratisque diu 
super pace consiliis, quam fundari posse cum Persis 
Musonianus rettulerat, in orientem cum magisterii 
remittitur potestate, provectis e consortio nostro 
ad regendos milites natu maioribus, adulescentes 
eum sequi iubemur, quicquid pro re publica man- 
daverit impleturi. 

11. Iitliaujis Caesar Alamannos in insuJis Rheni. quo 
se. et sua receperant. tiggreditur, et Tres Tabernas 
adversus eos repurat. 

1. At Caesar exacta apud Senonas hieme turbu- 
lenta, Augusto novies seque iterum consule, Ger- 
manicis undique circumfrementibus minis, secundis 
ominibus motus, Remos properavit alacrior, magis- 
que laetus quod exercitum regebat Severus, nee 

^ .Hociis, BG : solis (lac), Clark ; solis, V. 

1 Trent. 

- See note 1, p. 122 ; modern Sirmisch. 

3 Of. 7, 1, above. / 


XVI., 10, 20-21—11, 1, A.D. 357 

while the Sarmatians, a tribe most accomplished 
in brigandage, were laying waste Upper Moesia and 
Lower Pannonia. Excited by this news, on the 
thirtieth day after entering Rome he left the city 
on May 29th, and marched rapidly into Illyricum 
by way of Tridentum.^ 21. From there he sent 
Severus, a general toiighened by long military ex- 
perience, to succeed Marcellus, and ordered Ursicinus 
to come to him. The latter received the letter with 
joy and came to Sirmium ^ with his companions ; 
and after long deUberations about the peace which 
Musonius had reported might be estabhshed with 
the Persians, Ursicinus was sent back to the Orient 
with the powers of commander-in-chief; the elder 
members of our company were promoted to the 
command of his soldiers, whUe we younger men were 
directed to escort him and be ready to perform 
whatever he should direct on behalf of the common- 

11. Julianus Caesar attacks the Alamanni on the 
islands of the Rhine, to which they had fled 
uith their belongings, and refits Tres Tabernae 
against them. 

1. But JuUanus Caesar, after having passed a 
troubled winter at Sens,^ in the year when the em- 
peror was consul for the ninth time and he for the 
second, with the threats from the Germans thunder- 
ing on every side, set out with favourable omens and 
hastened to Rheims. He felt the greater eagerness 
and pleasure because Severus was commanding the 
army, a man neither insubordinate nor overbearing 



discors nee arrogans, sed longa inilitiae frugalitate 
compertus, et eum recta praeeuntera secutus,^ ut 
ductorem morigerus ^ miles. 2. Parte alia Barbatio, 
post Silvani interitum promotus ad peditum magis- 
terium, ex Italia iussu principis cum XXV milibus 
armatorum Rauracos venit. 3. Cogitatum est enim, 
solliciteque praestructum, ut sae\dentes ultra soli- 
tuni Alamanni vagantesque fusius, multitudine 
geminata nostrorum, forcipis specie, trusi in angustias 
caederentur. 4. Dum haec tamen rite disposita 
celerantur, Laeti barbari ad tempestiva furta soller- 
tes, inter utriusque exercitus castra occulte traus- 
gressi, invasere Lugdunum incautam, eamque popu- 
latam vi subita ^ concremassent, ni clausis aditibus 
repercussi, quicquid extra oppidum potuit inveniri 
vastassent. 5. Qua clade cognita, agili studio 
Caesar missis cuneis tribus equitum expeditorum 
et fortium, tria observavit itinera, sciens per ea 
erupturos procul dubio grassatores ; nee conatus ei 
insidianti * irritus fuit. 6. Cunctis enim qui per eos 
tramites exiere truncatis, receptaque praeda omni 
intacta, hi soli innoxii absoluti sunt, qui per vallum 
Barbationis transiere securi, ideo labi permissi, 
quod Bainobaudes tribunus, et Valentinianus postea 

^ secuttis, Clark, c.c. ; secuturu-i, \. ^ morigerus, 

Petavius ; tnorigerum, EBG ; murigerum, V. ^ subita, 

Hermann ; summa, Gronov ; uisu (lac. 8 letters) aconcre- 
massent, V. * ei insidianti, Novak ; neco (V- in lac. 

9 letters) inanti, V. 

^ The forceps or forjex was a military formation with 
diverging wings for meeting and baffling a cuneus ; cf . 
Vegetiua, iii. 19, nam ex lectissimis militibus in V litteram 


XVI., 11, 1-6, A.D. 357 

but well known for his long excellent record in the 
army, who had followed Julian as he advanced 
straight ahead, as an obedient soldier follows his 
general. 2. From another direction Barbatio, who 
had been promoted after Silvanus' death to the com- 
mand of the infantry, came from Italy at the em- 
peror's order with twenty-five thousand soldiers to 
Augst. 3. For it was planned and carefully arranged 
beforehand that the Alamanni, who were raging 
beyond their customary manner and ranging more 
afield, should be driven into straits as if with a pair of 
pliers^ by twin forces of our soldiers, and cut to pieces. 

4. But while these well-laid plans were being hurried 
on, the Laeti, a savage tribe skilled in seasonable 
raids, passed secretly between the encampments of 
both armies and made an unlooked for attack on 
Lyons ; and with their sudden onset they would have 
sacked and burned the town, had they not been 
driven back from the closed gates but made havoc 
of whatever they could find outside the town. 

5. This disaster was no sooner known than Caesar, 
with quick grasp of the situation, sent three squad- 
rons of strong Ught cavalry and watched three roads, 
knomng that the raiders would doubtless burst 
forth by them ; and his ambuscade was not in vain. 

6. For all who passed out by those roads were 
butchered and all their booty recovered intact, and 
only those escaped unharmed who made their way 
undisturbed past the rampart of Barbatio ; being al- 
lowed so to slip by because Bainobaudes, the tribune, 

ordo componitur, et illwm cuneum excipit atque utraque parte 
concludit. The open part of the V of course faced the 
enemy. Here forceps is perhaps iised in its Uteral sense. 


VOL. I. R 


imperator, cum equestribus turmis quas regebant, 
ad exsequendum id ordinati, a CcUa tribune scutari- 
orum, qui Barbationi sociatus venerat ad procinctum, 
iter observare sunt vetiti, unde redituros didicere 
Germanos. 7. Quo non contentus, magister pedi- 
tum ignavus et gloriarum luliani pervicax obtrec- 
tator, sciens se id contra utilitateni Romanae rei ^ 
iussisse — hoc enim cum argueretur, Cella confessus 
est — relatione fefellit Constantium, finxitque hos 
eosdem tribunos, ad sollicitandos milites quos 
duxerat per speciem venisse negotii pubJici ; qua 
causa abrogata potestate ad lares rediere privati. 
8. Eisdem diebus, exercituum adventu perterriti 
barbari, qui domicilia fixere cis Rhenum, partim 
difficiles vias et suapte natura clivosas, concaedibus 
clausere sollerter, arboribus immensi roboris caesis ; 
alii occupatis insulis sparsis crebro per flumen 
Rhenum, ferum ^ ululantes et lugubre, conviciis 
Romanos incessebant et Caesarem ; qui graviore 
motu animi percitus, ad corripiendos aliquos septem 
a Barbatione petierat naves, ex his quas velut tran- 
siturus amnem ad compaginandos paraverat pontes ; 

^ Romanae rei, Mommsen ; Romanam, W^ G ; Romaniae, 
V. ^ ferum, added by Schneider ; in place of Rhenum,, 

Heraeas, c.c. ; V omits. 


XVI.. 11, 6-8, A.D. 357 

and Valentiuian, afterwards emperor, who with the 
cavalry troops they commanded had been ordered 
to attend to that matter, were forbidden by Cella, tri- 
bune of the targeteers, who had come to the campaign 
as Barbatio's colleague, to watch the road over which 
they were informed that the Germans would return. 
7. And not content with that, the infantry com- 
mander, who was a coward and a persistent de- 
tractor of Julian's reputation, knowing that what 
he had ordered was against the interests of the 
Roman cause (for when Cella was charged with 
this, he confessed it), deceived Constantius in 
his report and pretended that these same tribunes 
had come, under the pretext of public business, 
to tamper with the soldiers whom he had been 
commanding ; and for that reason they were cash- 
iered and returned to their homes in a private 

8. At that same time the savages who had estab- 
lished their homes on our side of the Rhine, were 
alarmed by the approach of our armies, and some 
of them skilfully blocked the roads (which are diffi- 
cult and naturally of heavy grades) by barricades 
of felled trees of huge size ; others, taking posses- 
sion of the islands which are scattered in numbers 
along the course of the Rhine, with wild and 
mournful cries heaped insults upon the Romans 
and Caesar. Whereupon he was inflamed with a 
mighty . outburst of anger, and in order to catch 
some of them, asked Barbatio for seven of the ships 
which he had got readv for building bridges with 
the intention of crossing the river : but Barbatio 
burned them all, in order that he might be unable 



qui, neqiiid per eum impctraretur, omnes incendit. 
9. Doctus denique exploratorum delatione recens 
captorum, aestate iam torrida fluvium vado posse 
transiri, hortatus auxiliares velites cum Bainobaude 
Cornutorum misit tribune, ^ facinus raemorabile 
si iuvisset fors patraturos, qui nunc incedendo per 
brevia, aliquotiens scutis in modum alveoruni sup- 
positis, nando ad insulani venere propinquam, 
egressique promiscue virile et muliebre secus sine 
aetatis ullo discrimine trucidabant ut pecudes, 
nanctique vacuas lintres, per eas licet vacillantes 
evecti, huius modi loca plurima perruperunt, et ubi 
caedendi satias cepit, opimitate praedarum onusti, 
cuius partem vi fluminis amiserunt, rediere omnes 
incolumes. 10. Hocque comperto, residui Germani, 
ut infido praesidio insularum relicto, ad idteriora 
necessitudines et fruges opesque barbaricas con- 
tulerunt. 11. Conversus bine lulianus ad reparan- 
das Tres Tabernas (munimentum ita cognominatum,) 
haut ita dudum obstinatione subversum hostili, quo 
aedificato constabat ad intima Galliarum (ut con- 
sueverant) adire Germanos arceri, et opus spe 
celerius consummavit, et victum defensoribus ibi 
locandis, ex barbaricis messibus non sine discriminis 
metu coUectum militis manu, condidit ad usus anni 
totius. 12. Nee sane hoc solo contentus, sibi 

^ misit tribuno, tr. by Heilmann ; tribuno dimisit, Clark, 
c.c. ; misit, V. 

^ Cf . xiv. 2, 10, cavatis arborum truncis ; xxxi. 4, 5, 
navibus ratibusque et cavatis arborum alveis. 

- The Three Taverns ; modern Savernes, Gemi. Rhein- 


XVI., 11, 8-12, A.D. 357 

to give any help. 9. Finally Julian, learning from 
the report of some scouts just captured, that now 
in the heat of summer the river could be forded, 
with words of encouragement sent the light-armed 
auxiliaries with Bainobaudes, tribune of the Cornuti, 
to perform a memorable feat, if fortune would 
favour them ; and they, now wading through the 
shallows, now swimming on their shields, which 
they put under them like canoes,^ came to a neigh- 
bouring island and landing there they butchered 
everyone they found, men and women alike, with- 
out distinction of age, like so many sheep. Then, 
finding some empty boats, they rowed on in these, 
unsteady as they were, and raided a large number 
of such places ; and when they were sated with 
slaughter, loaded down with a wealth of booty 
(a part of which they lost through the force of 
the current) they all came back safe and sound. 
10. And the rest of the Germans, on learning of 
this, abandoned the islands as an unsafe refuge 
and carried off into the interior their families, their 
grain, and their rude treasures. 11. From here 
Juhan turned aside to repair the fortress called Tres 
Tabernas,^ destroyed not long before by the enemy's 
obstinate assault, the rebuilding of which ensured 
that the Germans could not approach the interior 
of Gaul, as they had been wont to do. And he both 
finished this work sooner than was expected and, 
for the garrison that was to be stationed there, he 
stored up food for the needs of a whole year, gathered 
together by the hands of the soldiers, not without 
fear of danger, from the savages' crops. 12. And 
not content with that alone, he gathered for 



quoque viginti dierum alimenta parata collegit. 
Libentius enim bellatores quaesito dexteris propriis 
utebantur, admodum indignati, quoniam ex com- 
meatu, qui eis recens advectus est, ideo iiihil sumere 
potuerunt, quod partem eius Barbatio, cum transiret 
iuxta, superbe praesumpsit ; residuumque quod ^ 
superfuit congestum in acervum exussit, quae 
utrum ut vanus gerebat et demen?, an mandatu 
principis confidenter nefanda multa ^ temptabat,^ 
usque in id temporis latuit. 13. Illud tamen rumore 
tenus ubique iactabatur, quod lulianus non levaturus 
incommoda Galliarum electus est, sed ut possit per 
bella deleri saevissima, rudis etiam turn ut existi- 
mabatur, et ne sonitum quidem duraturus armorum. 
14. Dum castrorum opera ^ mature consurgit.'^ militis- 
que pars stationes praetendit agrarias, alia frumenta 
insidiarum metu coUigit caute, multitudo barbarica 
rumorem nimia velocitate praeversa, Barbationem 
cum exercitu quem regebat (ut praedictum est) 
Gallico vallo discretum impetu repentiuo aggressa, 
sequensque fugientes ad usque Rauracos et ultra 
quoad potuit, rapta sarcinarum et iumentorum cum 
calonibus parte maxima redit ad suos.® 15. Et 
ille tamquam expeditione eventu prospero termi- 
nata. milite disperse per stationes hibernas, ad comi- 
tatum imperatoris revertit. crimen compositurus in 
Caesarem (ut solebat).' 

1 -que qiiod, Giinther (quod, EBG) ; quae, V. - multa, 

E^ G ; ut mtdti. Her. ; midti, V. ^ temptabat. Her. ; 

tentabant, Val. ; temptabattis que tamen, added by V^ in 
margin. ^castrorum opus militum opera, Mommseu. 

^ consurgit, V ; consurgunt, G. " lac. 13 letters at end 

of page, V. ' lac. 6 letters at end of line, V ; gravUer 

semper incessens, BG. 


XVI., 11, 12-15, A.n. 357 

himself also rations to serve for twenty days. For the 
warriors the more willingly made use of what they 
had won by their own right hands, being greatly 
incensed because from the supplies which had just 
been brought them they could get nothing, since 
Barbatio had arrogantly appropriated a part of 
them, when they were passing near him ; and piled 
what remained over in a heap and burned it. 
Whether he did this like an empty-headed fool, or 
at the emperor's bidding brazenly perpetrated his 
many abominable acts, has remained obscure up 
to this time. 13. However, it was current rumour 
everywhere, that Julian was not chosen to relieve 
the distress of Gaul, but that he might meet his 
death in the cruellest of wars, being even then (as 
it was thought) inexperienced and one who could 
not stand even the clash of arms. 14. While the 
fortifications of the camp were rapidly rising and 
part of the soldiers were garrisoning the country 
posts, part gathering in grain warily for fear of 
ambush, a horde of savages, outstripping by their 
extraordinary speed any rumour of their coming, 
with a sudden attack set upon Barbatio and the 
army he commanded, which was (as has been said) 
separated from the Gallic camp ; and they followed 
them in their flight as far as Augst, and as much 
farther as they could ; then, after seizing the greater 
part of his baggage and pack-animals, together with 
the camp-followers, they returned home again. 
15. And Barbatio, as if he had ended the campaign 
successfully, distributed his soldiers in winter quar- 
ters and returned to the emperor's court, to frame 
some charge against Caesar, as was his custom. 



12. lulianus C. vii Alamannorum reges Galliam 
incubantes aggreditur, et barbaros apud Argen- 
toratum acie fundit. 

1. Quo dispalato foedo terrore, Alamannorum reges 
Chouodomarius et Vestralpus, Urius quin etiam et 
Ursicinus, cum Serapione et Suomario et Hortario, 
in unum robore virium suarum omni collecto, 
bellicumque canere bucinis iussis, venere ^ prope 
urbem Argentoratum, extrema metuentem Cae- 
sarem arbitrati retrocessisse, cum ille turn ^ etiam 
perficiendi munimenti studio stringeretur. 2. Erexit 
autem confidentiam caput altius attollentum scu- 
tarius perfuga, qui commissi criminis metuens 
poenam, transgressus ad eos post ducis fugati dis- 
cessum, armatorum tredecim milia tantum reman- 
sisse cum luliano docebat — is enim numerus eum 
sequebatur — barbara feritate certaminum rabiem 
undique concitante. 3. Cuius asseveratione eadem 
subinde replicantis, ad maiora stimulati fiducia, 
missis legatis, satis pro imperio Caesari mandaverunt, 
ut terris abscederet virtute sibi quaesitis et ferro ; 
qui ignarus pavendi, nee ira nee dolore perculsus, 
sed fastus barbaricos ridens, tentis legatis ad usque 
perfectum opus castrorum, in eodem gradu con- 
stantiae stetit inimobilis. 

1 canere bucinis iussis, Novak ; canentibus bucinis uenerc. 
Her. ; belli, cumque foedere, V. ^tum, Val. ; dum, V. 


XVI., 12, 1-3, A.D. 357 

12. Julianus Caesar attacks the seven kings of the 
Alamanni , who were oppressing the Gauls, and 
routs the savages in a battle at Argentoratum 

1. When this disgraceful panic had been spread 
abroad, the kings of the Alamanni, Chonodomarius 
and Vestralpus, as well as Urius and Ursicinus, 
together with Serapion and Suomarius and Hortarius, 
collected all the flower of their forces in one spot 
and having ordered the horns to sound the war- 
note, approached the city of Strasburg, thinking 
that Caesar had retired through fear of the Avorst, 
whereas he was even then busily employed in his 
project of completing the fort. 2. Moreover, as 
they tossed their heads proudly, their confidence 
was increased by a deserter from the targeteers ; 
who, in fear of punishment for a crime he had com- 
mitted, went over to them after the departure of 
his defeated leader, and informed them that only 
thirteen thousand soldiers had stayed with Julian ; 
and in fact that was the number of his followers, 
while savage ferocity was arousing the frenzy of battle 
on every side. 3. Through this deserter's frequent 
repetition of that statement their confidence was 
raised still higher ; they sent delegates to Caesar 
and imperiously enough commanded him to depart 
from the lands which they had won by valour and 
the sword. But he, a stranger to fear, neither lost 
his temper nor felt aggrieved, but laughing at the 
presumption of the savages, he detained the envoys 
until the work of fortification was ended and re- 
mained steadfast in the same attitude of resolution. 



4. Agitabat autem miscebatque omnia, sine modo 
ubique sese difFunditans, et princeps audendi peri- 
culosa, rex Chonodomarius, ardua subrigens super- 
cilia, ut saepe secundis rebus elatus. 5. Nam et 
Decentium Caesarem superavit, aequo Marte con- 
gressus, et civitates erutas multas vastavit et 
opulentas, licentiusque diu nullo refragante Gallias 
persultavit. Ad cuius roborandam fiduciam, recens 
quoque fuga ducis accessit, numero praestantis et 
viribus. 6. Alamanni enim scutorum insignia con- 
tuentes, norant eos milites permisisse paucis suorum 
latronibus terram, quorum metu aliquotiens, ante- 
quam ^ gradum conferrent, amissis pluribus abiere 
dispersi. Quae anxie ferebat soUicitus Caesar, quod 
trudente ipsa necessitate, digresso periculi socio, ^ 
cum paucis (licet fortibus) populosis gentibus occur- 
rere cogebatur. 

7. lamque solis radiis rutilantibus, tubarumque 
concinente clangore, pedestres copiae lentis incessi- 
bus educuntur, earumque lateri equestres iunctae ^ 
sunt turmae, inter quas cataphractarii erant et 
sagittarii, formidabile genus armorum. 8. Et quon- 
iam a loco, unde Romana promota sunt signa, ad 
usque vallum barbaricum quarta leuga signabatur 
et decima, id est unum et viginti milia passuum, 
utilitati securitatique recte consulens Caesar, re- 
vocatis procursatoribus * iam antegressis, indictaque 

1 antequam, C. F. W. Miiller, Haupt. ; inaliquam, V. 
'^ pericidi socio, Giinther, Monimsen (.s.p., Madvig) ; peri- 
cidis, V. ^iunctae, E, C. F. W. Miiller; cunctae, V. 

* procursatoribus. Her. ; pr occur soribus, BG ; praecur- 
satoribus, V. 

1 Namely, Barbatio. - See note 1, p. 206. 


XVI., 12, 4-8, A.D. 357 

4. Now King Chonodomarius was raising general 
disturbance and confusion, making his presence felt 
everj^where without limit, a leader in dangerous 
enterprises, hfting up his brows in pride, being as 
he was conceited over frequent successes. 5. For he 
both met Decentius Caesar on equal terms and 
defeated him, and had destroyed and sacked many 
wealthy cities, and for a long time freely overran 
Gaul without opposition. To strengthen his con- 
fidence, there was added besides the recent rout 
of a general superior in numbers and strength.^ 
6. For the Alamanni. on seeing the devices of their 
shields, realised that these soldiers, who had given 
ground before a few of their brigands, were the men 
in fear of whom they had at times in the past 
scattered and fled with heavy losses, before coming 
to close quarters. All this caused Julian worry 
and anxiety, because at the instance of urgent 
necessity, with the partner of his danger gone, 
he was forced with only a few (though brave) troops 
to meet swarming tribes. 

7. Already the beams of the sun were reddening 
the sky, and the blare of the trumpets was sounding 
in unison, when the infantry forces were led out at 
a moderate pace, and to their flank were joined the 
squadrons of cavalry, among whom were the cuir- 
assiers ^ and the archers, a formidable branch of the 
service. 8. And since from the place where the 
Roman standards had begun advancing, the dis- 
tance to the enemy's camp was figured to be four- 
teen leagues — that is, twentv-one miles — Caesar 
had proper regard for both advantage and security, 
and having recalled his outposts, who had already 



solitis vocibus quiete, cuneatim circumsistentes 
alloquitur, genuina placiditate sermonis : ' 

9. " Urget ratio salutis tuendae communis, ut 
parcissime dicam, non iacentis animi Caesarem 
hortari vos et orare, — commiilitones mei — ut adulta 
robustaque vitute confisi, cautiorem viam potius 
eligamus, ad toleranda vel ad depellenda quae 
sperantur, non praeproperam et ancipitem. 10. Ut 
enim in periculis iuventutem impigram esse con- 
venit et audacem, ita (cum res postulat) regibilem 
et consultam. Quid igitur censeo, si arbitrium af- 
fuerit vestrum, iustaque sustinet indignatio, paucis 
aboolvam. 11. lam dies in meridiem vergit, lassi- 
tudine nos itineris fatigatos, scrupulosi tramites 
excipient et obscuri, nox senescente luna nullis 
sideribus adiuvanda, terrae protinus aestu flagrantes, 
nullis aquarum subsidiis fultae ; quae si dederit 
quisquam commode posse transiri, ruentibus hos- 
tium examinibus post otium cibique refectionem et 
potus, quid nos agamus ? ^ Quo vigore inedia siti 
laboreque membris marcentibus occurramus ? 12. 
Ergo quoniam negotiis difficilUmis quoque ^ saepe 
dispositio tempestiva prospexit, et statum nutan- 
tium rerum, recto consibo in bonam partem accepto, 
aliquotiens divina remedia repararunt, hie quaeso 

^ agamus, Clark, c.c. ; agiimis, V. - quoque before saepe. 
Her. ; q. before Ergo, V. 


XVI., 12, 8-12, A.D. 357 

gone ahead, and having proclaimed silence by the 
usual announcements, with his native calmness of 
speech he addressed the soldiers, who stood about 
him in companies, as follows : 

9. " Regard for maintaining our common safety 
(to speak most sparingly) urges me, a Caesar far 
from pusillanimous, to urge and entreat you, fellow- 
soldiers, to have confidence in your mature and 
sturdy courage, and to choose for all of us rather 
the path of caution, not the over-hasty and doubtful 
one, if we are to withstand or to repulse what we 
have to expect. 10. For in the midst of peril, \ 
while it is proper that young men should be energetic \ iA> 
and daring, they should also (when occasion requires) ' ' 
be docile and circumspect. Let me therefore in few 
words detail what my opinion is and see if your 
judgment sanctions, and your just anger upholds 
it. 11. The day is already nearing noon ; we are 
exhausted by the fatigue of the march ; steep and 
blind paths will receive us ; the moon is waning 
and the night will be relieved by no stars ; the 
country is fairly ablaze with heat and relieved by 
no supply of water. If anyone should grant us the 
ability to pass through all this comfortably, what 
are we to do when the enemy's swarms rush upon us, 
refreshed as they will be with rest and food and 
drink ? What strength can we have, when our limbs 
are enfeebled with hunger, thirst and toil, to offer 
resistance ? 12. Therefore, since even the most diffi- 
cult situations have often been met by timely arrange- 
ment, and when suitable advice has been taken in 
good part, heaven-sent remedies have frequently re- 
stored the condition of aflFairs which threatened ruin, 



vallo fossaque circuindati, divisi^ vigiliis, quiescamus, 
somnoque et victu congruis potiti pro tempore, 
pace dei sit dictum, triumphaturas aquilas et 
vexilla victricia primo lucis moveamus exordio." 

13. Nee finiri perpessi quae dicebantur, stridore 
dentium infrendentes, ardoremque pugnandi hastis 
illidendo scuta monstrantes, in hostem se duci iam 
conspicuum exorabant, caelestis dei favore, fiducia- 
que sui, et fortunati rectoris expertis virtutibus 
freti, atque (ut exitus docuit) salutaris quidam 
genius praesens ad dimicandum eos (dum adesse 
potuit), incitabat. 14, Accessit huic alacritati plenus 
celsarum potestatum assensus, maximeque Florenti 
praefecti praetorio, periculose quidem sed ratione 
secunda pugnandum esse censentis, dum starent ^ 
barbari conglobati, qui si diffluxissent, motum mili- 
tis in seditiones nativo calore propensioris ferri non 
posse aiebat, extortam sibi victoriam (ut putavit) 
non sine ultimorum conatu graviter toleraturi.^ 
15. Addiderat autem fiduciam nostris consideratio 
gemina, recordantibus quod anno nuper emenso, 
Romanis per transrhenana spatia fusius volitantibus, 
nee visus est quisquam laris sui defensor, nee obvius 

^ starent, Haupt. ; instarent, V. ^ toleraturi, G (with 

following lac. c.c. Her.) ; toUeratur, V. 


XVI., 12, 12-15, A.D. 357 

here, I ask of you, protected by a rampart and a 
trench and with our sentinels picketed, let us rest 
and for the present enjoy sleep and food suitable to 
the occasion ; and then (with God's leave be it 
spoken) let us advance our triumphant eagles and 
victorious standards at the first break of day." 

13. The soldiers did not allow him to finish what 
he was saying, but gnashed and ground their teeth 
and showed their eagerness for battle by striking 
their spears and shields together, and besought 
him that they might be led against an enemy 
who was already in sight, trusting in the favour of 
God in Heaven, in their own self-confidence, and in 
the tried valour of their lucky general ; and (as the 
event showed) a sort of helpful guardian spirit was 
urging them to the fray, so long as he could be at 
hand. 14. In support of this eagerness was the 
full assent of the high command and especially of 
Florentius, the praetorian prefect, who judged that 
though it was risky, they must none the less fight 
with hope of success while the savages were stand- 
ing massed together ; but if they scattered, the 
resentment of our soldiers, who, he said, are inclined 
by their native hotness of temper towards insubordi- 
nation, would be impossible to withstand ; for that 
victory (as they would think) should be wrested 
from their hands they would hardly endure without 
recourse to the last extremity. 15. Furthermore, 
our men's confidence had been increased by a two- 
fold consideration, since they recalled that during 
the year just elapsed, when the Romans were 
ranging freely all through the country beyond the 
Rhine, not a man was seen to defend his own home 



stetit, sed concaede arborum densa undique semitis 
clausis, sidere urente brumali, aegre vixere barbari 
longius amendati, quodque imperatore terras eorum 
ingresso, nee resistere ausi, nee apparere, pacem 
impetraverunt, suppliciter obsecrantes. 16. Sed 
nullus mutatam rationem temporis advertebat, 
quod tunc tripertito exitio premebantur, imperatore 
urgente per Raetias, Caesare proximo nusquam 
elabi permittente, finitimis, quos hostes fecere dis- 
cordiae, modo non occipitia conculcautibus hinc 
indeque cinctorum. Postea vero pace data dis- 
cesserat imperator, et sedata iurgiorum materia, 
vicinae gentes iam concordabant, et turpissimus 
ducis Romani digressus ferociam natura conceptam 
auxit in mains. 17. Alio itidem modo res est 
aggravata Romana, ex negotio tali. Regii duo 
fratres vinculo pacis adstricti, quam anno prae- 
terito impetraverant a Constantio, nee tumidtuare 
nee commoveri sunt ausi. Sed paulo postea luio ex 
his Gundomado, qui potior erat, fideique firmioris, 
per insidias interempto, omnis eius populus cum 
nostris hostibus conspiravit et confestim \ adomarii 
plebs (ipso invito/ ut asserebat) agminibus bella 
cientium barbarorum sese coniunxit. 

^ ipso inuito, Clark, c.c. ; ipso reptignante, Haupt. ; 
lac. 12 letters at end of line, V. 


XVI., 12, 15-17, A.D. 357 

or to make a stand against them ; but after blocking 
the paths everj^vhere with a thick barricade of trees, 
the savages, frost-bitten by the winter constellations, 
had much ado to Live, moving far out of the way ; 
and once the emperor had entered into their country 
they did not dare either to resist or show them- 
selves, and obtained peace by suppliant entreaties. 
16. But no one noticed that now the state of the 
case was changed, since then they were threatened 
with a triple catastrophv ; the emperor was menacing 
them by way of Raetia, Caesar was near at hand and 
would not allow them to slip out anywhere, and 
their neighbours (whom ci\'il strife had made their 
enemies) were all but treading on their necks while 
they were hemmed in on all sides. But later, peace 
was granted and the emperor had departed ; the 
source of their quarrels having disappeared, the 
border tribes were now in agreement ; and the shame- 
ful departure of the Roman commander had greatly 
increased the savageness implanted in them by 
nature. 17. In another way also the Roman situa- 
tion was made worse in consequence of the following 
occurrence : there were two brothers of royal blood, 
who, bound by the obligation of the peace which 
they had obtained from Constantius the year before, 
dared neither to raise a disturbance nor to make 
any move ; but a little later, when one of them, 
Gundomadus, who was the stronger of the two and 
truer to his promise, had been treacherously mur- 
dered, all his tribe made common cause with our 
enemies, and at once the subjects of Vadomarius 
(against his will, as he insisted) united with the armies 
of the savages who were clamouring for war. 


VOL. I. S 


18. Cunctis igitur summis infimisque approbanti- 
bus tunc opportune congrediendum, nee de rigore 
animorum quicquam remittentibus, exclamavit 
subito signifer " Perge, felicissime omnium Caesar, 
quo te fortuna prosperior dueit ; tandem per te vir- 
tutem et consilia militare sentimus. Praevius ^ 
ut faustus antesignanus et fortis, experieris quid 
miles sub conspectu bellicosi ductoris testisque 
individui gerendorum, modo adsit superum numen, 
viribus efficiet excitatis." 19. His auditis cum 
nullae laxarentur indutiae, promotus exercitus 
prope collem advenit moUiter editum, (tpertum 
segetibus iam maturis, a superciliis Rheni haut 
longo intervallo distantem ; ex cuius summitate 
speculatores hostium tres equites exciti, subito 
nuntiaturi Ronianum exercitum adventare, festi- 
narunt ad suos, unus vero pedes qui sequi non 
potuit, captus agilitate nostrorum, indicavit per 
triduum et trinoctium flumen transisse Germanos. 
20. Quos cum iam prope densantes semet in cuneos 
nostrorum conspexere ductores, steterunt vestigiis 
fixis, antepilanis hastatisque et ordinum primis, 
velut insolubili muro fundatis, et pari cautela hostes 

'^praevius, V (defended by Her.) ; i praevium, G ; j}^^'^'^ 
nos, Clark. 

1 The moaning is uncertain. The antejAlani were the 
soldiers of the first two lines, the hastati, or spearmen, were 
also part of the first line, so that there seems to be a 
repetition. Biiehele thought that the hastati were the 
standard -bearers {signiferi and draco7iarii), citing Petulan- 


XVI., 12, 18-20, A.D. 357 

18. So, since the whole army, I'roni the highest 
to the lowest, agreed that then was the suitable time 
to fight, and did not in the least abate their inflexi- 
bihty of spirit, one of the standard bearers suddenly 
cried : " Forward, most fortunate of all Caesars, 
whither your lucky star guides you ; in you at last 
we feel that both valour and good counsel are in the 
field. Leading the way for us like a lucky and valiant 
commander, you w ill find what the soldier will accom- 
plish when his strength is called out to the full, under 
the eyes of a w arlike general, the immediate witness 
of his achievements, if only the favour of the supreme 
deity be present." 19. On hearing this no delay 
was permitted, but the army moved forward and 
approached a hill of gentle slope, covered with grain 
already ripe, and not far distant from the banks of 
the Rhine. From its top three of the enemy's 
cavalry scouts galloped off and hastened to their 
troops, to bring speedy word of the Roman army's 
approach. But one infantryman, who could not 
keep up with them, was caught through the quick- , ^^ 
ness of .our men, and reported that the Germans had • ^ > 
been crossing the river for three days and three 
nights. 20. When our leading officers espied them, 
now near at hand, taking their places in close 
wedge-formation, they halted and stood fast, making 
a solid line, like an impregnable wall, of the vanguard, 
the standard bearers, and the stafi'-officers ; ^ and with 
like wariness the enemy held their ground without 

Hum hastatus, xx. 4, 18, where hastatus clearly has that 
sense, and that the ordinum primi were officers ranking 
between the centurions and the tribunes, citing Frontinus, 
Strat., XX. 4, which seems probable. 



stetere cuneati. 21. Cumque ita ut aute dictus 
docuerat perfuga, equitatum omnem a dextro latere 
sibi vidissent oppositum, quicquid apud eos pej 
equestres copias praepoUebat, in laevo cornu loca 
vere confertum. Eisdemque sparsim pedites mis 
cuere discursatores et leves, profecto ratione tut; 
poscente. 22. Norant enim licet prudentem e: 
equo bellatorem cum clibanario nostro congressum 
frena retinentem et scutum, hasta una manu vibrate 
tegminibus ferreis abscondito bellatori nocere no 
posse, peditem vero inter ipsos discriminum vertice 
cum nihil caveri solet praeter id quod occurri 
humiliter et ^ occulte reptantem, latere feral 
iumenti, incautum rectorem praecipitem ager 
levi negotio trucidandum. 23. Hoc itaque di 
posito, dextrum sui latus struxere clandestiu 
insidiis et obscuris. Ductabant autem popul 
omnes pugnaces et saevos Chonodomarius et Scrap.' 
potestate excelsiores ante alios reges. 24. ] 
Chonodomarius quidem nefarius turbinis ^ toti 
incentor, cuius vertici flammeus torulus aptabati 
anteibat cornu sinistrum, audax et fidens ingei 
robore lacertorum, ubi ardor proelii sperabat' 
immanis, equo spumante sublimior, erectus 
iaculum formidandae vastitatis, armorumque nit< 
conspicuus ante alios, ^ et strenuus * miles et ut 
praeter ceteros ductor. 25. Latus vero dextri 
Scrapie agebat etiam tum adultae lanuginis iuvei 

^ et, added by Clark; V omits. ^turbinis, H(l; 

belli, AG ; boni, V. ^ ante alios, Mommsoii (v|i 

conspicuiis. Her.). * et strenuus, transposed by Clarl; t 
deleted by Her. ; antea strenuus et miles, V. 


XVI., 12, 20-25, A.D. 357 

advancing. 21. And when (just as the above-men- 
tioned deserter had told them) they saw all our cavalry 
opposite them on the right flank, they put all their 
strongest cavalry forces on their left flank in close 
order. And among them here and there they inter- 
mingled skirmishers and light-armed infantry, as 
safe policy certainly demanded. 22. For they real- 
ised that one of their warriors on horseback, no 
matter how skilful, in meeting one of our cavalry 
in coat-of-mail, must hold bridle and shield in one 
hand and brandish his spear with the other, and 
would thus be able to do no harm to a soldier hidden 
in iron armour ; whereas the infantry soldier in the 
very hottest of the fight, when nothing is apt to 
be guarded against except what is straight before 
one, can creep about low and unseen, and by piercing 
a horse's side throw its unsuspecting rider head- 
long, whereupon he can be slain with little trouble. 
23. Having made this arrangement, they provided 
their right flank with secret and puzzling ambuscades. 
Now all these warlike and savage tribes were led 
bv Chonodomarius and Serapio, kings higher than 
all the rest in authority. 24. And Chonodomarius, 
who was in fact the infamous instigator of the whole 
disturbance, rode before the left wing with a flame- 
coloured plume on his helmet, a bold man, who relied 
upon his mighty muscular strength, a huge figure 
wherever the heat of battle was looked for ; erect 
on his foaming steed, he towered with a lance of 
formidable size ; made conspicuous above others by 
the gleam of his armour, he was both a doughty 
soldier and a skilful general beyond all the rest. 25. 
But the righf wing was led by Serapio, who was 



efficacia praecurrens aetatem ; Mederichi fratris 
Chonodomarii filius, hominis quoad vixerat per- 
fidissimi ; ideo sic appellatus, quod pater eius diu 
obsidatus pignore tentus in Galliis, doctusque Graeca 
quaedam arcana, hunc filiuni suum, Agcnarichum 
genitali vocabulo dictitatuni, ad Serapionis trans- 
tulit nomen. 26. Hos seqiiebantur potestate 
proximi reges, numero quinque, regalesque decern, 
et optimatum series magna, armatorumque milia 
triginta et quinque, ex variis nationihus partim 
mercede, partim pacto vicissitudinis reddendae 

27. lamque torvum concrepantibus tubis, Severus 
dux Romanorum, aciem dirigens laevani, cum prope 
fossas armatorum refertas venisset, unde dispositum 
erat ut abditi repente exorti cuncta turbarent, stetit 
impavidus, suspectiorque de obscuris, nee referre 
gradum nee ulterius ire temptavit. 28. Quo viso, 
animosus contra labores maximos Caesar, ducentis 
equitibus saeptus, ut ardor negotii flagitabat, 
agmina peditum impetu ^ veloci discurrerent, verbis 
hortabatur et gestu.'^ 29. Et quoniam alloqui 
pariter omnes nee longitudo spatiorum extenta, 
nee in unum coactae multitudinis permitteret 
crebritas, (et alioqui vitabat gravioris invidiae 
pondus, ne videretur id affectasse quod soli sibi 
deberi Augustus existimabat) incautior sui hostium 

1 %it impettt, suggested by Clark. ^ et gestu, added 

by Novak, cf. xix. 11. 9. 

^ The name is connected with Serapis, as that of a god 
similar to Dis ; cf. Caesar. BO. vi. 18 ; Galli se omnes ab 
Dite patre prognatos praedicant. 


XVI., 12, 25-29, A.D. 357 

still a young man with downy cheeks, but his 
ability outran his years ; he was the son of 
Mederichus, Chonodomarius' brother, a man of the 
utmost treachery all his life ; and he was so named 
because his father, Avho had for a long time been 
kept as a hostage in Gaul and had been taught 
certain Greek mysteries, changed his son's original 
native name of Agenarichus to that of Serapio.^ 
26. These were followed by the kings next in power, 
five in number, by ten princes, with a long train of 
nobles, and 35,000 troops levied from various nations, 
partly for pay and partly under agreement to return 
the service. 

27. And now as the trumpets blared ominously, 
Severus, the Roman general in command of the left 
wing, on coming near the trenches filled with soldiers, 
from which it had been arranged that the men in 
concealment should rise up suddenly and throw every- 
thing into confusion, halted fearlessly, and being 
somewhat suspicious of ambuscades, made no 
attempt either to draw back or to go further. 
28. On seeing this, Caesar, who was courageous in 
the face of the greatest dangers, surrounded himself 
with an escort of two hundred horsemen, as the 
exigencies of the service demanded, and with word 
and action urged the lines of infantry to deploy with 
swift speed. 29. And since to address them all 
at once was impossible, both on account of the wide 
extent of the field and the great numbers of the 
multitude that had been brought together (and 
besides he avoided the hea\'y burden of jealousy, for 
fear of seeming to have affected that which the em- 
peror supposed to be due to himself alone) without 



tela praetervolans, his et similibus notos pariter et 
ignotos ad faciendum fortiter accendebat. 30. 
" Advenit — o soeii — iustum pugnandi iam tempus, 
olim exoptatum mihi vobiscum, quod antehac 
arcessentes, arma inquietis ^ motibus poscebatis." 
31. Item cum ad alios postsignanos, in acic locatos 
extrema, venisset, " En " inquit " commilitones, 
diu speratus praesto est dies, compellens nos omnes, 
elutis pristinis maculis, Romanae maiestati reddere 
proprium decus. Hi sunt barbari quos rabies et 
immodicus furor ad perniciem rerum suarum coegit 
occurrere, u#stris viribus opprimendos." 32. Alios 
itidem bellandi usu diutino callentes, aptius ordinans, 
his exhortationibus adiuvabat : " Exsurgamus — viri 
fortes — propulsemus ^ fortitudine congrua illisa 
nostris partibus probra, quae contemplans Caesaris 
nomen cunctando suscepi." 33. Quoscunique autem 
pugnae signum inconsulte poscentes, rupturosque 
imperium irrequietis motibus praevideret, " Quaeso " 
inquit " ne hostes vertendos in fugam sequentes 
avidius, futurae victoriae gloriam violetis, neu quis 
ante necessitatem idtimam cedat. Nam fugituros 
procul dubio deseram, hostium terga caesuris adero 

^ inquietis, V, Damste, cf. xvii. 1,13; inrequietis, Keller- 
bauer (ef. §33), Clark. - jyrojjidsemus, Her.; propel- 

lamus, BG ; propellemus, V. 


XVI., 12, 29-33, A.D. 357 

thought of his own safety he flew past the enemy's 
weapons and by these and similar speeches animated 
the soldiers, strangers as well as acquaintances, to 
deeds of valour. 30. " There has come now, com- 
rades, the real time for fighting, which you and I have 
long since desired, and which you were just now de- 
manding, when you were tumultuously calling for 
your weapons." 31. Also, when he had come to 
others, who were stationed behind the standards and 
in the extreme rear, he said : " Behold, fellow-soldiers, 
the long-hoped-for day is now here, forcing us all 
to wash away the old-time stains and restore its 
due honour to the majesty of Rome. These are the 
savages whom madness and excessive folly have 
driven on to the ruin of their fortunes, doomed as 
they are to be overwhelmed by our might." 32. In 
the same way, as he arranged in better order others 
who were experienced by long practice in warfare, 
he cheered them with with such words of encourage- 
ment as these : " Let us bestir ourselves, brave 
soldiers, and by seasonable valour do away with the 
reproaches inflicted upon our cause, in consideration 
of which I have hesitatingly accepted the title of 
Caesar." 33. But whenever he saw any soldiers 
who were calling for the battle-signal out of season, 
and foresaw that they would by their riotous actions 
break discipline, he said : " I beg of you, do not mar 
the glory of our coming victory by following too 
eagerly the enemy whom you are about to put to 
flight ; and let none yield ground before the ex- 
tremity of need. For I shall surely abandon those 
who are likely to flee, but I shall be inseparably 
present with those who shall wound their foemen's 



indiscretus, si hoc pensatione moderata fiat et 

34. Haec aliaque in eundem modum saepius 
replicando, maiorem exercitus partem primae bar- 
barorum opposuit fronti, et subito Alamannorum 
peditum fremitus, indignationi mixtus auditus est, 
unanimi conspiratione vociferantium, relictis equis 
secum oportere versari regales, ne siquid contigisset 
adversum, deserta miserabili plebe, facilem dis- 
cedendi copiam reperirent. 35. Hocque comperto, 
Chonodomarius iumento statim ^ desiluit, et secuti 
eum residui idem fecere,^ nihil morati ; nee enim 
eorum quisquam ambigebat partem suam fore 

36. Dato igitur aenatorum accentu sollemniter 
signo ad pugnandum utrimque, magnis concursum 
est viribus. PauHsper ^ praepilabantur missilia, 
et properantes concito * quam considerato cursu 
Germani, telaque dextris explicantes, involavere 
nostrorum equitum turmas, frendentes immania, 
eorumque ultra solitum saevientium, comae fluentes 
horrebant, et elucebat quidam ex oculis furor, quos 
contra pertinax miles, scutorum obicibus vertices 
tegens, eiectansque gladios, vel tela concrispans, 
mortem minitantia perterrebat. 37. Cumque in 
ipso proeliorum articulo eques se fortiter contur- 
maret, et muniret latera sua firmius pedes, frontem 
artissimis conserens parmis, erigebantur crassi 

^ id stalim, V ; id deleted by Novak ; ipse s., Eyssen. 
- fecere, Kiessling ; facere, V. -^ paulisper, Mominsen ; 

jjopulis, V. * concito, Schneider, Clark ; cito, E G ; 

cuto, V. 


XVI., 12, 33-37, A.D. 357 

backs, provided that it be done with regard for 
judgment and caution. 

34. While he kept often repeating these and other 
words to the same effect, he placed the greater part of 
his army opposite the forefront of the savages, and 
suddenly there Avas heard the outcry of the German 
infantry, mingled with indignation, as they shouted 
with one accord that their princes ought to leave 
their horses and keep company with them, for fear 
that they, if anything adverse should occur, abandon- 
ing the wretched herd, would easily make shift to 
escape. 35. On learning of this, Chonodomarius at 
once sprang down from his horse, and the rest, fol- 
lowing his example, did the same without delay ; for 
not one of them doubted that their side would be 

36. So, when the call to battle had been regularly 
given on both sides by the notes of the trumpeters, 
they began the fight with might and main ; for a 
time missiles were hurled, and then the Germans, 
running forward with more haste than discretion, and 
wielding their weapons in their right hands, flew 
upon our cavalry squadrons ; and as they gnashed 
their teeth hideously and raged beyond their usual 
manner, their flowing hair made a terrible sight, and 
a kind of madness shone from their eyes. Against 
them our soldiers resolutely protected their heads 
with the barriers of their shields, and with sword 
thrusts or by hurling darts threatened them with 
death and greatly terrified them. 37. And when in 
the very crisis of the battle the cavalry grouped 
themselves in a strong position, and the infantry 
stoutly protected their flanks by making a front of 



pulveris nubes, variique fuere discursus, nunc 
resistentibus, nunc cedentibus nostris, et obnixi 
genibus quidam barbari peritissimi bellatores, hos- 
tem propellere laborabant, sed destinatione nimia 
dexterae dexteris miscebantur et umbo trudebat 
umbonem, caelumque exsultantium cadentiumque 
resonabat a vocibus magnis, et cum cornu sinistrum 
artius ^ gradiens, urgentium tot agmina Germanorum 
vi nimia pepulisset, iretque in barbaros fremens, 
equites nostri cornu tenentes dextrum, praeter 
spem incondite discesserunt, dumque primi fugien- 
tium postremos impediunt, gremio legionum pro- 
tecti, fixerunt integrato proelio gradum. 38. Hoc 
autem exinde acciderat, quod dum ordinum res- 
tituitur series, cataphracti equites viso rectore suo 
leviter vulnerato, et consorte quodam per cervicem 
equi labente,^ pondere armorum oppressi, dilapsi 
qua quisque poterat, peditesque calcando cuncta 
turbassent, ni conferti illi sibique vicissim innexi ^ 
stetissent immobiles. Igitur cum equites nihil 
praeter fugae circumspectantes praesidia, vidisset 
longius Caesar, concito equo, eos velut repagulum 
quoddam cohibuit. 39. Quo agnito per purpureum * 
signum draconis, summitati hastae longioris aptatum, 

1 artius. Pet. ; altius, V. - Inbente, Cornelisseii, 

labentin, V. -^ innexi. Her.; innixi, V. * per 

purpureum, \A'^G ; perpureum, V. 


XVI., 12, 37-39, A.D. 357 

their bucklers joined fast together, clouds of thick 
dust arose. Then there were various manoeuvres, 
as our men now stood fast and now gave ground, 
and some of the most skilful warriors among the 
savages by the pressure of their knees tried to force 
their enemy back ; but with extreme determination 
they came to hand-to-hand fighting, shield-boss 
pushed against shield, and the sky re-echoed with the 
loud cries of the victors or of the falling. And al- 
though our left wing, marching in close formation had 
driven back by main force the onrushing hordes of 
Germans and was advancing with shouts into the 
midst of the savages, our cavalry, which held the right 
wing, unexpectedly broke ranks and fled ; but while 
the foremost of these fugitives hindered the hind- 
most, finding themselves sheltered in the bosom of 
the legions, they halted, and renewed the battle. 38. 
Now that had happened for the reason that while the 
order of their lines was being re-established, the 
cavalry in coat-of-mail, seeing their leader slightly 
wounded and one of their companions slipping over 
the neck of his horse, which had collapsed under the 
weight of his armour, scattered in whatever direction 
they could ; and the horse would have caused com- 
plete confusion by trampling the infantry under foot, 
had not the latter, who were packed close together 
and intertwined one with the other, held their ground 
without stirring. So, when Caesar had seen from 
a distance that the cavalry were looking for nothing 
except safety in flight, he spurred on his horse and 
held them back like a kind of barrier. 39. On 
recognising him by the purple ensign of a dragon, 
fitted to the top of a very long lance and spreading 


velut senectutis pandentis exuvias, stetit unius tur- 
mae tribunus, et pallore timoreque perculsus,adaciem 
integrandam recurrit. 40. Utque in rebus amat fieri 
dubiis, eosdem lenius increpans Caesar, " Quo " 
inquit " cedimus, viri fortissimi ? an ignoratis, fugam 
quae salutem numquam repperit, irriti conatus 
stultitiam indicare ? Redeamus ad nostros, saltim 
gloriae futuri participes, si eos pro re publica dimi- 
cantes reliquimus inconsulte." 4L Haec reverenter 
dicendo, reduxit omnes ad munia subeunda bellandi, 
imitatus salva diflferentia veterem SuUam, qui cum 
contra Archelaum (Mithridatis ducem) educta acie 
proelio fatigabatur ardenti, relictus a militibus 
cunctis, cucurrit in ordinem priinum, raptoque et 
coniecto vexillo in partem hostilem, " Ite " dixerat 
" soeii periculorum electi, et scitantibus ubi relictus 
sim imperator, respondete nihil fallentes : ' solus 
in Boeotia pro omnibus nobis cum dispendio san- 
guinis sui decernens.' " 

42. Proinde Alamanni, pulsis disiectisque equi- 
tibus nostris, primam aciem peditum incesserunt, 
earn abiecta resistendi animositate pxilsuri. 43. 
Sed postquam comminus ventum est, pugnabatur 
paribus diu momentis. Cornuti enim et Bracchiati, 
usu proeliorum diuturno firmati, eos iam gestu 
terrentes, barritum ciere vel maximum : qui clamor 

XVI., 12, 39-43, A.D. 357 

out like the slough of a serpeut, the tribune of one 
of the squadrons stopped, and pale and struck with 
fear rode back to renew the battle. 40. Whereupon 
Caesar, as is best to do in times of panic, rebuked 
them mildly and said : " Whither are we fleeing, 
my most valiant men ? Do you not know that 
flight never leads to safety, but shows the folly of 
a useless eff'ort ? Let us return to our companions, 
to be at least sharers in their coining glory, if it is 
without consideration that we are abandoning them 
as they fight for their country." 41. By his tactful 
way of saying this he recalled them all to perform 
their duty as soldiers, following (though with some 
diff'erence) the example of Sulla of old. For when 
he had led out his forces against Mithradates' general 
Archelaus and was being exhausted by the heat of 
battle and deserted by all his men, he rushed to 
the front rank, caught up a standard, flung it towards 
the enemy, and cried : " Go your way, you who were 
chosen to be companions of my dangers, and to those 
who ask you where I, your general, was left, answer 
truthfully : ' Fighting alone in Boeotia, and shed- 
ding his blood for all of us.' " 

42. Then the Alamanni, having beaten and scat- 
tered our cavalry, charged upon the front line of 
the infantry, supposing that their courage to resist 
was now lost and that they would therefore drive 
them back. 43. But as soon as they came to close 
quarters, the contest continued a long time on equal 
terms. For the Cornuti and the Bracchiati, tough- 
ened by long experience in fighting, at once in- 
timidated them by their gestures, and raised their 
mighty battle-cry. This shout in the very heat of 



ipso fervore ccrtaminum, a teuui susurro exoriens, 
paulatimque adulescens ritu extollitur fluctuum, 
cautibus illisorum ; iaculoruin deinde stridentium 
crebritate, hinc indeque convolante, pulvis aequali 
motu adsurgens, et prospectum eripiens arma armis 
corporaque corporibus obtrudebat. 44. Sed violen- 
tia iraque incompositi, barbari in modurn exarsere 
flammarum, nexamque scutonim compagem, quae 
nostros in modum testudinis tuebatur. scindebant 
ictibus gladiorum assiduis. 45. Quo cognito opitu- 
latum conturmalibus suis celeri cursu Batavi venere 
cum regibus, formidabilis manus, extremae necessi- 
tatis articulo circuinventos, (si iuvisset fors) ereptura. 
torvumque canentibus classicis, adultis viribus 
certabatur. 46. Verum Alamanni bella alacriter 
ineuntes, altius anhelabant, velut quodain furoris 
afflatu/ opposita omnia deleturi. Spicula tamen 
verrutaque missilia non cessabant, ferrataeque 
arundines fundebantur, quamquam etiam com- 
minus mucro feriebat contra mucronem, et loricae 
gladiis findebantur, et vulnerati nondum effuso 
cruore ad audendum exsertius consurgebant. 47. 
Pares enim quodam modo coiere cum paribus, 
Alamanni robusti et celsiores, milites usu nimio 
dociles ; illi feri et turbidi, hi quiet i et cauti ; animis 
isti fidentes, grandissimis illi corporibus freti. 48. 
Resurgebat tamen aliquotiens armorum pondere 

^ afflatu, Bentley, Hertz ; adfectu, V. 

^ In this formation the soldiers held their shields close 
together over their heads ; here, before their bodies. 

'^ The reges (cf. regii in Notitia Imp. Occident, p. 1466) 


XVI., 12, 43-48, A.D. 357 

combat rises from a low murmur and gradually 
grows louder, like waves dashing against the cliffs. 
Then a cloud of hissing javelins flew hither and 
thither, the dust arose from the movements of both 
sides and hid the view, so that weapon struck 
blindly on weapon and body against body. 44. 
But the savages, thrown into disorder by their 
violence and anger, flamed up like fire, and hacked 
with repeated strokes of their swords at the close- 
jointed array of shields, which protected our men 
like a tortoise-formation. '^ 45. On learning this, the 
Batavians, with the " kings " "^ (a formidable band) 
came at the double quick to aid their comrades and 
(if fate would assist) to rescue them, girt about as 
they were, from the instant of dire need ; and as their 
trumpets pealed savagely, they fought with all 
their powers. 46. But the Alamanni, who enter 
eagerly into wars, made all the greater effort, as 
if to destroy utterly everything in their way by a 
kind of fit of rage. Yet darts and javelins did not 
cease to fly, with showers of iron-tipped arrows, 
although at close quarters also blade clashed on 
blade and breastplates were cleft with the sword ; 
the wounded too, before all their blood was shed, rose 
up to some more conspicuous deed of daring. 47. 
For in a way the combatants were evenly matched ; 
the Alamanni were stronger and taller, our soldiers 
disciplined by long practice ; they were savage and 
uncontrollable, our men quiet and wary, these relying 
on their courage, while the Germans presumed upon 
their huge size. 48. Yet frequently the Roman, 

seem to have been a select body of household troops. The 
Batavians had no kings at this time. 


VOL. I. T 


pulsus loco Romanus, lassatisque impressus genibus 
laevum reflectens poplitem barbarus subsidebat, 
hostem ultro lacessens, quod indicium est obstina- 
tionis extremae. 49. Exsiluit itaque subito ardens 
pptimatium globus, inter quos decernebant et reges, 
et sequente vulgo ante alios agmina nostrorum 
irrupit, et iter sibi aperiendo,^ ad usque Primanorum 
legionem pervenit locatam in medio — quae confir- 
matio castra praetoria dictitatur, — ubi densior et 
ordinibus frequens, mUes instar turrium fixa firmi- 
tate consistens, proelium maiore spiritu repetivit, 
et vulneribus declinandis intentus, seque in modum 
mirmillonis operiens, hostium latera, quae nudabat 
ira flagrantior, districtis gladiis perf'orabat. 50. 
At illi prodigere vitam pro victoria contendentes, 
temptabant agminis nostri laxare compagem. Sed 
continuata serie peremptorum, quos Romanus iam 
fidentior stravit, succedebant barbari superstites 
interfectis, auditoque occumbentium gemitu crebro, 
pavore perfusi torpebant. 51. Fessi denique tot 
aerumnis, et ad solam deinceps strenui fugam, 
per diversos tramites tota celeritate digredi - festina- 
bant, ut e mediis sae\dentis pelagi fluctibus, quo- 
cumque avexerit ventus, eici nautici properant et 

^ aperiendo, EBG ; pandendo. Her. ; rapiendo, sug- 
gested by Clark, cf . xviii. 9, 3 ; pariendo, V. * digredi. 
Her. cf. deici, § 51 ; egredi, W- ; gredi, V. 

^ The Primani formed a part of the household troops, 
under command of the magister militum. Here, probably, a 
select legion forming a reserve corps. 

2 Turres was also a military formation (Gell., x, 9, 1), but 
here the word is clearly used in its literal sense ; see note 
on forceps, xvi. 11, 3. 


XVL, 12, 48-51, A.D. 357 

driven from his post by the weight of armed men, 
rose up again ; and the savage, with his legs giving 
way from fatigue, would drop on his bended left 
knee and even thus attack his foe, a proof of extreme 
resolution. 49. And so there suddenly leaped forth 
a fiery band of nobles, among whom even the kings 
fought, and with the common soldiers following they 
burst in upon our lines before the rest ; and opening 
up a path for themselves they got as far as the legion 
of the Primani,^ which was stationed in the centre — 
a formation called praetorian camp — there our 
soldiers, closely packed and in fully-manned lines, 
stood their ground fast and firm, like towers,^ and 
renewed the battle with greater vigour ; and being 
intent upon avoiding wounds, they protected them- 
selves like murmillos,^ and with drawn swords 
pierced the enemy's sides, left bare by their frenzied 
rage. 50. But the enemy strove to lavish their lives 
for victory and kept trying to break the fabric of our 
line. But as they fell in uninterrupted succession, 
and the Romans now laid them low with greater 
confidence, fresh savages took the places of the 
slain ; but when they heard the frequent groans of 
the dying, they were overcome with panic and lost 
their courage. 51. Worn out at last by so many 
calamities, and now being eager for flight alone, 
over various paths they made haste with all speed 
to get away, just as sailors and passengers hurry to 

^ The murmillones, a kind of gladiator, so called from 
a fish which they wore on their helmets, were armed in 
Gallic fashion. They were matched against the retiarii, 
who tried to throw a net over them ; Festus, s.v. reliario, 
p. 358, Lind (p. 285, M.). 



vectores ; quod voti magis quam spei fuisse fatebitur 
quilibet tunc praesens. 52. Aderatque propitiati 
nuininis arbitriuni clemens, et secans terga ceden- 
tium miles cum interdum flexis ensibus feriendi non 
suppeterent instrumenta, erepta ^ ipsis barbaris 
tela eorum vitalibus immergebat, nee quisquam 
vulnerantium sanguine iram explevit nee satiavit 
caede multiplici dexteram, vel miseratus suppli- 
cantem abscessit. 53. lacebant itaque plurimi 
transfix! letaliter, remedia mortis compendio pos- 
tulantes, alii seniineces, labente iam spiritu, lucis 
usuram oculis niorientibus inquirebant, quorundani 
capita discissa trabalibus telis, et pendentia iugulis 
cohaerebant, pars per ^ limosum ^ et lubricum solum, 
in socioruni cruore relapsi,* intactis ferro corporibus, 
acervis superruentium obruti necabantur. 54. Quae 
ubi satis evenere prosperrime, validius instante 
victore, acumina densis ictibus hebescebant, splen- 
dentesque galeae sub pedibus volvebantur et scuta, 
ultimo denique trudente discrimine, barbari, cum 
elati cadaverum aggeres exitus impedirent, ad sub- 
sidia fluminis petivere, quae sola restabant, eorum 
terga iam perstringentis. 55. Et quia cursu sub 

1 erepta, added by Haupt. [rapta, Xovak) ; V omits. 
^per, added by W^G ; V omits. ^limosum, Clark; 

scruposum. Her. ; lutosum, BG ; cliuosum, W- ; lubrosum, 
omitting per, V. * relapsi, Clark, j)rolaj)si, Her. c.e. ; 

lapse, V. 


XVI., 12, 51-55, A.D. 357 

be cast up on land out of the midst of the billows 
of a raging sea, whichever way the wind may carry 
them ; and anyone there present will admit that it 
was a means of escape more prayed for than expected. 
52. Moreover, the gracious will of an appeased deity \ 
was on our side, and our soldiers slashed the backs 
of the fugitives ; when sometimes their swords were 
bent, and no weapons were at hand for dealing blows, 
they seized their javelins from the savages themselves 
and sank them into their vitals ; and not one of 
those who dealt these wounds could with their blood 
glut his rage or satiate his right hand by continual 
slaughter, or take pity on a suppliant and leave 
him. 53. And so a great number of them lay there 
pierced with mortal wounds, begging for death as 
a speedy relief ; others half-dead, with their spirit 
already slipping away, sought with dying eyes for 
longer enjoyment of the light ; some had their heads 
severed by pikes heavy as beams, so that they 
hung down, connected only by their throats ; some 
had fallen in their comrades' blood on the miry, 
slippery ground, and although their persons were 
untouched by the steel, they were perishing, buried 
beneath the heaps of those who kept falling above 
them. 54. When all this had turned out so very 
successfully, our victorious troops pressed on with 
greater vigour, blunting the edges of their swords 
with stroke after stroke, while gleaming helms and 
shields rolled about under foot. At last the savages, 
driven on bv the utmost extremity, since the heaps 
of corpses were so high as to block their passage, 
made for the only recourse left, that of the river, 
which now almost grazed their backs. 55. And since 



armis concito, fugientes miles indefessus urgebat, 
quidam nandi peritia eximi se posse discriminibus 
arbitrati, animas fluctibus commiserunt. Qua causa 
celeri corde futura praevidens Caesar, cum tribunis 
et ducibus clamore obiugatorio prohibebat, ne 
hostem avidius sequens, nostrorum quisquam se 
gurgitibus committeret verticosis. 56. Unde id 
observatum est, ut marginibus insistentes, confo- 
derent telorum varietate Germanos, quorum siquem 
morti velocitas subtraxisset, iacti corporis pondere 
ad ima fluminis subsidebat. 57. Et velut in quo- 
dam theatrali spectaculo, aulaeis miranda monstran- 
tibus multa, licebat iam sine metu videre nandi 
strenuis quosdam nescios adhaerentes, fluitantes 
alios cum expeditioribus linquerentur ut stipites. 
et velut luctante amnis violentia vorari quosdam 
fluctibus involutos, non nuUos clipeis vectos, prae- 
ruptas undarum occursantium molis, obliquatis 
meatibus declinantes, ad ripas ulteriores post 
multa discrimina pervenire. Spumans denique 
cruore barbarico, decolor alveus insueta stupebat 

58. Dum haec ita aguntur,^ rex Chonodomarius 
reperta copia discedendi, lapsus per funerum strues, 
cum satellitibus paucis, celefitate rapida properabat 

^ ita aguntur, Novak, cf. xvii. 11, 5, etc. {aguntur added 
by AG ; V omits). 


XVI., 12, 55-58, A.D. 357 

our indefatigable soldiers, running fast even under 
their armour, pressed upon them as they fled, some 
of them, thinking that by their skill in swimming 
they could save themselves from the dangers, 
committed their lives to the waves. Whereupon 
Caesar, with s%vift intelligence foreseeing what might 
happen, joined with the tribunes and higher officers 
in restraining shouts, forbidding any of our men 
in their over-eager pursuit of the enemy to entrust 
themselves to the eddying flood. 56. That had 
this result, that they stood on the banks and trans- 
fixed the Germans ^vith various kinds of darts ; and 
if any of them by his speed escaped this death, he 
would sink to the bottom of the river through the 
weight of his struggling body. 57. And just as 
in some theatrical scene, when the curtain displays 
many wonderful sights, so now one could %vithout 
apprehension see how some who did not know how 
to swim clung fast to good swimmers ; how others 
floated like logs when they were left behind by 
those who swam faster ; and some were swept into 
the currents and swallowed up, so to speak, by the 
struggling \'iolence of the stream ; some were carried 
along on their shields, and by frequently changing 
their direction avoided the steep masses of the 
onrushing waves, and so after many a risk reached 
the further shores. And at last the reddened river's 
bed, foaming with the savages' blood, was itself 
amazed at these strange additions to its waters. 

58. While this was thus going on. King Chono- 
domarius found means to get away by slipping 
through the heaps of corpses with a few of his atten- 
dants, and hastened at top speed towards the 



ad castra, quae prope Tribuncos et Concordiam 
munimenta Romana, fixit intrepidus, ut escensis 
navigiis, dudum paratis ad casus ancipites, in 
secretis ^ secessibus se ^ amendaret."^ 59. Et quia 
non nisi Rheno transitu ad territoria sua poterat 
pervenire, vultum ne agnosceretur operiens, sensim 
retulit pedem. Cumque propinquaret iam ripis, 
lacunam palustribus aquis interfusam circumgrediens 
ut transiret, calcata mollitie glutinosa, equo est 
evolutus, et confestim licet obeso corpore gravior, 
ad subsidium vicini collis evasit, quern agnitum 
(nee enim potuit celare qui fuerit, fortunae prions 
magnitudine proditus), statim aiibelo cursu cohors 
cum tribune secuta, armis circumdatum aggerem 
nemorosum, cautius obsidebat, perrumpere verita, 
ne fraude latenti inter ramorum tenebras exciperetur 
occultas. 60. Quibus visis, compulsus ad ultimos 
metus, ultro se dedidit ^ solus egressus. comitesque 
eius ducenti numero et tres amici iunctissimi, 
flagitium arbitrati post regem vivere, vel pro rege 
non mori, si ita tulerit casus, tradidere se vinciendos. 
61. Utque nativo more sunt barbari humdes in 
adversis, disparesque in secundis, servus alienae 
voluntatis trahebatur pallore confusus, claudente 
noxarum conscientia linguam, immensum quantum 

^ in secretis, V ; in deleted by Her. ^ se, added 

by Val. before secessibus ; transposed by Novak ; V 
omits. ^ amendaret, Val. ; se mandaret, Mommsen : 

emendaret, V. * dedidit, Bentley ; dedit, V. 

1 Xear Strasburg. ^ Drusenheim. 


XVI., 12, 58-61, A.D. 357 

camp which he had boldly pitched near the Roman 
fortifications of Tribunci ^ and Concordia, ^ his 
purpose being to embark in some boats which he 
had sometime before got ready for any emergency, 
and hide himself away in some secret retreat. 59. 
And since he could not reach his own territories ex- 
cept by crossing the Rhine, he covered his face for 
fear of being recognised and slowly retired. But 
when he was already nearing the river-bank and 
was skirting a lagoon which had been flooded with 
marsh water, in order to get by, his horse stumbled 
on the muddy and sticky ground and he was thrown 
off ; but although he was fat and heavy, he quickly 
escaped to the refuge of a neighbouring hill. But 
he was recognised (for he could not conceal his 
identity, being betrayed by the greatness of his 
former estate) ; and immediately a cohort with its 
tribune followed him with breathless haste and sur- 
rounded the wooded height with their troops and 
cautiously invested it, afraid to break in for fear that 
some hidden ambush might meet them among the 
dark shadows of the branches. 60. On seeing them 
he was driven to the utmost fear and surrendered 
of his own accord, coming out alone ; and his 
attendants, two hundred in number, with three of 
his closest friends, thinking it a disgrace to survive 
their king, or not to die for their king if an emergency 
required it, gave themselves up to be made prisoners. 
61. And as the savages are by nature humble in 
adversity and overbearing in success, subservient 
as he now was to another's will he dragged himself 
along pale and abashed, tongue-tied by the con- 
sciousness of his crimes — how vastly different from 



ab eo differens, qui post feros lugubresque terrores, 
cineribus Galliarum insultans, tnulta minabatur et 

62. Quibus ita favore superni numinis terminatis, 
post exactum iam diem, occinente liticine revocatus 
invitissimus miles, prope supercilia Rheni tendebat, 
scutorumque ordine multiplicato vallatus, victu 
fruebatur et somno. 63. Ceciderunt autem in hac 
pugna Romani quidem CCXL et ill, rectores vero 
Illl : Bainobaudes Cornutorum tribunus, adaeque 
Laipso et Innocentius cataphractarios ducens, et 
vacans quidam tribunus, cuius non suppetit nomen ; 
ex Alamannis vero sex ^ milia corporum numerata 
sunt, in campo constrata, et alii ^ inaestimabiles 
mortuorum acervi per undas fluminis ferebantur. 

64. Tunc lulianus, ut erat fortuna sui spectatior, 
meritisque magis quam imperio potens, Augustus 
acclamatione concordi totius cxercitus appellatus, 
ut agentes petulantius milites increpabat, id se 
nee sperare nee adipisci velle iurando confirmans. 

65. Et ut augeret eventus secundi laetitiam, con- 
cilio convocato propositisque praemiis, propitio ore ^ 
Chonodomarium sibi iussit ofFerri. Qui primo cur- 
vatus, deinde humi suppliciter fusus, gentilique 
prece veniam poscens. bono animo esse est iussus. 

66. Et diebus postea paucis ductus ad comitatum 

1 sex all is, V ; sex, G, Her. (cf. note 2) ; sex aut septem 
(AVII), Clark. ^ alii, added by Her. (cf. note 1). 

' conuocato . . . ore, Gardt. ; concilia omni spectante 
(contions, Kiessliiig), Haupt. ; concilia (lac. 9 letters) 
mtis peciare, V. 


XVI., 12, 61-66, A.D. 357 

the man who, after savage and woeful outrages, 
trampled upon the ashes of Gaul and threatened 
many dire deeds. 

62. So the battle was thus finished by the favour 
of the supreme deity ; the day had already ended 
and the trumpet sounded ; the soldiers, very 
reluctant to be recalled, encamped near the banks 
of the Rhine, protected themselves by numerous 
rows of outposts, and enjoyed food and sleep. 63. 
Now there fell in this battle on the Roman side 
two hundred and fortv-three soldiers and four 
high officers : Bainobaudes, tribune of the Cornuti, 
and also Laipsus ; and Innocentius, commander of 
the mailed cavalry, and one unattached tribune, 
whose name does not come to me. But of the 
Alamanni there were counted six thousand corpses 
lying on the field, and heaps of dead, impossible to 
reckon, were carried off by the waves of the river. 
64. Thereupon, since Julian was a man of greater 
mark than his position, and more powerful in his 
deserts than in his command, he was hailed as 
Augustus by the unanimous acclamation of the 
entire army ; but he rebuked the soldiers for their 
thoughtless action, and declared with an oath that 
he neither expected nor desired to attain that 
honour. 65. And to enhance their rejoicing over their 
success, he called an assembly and offered rewards, 
and then courteously gave orders that Chono- 
domarius should be brought before him ; the king 
at first bowed down and then humbly prostrated 
himself on the ground ; and when he begged for 
forgiveness in his native tongue, he was told to be 
of good courage. 66. And a few days later he was 



imperatoris, missusque exinde Romam, in castris 
peregrinis, quae in monte sunt Caelio, morbo veterni 
consumptus est. 

67. His tot ac taltbus prospero peractis eventu, in 
palatio Constanti quidam lulianum culpantes, ut 
princeps ipse delectaretur, irrisive Victorinum ideo 
nominabant, quod verecunde referens quotiens 
imperaret, superatos indicabat saepe Germanos. 
68. Interque exaggerationem inanium laudum, osten- 
tationemque aperte lucentium. inflabant ex usu 
imperatorem, suopte ingenio nimium, quicquid per 
omnem terrae ambitum agebatur, felicibus eius 
auspiciis assignantes. 69. Quocirca magniloquentia 
elatus adulatorum, tunc et deinde edictis propositis, 
arroganter satis multa mentiebatur, se solum (cum 
gestis non adfuisset) et dimicasse et vicisse et sup- 
plices reges gentium erexisse aliquotiens scribens, et 
si verbi gratia eo agente tunc in Italia, dux quidam 
egisset fortiter contra Persas, nulla eius mentioue 
per textum longissimum facta, laureatas litteras ad 
provinciarum damna mittebat, se inter primores 
versatum cum odiosa sui iactatione significans. 
70. Exstant denique eius dicta, in tabulariis principis ^ 
pubbcis condita,^ in quibus ambitiose ^ delata 
narrandi extollendique semet in caelum. Ab Argen- 
torato cum pugnaretur, mansione quadragesima 

^ principis, put after eitis by Val. ; tabulariis principiis 
{principis, W-BG), V. * condita, W-ED ; condi 

(lac. 27 letters) delata, V. * in quibus ambitiose, 

added by Val. 

^ They were a 'detriment because of the expense they 
caused for celebrations, and " graft " by the agentes in 


XVL, 12, 66-70, A.D. 357 

conducted to the emperor's court and thence sent 
to Rome ; there in the Castra Peregrina, which is 
on the Caelian Hill, he wasted away and died. 

67. On the successful outcome of these exploits, 
so numerous and so important, some of the courtiers 
in Constantius' palace found fault with Julian, in 
order to please the emperor himself, or facetiously 
called him Victorinus, on the ground that, although 
he was modest in making reports whenever he led 
the army in battle, he often mentioned defeats of 
the Germans. 68. And between piling on empty 
praise, and pointing to what was clearly evident, 
they as usual puflFed up the emperor, who w^as 
naturally conceited, by ascribing whatever was 
done anywhere in the world to his favourable 
auspices. 69. As a consequence, he was elated by the 
grandiloquence of his sycophants, and then and later 
in his published edicts he arrogantly lied about a 
great many matters, frequently writing that he 
alone (although he had not been present at the 
action) had both fought and conquered, and had 
raised up the suppliant kings of foreign nations. If, 
for example, when he himself was then in Italy, one 
of his generals had fought bravely against the Per- 
sians, he would make no mention of him in the course 
of a very long account, but would send out letters 
w reathed in laurel to the detriment ^ of the provinces, 
indicating with odious self-praise that he had fought 
in the front ranks. 70. In short, there are extant 
sayings filed among the pubhc records of this em- 
peror, in which ostentatious reports are given, of his 
boasting and exalting himself to the sky.^ When this 

- The text is uncertain, but the general sense is clear. 



disparatus, describens proelium aciem ordinasse, 
et stetisse inter signiferos, et barbaros fugasse prae- 
cipites, sibique oblalum falso indicat Chonodomarium 
(pro rerum indignitas) super luliani gloriosis actibus 
conticescens, quos sepelierat penitus, ni fama res 
niaximas, vel obumbrantibus plurimis, silere ne- 


1. lulianus C. transito Kheno Alamannonnn vicos 
(liripit ac incendit ; ibi munimentum Traiani 
reparat, et decimestres indutias barbaris concedit. 

1. Hac rerum varietate, quam iam digessimus, 
ita ^ conclusa, Martius iuvenis, Rheno post Argen- 
toratensem pugnam otiose fluente, securus, sollici- 
tusque idem ne dirae - volucres consumerent cor- 
pora peremptorum, sine discretione cunctos humari 
mandavit, absolutisque legatis, quos ante certamen 
superba quaedam portasse praediximus, ad Tres 
Tabernas revertit. 2. Unde cum capti\ds omnibus 
praedam Mediomatricos servandam ad reditum 
usque suum duci praecipit, et petiturus ipse Mogon- 
tiacum, ut ponte compacto transgressus, in suis 

1 varietate . . . ita, Clark ; quis varietatetn iam diges- 
siimis ita, V. ' idem ne dirae. Her. ; ne dire, EBG ; 

inedire, V. 


XVI., 12, 70— XVII., 1, 1-2, A.D. 357 

battle was fought near Strasburg, although he was 
distant forty days' march, in his description of the 
fight he falsely asserts that he arranged the order of 
battle, and stood among the standard-bearers, and 
drove the barbarians headlong, and that that Chono- 
domarius was brought to him, saying nothing (Oh, 
shameful indignity !) of the glorious deeds of Julian, 
which he would have buried in oblivion, had not 
fame been unable to suppress his splendid exploits, 
however much many people would have obscured 


1. Julianus Caesar, having crossed the Rhine, sacks 
and burns the villages of the Alamanni ; he 
repairs a fortress of Trajan and grants the 
barbarians a truce of ten months. 

1. After this conclusion of the variety of events 
which I have now summarised the young warrior, 
with mind at ease, since the Rhine flowed on peace- 
fully after the battle of Strasburg, took care to keep 
birds of prey from devouring the bodies of the slain ; 
and he gave orders that they should all be buried 
without distinction. Then, having dismissed the 
envoys, who (as we have related) had brought some 
insolent messages before the battle, he returned 
to Savernes. 2. From there he ordered the booty, 
with all the captives, to be taken to Metz and 
kept there until his return ; he was himself planning 
to go to Mayence with the purpose of building a 
bridge, crossing the Rhine, and searching out the 



regionibus ^ requireret barbaros, cum nullum reli- 
quissct in nostris, rcfragante vetabatur exercitu ; 
verum facundia iucunditateque sermonum allectum, 
in voluntatem traduxerat suam. Amor enim post 
documenta flagrantior, sequi libenter hortatus est 
omnis operae conturmalem, auctoritate magnificum 
ducem, plus laboris indicere sibi quara militi, sicut 
perspicue contigit, assuetum. Moxque ad locum 
praedictum est ventum, flumine pontibus constratis 
transmisso, occupavere terras hostiles. 3. At bar- 
bari perstricti negotii magnitudine, qui se in tran- 
quillo positos otic, tunc parum inquietari posse 
sperabant, aliorum exitio quid fortunis suis im- 
mineret anxie cogitantes, simulata pacis petitione, 
ut primae vertiginis impetum declinarent, misere 
legatos cum verbis compositis, quae denuntiarent 
concordem foederum firmitatem ; incertumque quo 
consilio statim institute,^ mutata voluntate, per alios 
cursu celeri venire compulses, acerrimum nostris 
minati sunt belium, ni eorum regionibus excessissent. 
4. Quibus clara fide compertis, Caesar noctis prima 
quiete, navigiis modicis et velocibus octingentos 
imposuit milites, ut spatio stadiorum xx ^ sursum 
versum decurso egressi, quicquid invenire potuerint, 

1 regionibus, added by Damste, of. § 3. ^ statim in- 

stituto or utatim impetu restituto, Monimsen ; stat institutos, 
V. ^ lit NjMitio stadiorum xx, Novak ; militis eorum xx, V. 


XVIL, 1, 2-i, A.D. 357 

savages ou their own grouutl, since he had left none 
of them in our territory ; but he was opposed by 
the protests of the army. However, by his eloquence 
and the charm of his language he won them over 
and converted them to his will. For their affection, 
warmer after their experiences with him, prompted 
them to follow willingly one who was a fellow-soldier 
in every task, a leader brilliant in his prestige, and 
accustomed to prescribe more drudgery for himself 
than for a common soldier, as was clearly evident. 
And so they soon came to the place above men- 
tioned, crossed the river on the bridges which they 
made, and possessed themselves of the enemy's 
country. 3. But the savages, thunderstruck at the 
vastness of the feat, since they little expected that 
they could be molested, settled as they were amid un- 
disturbed peace, gave anxious thought to what might 
threaten their own fortunes, in view of the destruc- 
tion of the others ; and so under pretence of a prayer 
for peace, with the purpose of avoiding the brunt of 
the first onslaught, they sent envoys with set 
speeches, to declare the harmonious validity of the 
treaties with them ; but for some unknown design 
that they suddenly formed they changed their 
minds, and by other messengers whom they forced 
to come post haste, they threatened our men with 
most bitter warfare, unless they should withdraw 
from their territory. 

4. On learning this from a sure source, Caesar 
at the first quiet of nightfall embarked eight hundred 
soldiers on small, swift boats, so that they might 
go up the Rhine for a distance of twenty stadia, 
disembark, and with fire and sword lay waste 


VOL. I. U 


lerro violareut ct flauiiuis. 5. (^uo ita disposito, 
solis primo exortu, visis per montium vertices bar- 
baris, ad celsiora ducebatur alacrior miles, nuUoque 
invento (hoc si quidem opinati discessere confestim) 
eminus ingentia fumi volumina visebantur, indican- 
tia nostros perruptas populari terras hostiles. 6. 
Quae res Gernianorum perculit animos, atque de- 
sertis insidiis, quas per arta loca et latebrosa stru- 
xerant nostris, trans Menum nomine fluvium ad 
opitulandum suis necessitudinibus avolarunt. 7. Ut 
enim in ^ rebus amat fieri dubiis et turbatis, hinc 
equitum nostrorum accursu, inde navigiis vectorum 
militum impetu repentino perterrefacti, evadendi 
subsidium velox locorum invenere prudentes, quorum 
digressu miles libere gradiens, opulentas pecore 
villas et frugibus rapiebat, nulli parcendo, extrac- 
tisque captivis, domicilia cuncta, curatius ritu 
Romano constructa, flammis subditis exurebat. 
8. Emensaque aestimatione decimi lapidis, cum 
prope silvam venisset squalore tenebrarum horren- 
dam, stetit dux ^ diu cunctando, indicio perfugae 
doctus per subterranea quaedam occulta, fossasque 
mvdtifidas, latere hostium ^ plurimos, ubi habile 
visum fuerit erupturos. 9. Ausi tamen omnes acce- 
dere fidentissime, ilicibus incisis et fraxinis, roboreque 

^ in, added by Novak, cf . xvi. 20. 40. ^ dux, added 

by Clark ; V omits. ^ hostium, added by Novak ; lac. 

after latere, Clark, c.c. 

1 Main. 

XVII., 1, 4-9, A.D. 357 

whatever they could find. 5. This arrangement 
thus made, at the very break of day the savages 
were seen drawn up along the hill-tops, and the 
soldiers in high spirits were led up to the higher 
ground ; but they found no one there (since the 
enemy, suspecting this, had hastily decamped), and 
then great columns of smoke were seen at a dis- 
tance, revealing that our men had burst in and 
were devastating the enemy's territory. 6. This 
action broke the Germans' spirit, and abandoning 
the ambuscades which they had laid for our men in 
narrow and dangerous places, they fled across the 
river, Menus ^ by name, to bear aid to their kins- 
folk. 7. For, as is apt to happen in times of doubt 
and confusion, they were panic-stricken by the raid 
of our cavalry on the one side, and on the other 
by the sudden onset of our infantry, who had rowed 
up the river in their boats ; and with their know- 
ledge of the ground they had quick recourse to 
flight. Upon their departure our soldiers marched 
on undisturbed and plundered farms rich in cattle 
and crops, sparing none ; and having dragged out 
the captives, they set fire to and burned down all 
the houses, which w ere built quite carefully in Roman 
fashion. 8. After having advanced approximately 
ten miles, they came to a forest formidable with its 
forbidding shade and their general stood in hesita- 
tion for some time, being informed by the report of 
a deserter that large forces were lurking in some 
hidden underground passages and wdde-branching 
trenches, ready to burst forth when they saw^ an 
opportunity. 9. Yet they all ventured to draw 
near with the greatest confidence, but found the 




abictum Jiiaguo, scmitas invcucrc constrains. Idco- 
que gradientes cautius retro, non nisi per anfractus 
longos et asperos ultra progredi posse, vix indigna- 
tionem capientibus animis, advertebant. 10. Et 
quoniam aeris urente saevitia cum discriminibus 
ultimis laboratur in cassum (aequinoctio quippe 
autumnali exacto, per eos tractus superfusae nives 
opplevere montes simul et campos) opus arreptum 
est memorabile. 11. Et dum nullus obsisteret, 
munimentum quod in Alaraannorum solo conditum 
Traianus suo nomine voluit appellari, dudum violen- 
tius oppugnatum, tumultuario studio reparatum 
est ; locatisque ibi pro tempore defensoribus, ex 
barbarorum visceribus alimenta congesta sunt. 
12. Quae illi maturata ad suam perniciem contem- 
plantes, metuque rei peractae volucriter congregati, 
precibus et bumilitate suprema, petiere missis oratori- 
bus pacem ; quam Caesar omni consiliorum via 
firmatam,^ eausatus veri similia plurima, per decern 
mensuum tribuit intervallum ; id nimirum sollerti 
colligens mente, quod castra supra quam optari 
potuit occupata sine obstaculo, tormentis muralibus 
et apparatu deberent valido communiri. 13. Hac 
fiducia tres imfnanissimi reges venerunt tandem 
aliquando iam trepidi, ex bis qui misere victis apud 
Argentoratum auxilia, iurantes conceptis ritu patrio 

^ firmaiam, Wagner ; firmata, V. 

XVII., 1, 9-13, A.D. 357 

paths heaped with felled oak and ash-trees and a 
great quantity of fir. And so they warily retreated, 
their minds hardly containing their indignation, 
as they reahsed that they could not advance far- 
ther except by long and difficult detours. 10. And 
since the rigorous climate was trying to them and 
they struggled in vain Avith extreme difficulties (for 
the autumnal equinox had passed, and in those 
regions the fallen snows covered mountains and 
plains alike) they took in hand a memorable piece 
of work. 11. And while there was no one to 
withstand them, with eager haste they repaired 
a fortress which Trajan had built in the territory of 
the Alamanni and wished to be called by his name, 
and which had of late been very forcibly assaulted. 
There a temporary garrison was established and 
provisions were brought thither from the heart of 
the savages' country. 12. When the enemy saw 
these preparations rapidly made for their destruc- 
tion, they quickly assembled, dreading the comple- 
tion of the work, and with prayers and extreme 
abasement sent envoys and sued for peace. And 
Caesar granted this for the space of ten months, 
since it was recommended by every kind of consid- 
eration, and he could allege very many plausible 
reasons for it ; for doubtless he appreciated with his 
keen mind that the stronghold which, beyond any 
possible hope, he had seized without opposition, 
ought to be fortified with artillery on the walls and 
powerful appliances of war. 13^ Confiding in this 
peace, three very savage kings finally.appeared, though 
stUl somewhat apprehensive since they were of the 
number of those who had sent aid to the vanquished 



verbis nihil inquietum ^ acturos, sed foedera ad prae- 
stitutum usque diem, quia id nostris placuerat, 
cum munimento servaturos intacto, frugesque por- 
taturos humeris suis,^ si defuisse sibi docuerint de- 
fensores. Quod utrumque, metu perfidiam frenante, 

14. Hoc memorabili bello, comparando quidem 
Punicis et Teutonicis, sed dispendiis rei Romanae 
peracto levissimis, ut faustus Caesar exultabat et 
felix ; credique obtrectatoribus potuit, ideo fortiter 
cum ubique fecisse fingentibus, quod oppetere dimi- 
cando gloriose magis oplabat, quam damnatorum 
sorte (sicut sperabat,) ut frater Callus occidi, ni 
pari proposito post excessum quoque Constanti 
actibus mirandis inclaruisset. 

2. Julianus Caesar DC Francos, Germaniam II 
lastantes obsidet, et ad deditionem fame com- 

1. Quibus ut in tali re compositis firmiter, ad 
sedes revertens hibernas, sudorum reliquias rep- 
perit tales. Remos Severus magister equitum 
per Agrippinam petens et luliacum, Francoruni 

^ verbis nihil inquietum, G {uerhis, EH) ; uero (lac. 10 
letters) linquietum, V. ^ suis, added by Clark, Her. 

c.c, or tr. p.h., Clark, Novak. 


XVIL, 1, 13-14—2, 1, A.D. 357-8 

at Strasburg ; and they took oath in words formally 
drawn up after the native manner that they would 
not disturb the peace, but would keep the agreement 
up to the appointed day, since that was our pleasure, 
and leave the fortress untouched ; and they would 
even bring grain in on their shoulders, in case the 
defenders would let them know that they needed 
any ; both of which things they did, since fear curbed 
their treacherous disposition. 

14. In this memorable war, which in fact deserves 
to be compared with those against the Carthaginians 
and the Teutons, but w^as achieved wath very slight 
losses to the Roman commonwealth, Caesar took 
pride as a fortunate and successful general. And 
one might well believe his detractors, who pre- 
tended that he had acted so courageously on all 
occasions because he chose rather to perish fighting 
gloriously than to be put to death like a condemned 
criminal (as he expected), after the manner of his 
brother Gallus — had he not with equal resolution, 
even after Constantius' death, increased his renown 
by marvellous exploits. 

2. Julianus Caesar besieges six hundred Franks, who 
were devastating Second Germany, and starves 
them into surrender. 

1. Matters thus being firmly settled, so far as 
circumstances would permit, he returned to winter 
quarters and found the following sequel to his 
exertions. Severus, master of the horse, while on 
his way to Rheims by way of Cologne and Juliers, fell 
in with some very strong companies of Franks, to 



validissimos cuneos, in sexcentis velitibus (ut 
postea claruit,) vacua praesidiis loca vastantes, 
offendit ; hac opportunitate in scelus audaciam eri- 
gente, quod Caesare in Alamannorum secessibus 
occupato, nulloque vetante, expleri se posse prae- 
darum opimitate sunt arbitrati. Sed metu iam 
reversi exercitus, munimentis duobus, quae olim 
exinanita sunt, occupatis, se quoad fieri poterat, 
tuebantur. 2, Hac lulianus rei novitate perculsus, 
et coniciens quorsum erumperet, si eisdem transisset 
intactis, retento milite circumvallare disposuit 
castella munita, quae Mosa ^ fluv-ius praeterlambit, 
et ad usque quartum et quinquagesimum diem, 
Decembri scilicet et lanuario mense, obsidionales 
tractae sunt morae, destinatis barbarorum animis 
incredibili pertinacia reluctantibus.^ 3. Tunc per- 
timescens sollertissimus Caesar, ne observata nocte 
inluui, barbari gelu vinctum amnem pervaderent, 
cotidie a sole in vesperam flexo, ad usque luois 
principium, lusoriis navibus discurrere flumen ultro 
citroque milites ordinavit, ut crustis pruinarum 
diffractis, nullus ad erumpendi copiam facile per- 
veniret.^ Hocque commento, inedia et vigiliis et 
desperatione postrema lassati, sponte se propria 

^ castella immita, quae, scrips! ; castellum oppidum, quod 
Mosa, BG ; disposuit (lac. ] 6 letters) osa, V. " reluc- 

tantibus, EW-, Mommsen ; reluctantis, V. ^ lac. 12 

letters, end of page, V ; no lac, EBG. 


XVII., 2, 1-3, A.D. 357-8 

the number (as appeared later) of six hundred light- 
armed skirmishers, who were plundering the dis- 
tricts unprotected by garrisons ; the favourable 
opportunity that had roused their boldness to the 
point of action was this, that they thought that while 
Caesar was busily employed among the fastnesses 
of the Alamanni, and there was no one to prevent 
them, they could load themselves with a wealth of 
booty. But in fear of the army, which had now 
returned, they possessed themselves of two strong- 
holds, which had long since been left empty, and 
there defended themselves as well as they could. 
2. Julian, disturbed by the novelty of the act, and 
guessing what might come of it if he passed by leav- 
ing them unmolested, halted his army and made 
his plans to surround the strongholds, which the 
river Meuse flows past ; and for fifty-four days 
(namely in the months of December and January) 
the delays of the siege were dragged out, while 
the savages with stout hearts and incredible resolu- 
tion withstood him. 3. Then Caesar, being very 
shrewd and fearing that the savages might take 
advantage of some moonless night and cross the 
frozen river, gave orders that every day, from near 
sunset to the break of dawn, soldiers should row up 
and down stream in scouting vessels,^ so as to break 
up the cakes of ice and let no one get an oppor- 
tunity of easy escape. And because of this device, 
since they were worn out by hunger, sleeplessness, 
and extreme desperation, they surrendered of their 

1 The Romans kept such armed vessels on the rivers 
which formed the bomidaries of the enipire ; of. luscn-iae 
{naves), Vopiscus, Bonostis, 15, 1. 



dederunt, statimque ad comitatum August! sunt 
missi. 4. Ad quos eximendos periculo, multitudo 
Francorum egressa, cum captos comperisset et 
asportatos, nihil amplius ausa, repedavit ad sua, 
hisque perfectis, acturus hiemem revertit Parisios 

3. lulianus C. Gallos tributis oppresses levare 

1. Quia igitur plurimae gentes vi maiore col- 
laturae capita sperabantur, dubia bellorum coniec- 
tans, sobrius rector niagnis curarum molibus stringe- 
batur. Dumque per indutias, licet negotiosas et 
breves, aerumnosis possessorum damnis mederi 
posse credebat, tributi ratiocinia dispensavit. 2. 
Cumque Florentius praefectus praetorio, cuncta 
permensus (ut contendebat,) quicquid in capitatione 
deesset, ex conquisitis se supplere firmaret, talium 
gnarus, animam prius amittere quam hoc sinere 
fieri memorabat. 3. Norat enim huius modi pro- 
visionum, immo eversionum, ut verius dixerim, 
insanabilia vulnera, saepe ad ultimani egestatem 
provincias contrusisse,^ quae res (ut docebitur 
postea,) penitus evertit lUyricum. 4. Ob quae prae- 
fecto praetorio ferri uon posse clamante, se repente 

^ contrusisse, Bentley ; conduxif-ne, Moinrasen ; contrax- 
isse, V. 

^ The words provisionum and eversionum seem to be 
chosen for the sake of a word-play. He means that the 
arrangement proposed would amount to confiscation and 
the ruin of the province. 


XVII., 2, 3-4—3, 1-1, A.D. 357-8 

own accord and were sent at once to Augustus' 
court. 4. A large troop of Franks had set out to rescue 
them from their danger ; but on learning that they 
had been captured and carried off, without ven- 
turing on anything further they retired to their 
strongholds. And Caesar after these successes re- 
turned to Paris to pass the winter. 

3. JuUanus Caesar tries to relieve the Gauls of oppres- 
sive tributes. 

1. Now since it was expected that a great number 
of tribes with greater forces woiUd make head to- 
gether, our cautious commander, weighing the doubt- 
ful issue of wars, was perplexed with great burdens 
of anxiety. So, thinking that during the truce, 
short though it was and full of business, some 
remedy might be found for the calamitous losses 
incurred by the land-holders, he set in order the 
system of taxation. 2. And whereas Florentius, 
the praetorian prefect, after having revicAved the 
whole matter (as he asserted) stated that whatever 
was lacking in the poll-tax accounts he supplied 
out of special le\ies, Julian, knowing about such 
measures, declared that he would rather lose his life 
than allow it to be done. 3. For he knew that the 
incurable wounds of such arrangements, or rather de- 
rangements ^ (to speak more truly) had often driven 
pro\'inces to extreme poverty — a thing which (as 
will be shown later) was the complete ruin of lUyri- 
cum." 4. For this reason, though the praetorian 
prefect exclaimed that it was unbearable that he 

2 See xix. 11, 2 ff. 



factum iufidum, cui Augustus summam commiserit 
reruni, lulianus eum sedatius leniens, scrupulose 
computando et vere, docuit non sufficere solum, 
verum etiam exuberare capitationis calculum ad 
commeatuum necessaries apparatus. 5. Nihilo 
miinus tamen, diu postea indictionale augmentum 
oblatum sibi nee recitare nee subnotare perpessus, 
humi proiecit. Litterisque August! monitus ex 
relatione praefecti, non agere ita perplexe, ut vide- 
retur parum Florentio credi, rescripsit, gratandum 
esse si provincialis, hinc inde vastatus, saltem sol- 
lemnia praebeat nedum incrementa quae nulla 
supplicia egenis possent hominibus extorquere. 
Factumque est tunc et deinde, unius animi firmitate, 
ut praeter solita nemo Gallis quicquam exprimere 
conaretur. 6. Denique,^ inusitato example, id pe- 
tendo Caesar impetraverat a praefecto, ut secundae 
Belgicae multiformibus malis oppressae, dispositio 
sibi committeretur, ea videlicet lege, ut nee prac- 
fectianus nee praesidalis apparitor ad solvendum 
quemquam iirgeret. Quo levati solatio cuncti, 
quos in curam susceperat suam,^ nee interpellati, 
ante praestitutum tempus debita contulerunt. 

^ conaretur. Denique, Val. ; conaretur (lac. 21 letters) 
inique,Y. ^ curam susceperat swam W" ; cwrw (lac. 11 

letters) separat suam, \ . 


XVII., 3, 4-6, A.D. 337-9 

should suddenly become distrusted, when Augustus 
had conferred upon him the supreme charge of the 
state ; Julian calmed him by his quiet manner, and 
by an exact and accurate computation proved that 
the amount of the poll-tax was not only sufficient, 
but actually in excess of the inevitable require- 
ments for government expenditures. 5. But when 
long afterwards an increase of taxation was never- 
theless proposed to him, he could not bring himself 
to read it or sign it, but threw it on the ground. 
And when he was advised by a letter of Augustus, 
after the prefect's report, not to act so meticu- 
lously as to seem to discredit Florentius, he wrote 
back that it would be a cause for rejoicing if the 
provincials, harried as they were on every side, 
might at least have to furnish only the prescribed 
taxes, not the additional amounts, which no tortures 
could wring from the poverty-stricken. And so it 
came to pass then and thereafter, that through the 
resolution of one courageous spirit no one tried to 
extort from the Gauls anything beyond the normal 
tax. 6. Finally, contrary to precedent, Caesar by 
entreaty had obtained this favour from the prefect, 
that he should be entrusted with the administration 
of the province of Second Belgium, which was 
overwhelmed by many kinds of calamities, and 
indeed with the proviso that no agent either of the 
prefect or of the governor should force anyone to 
pay the tax. So every one whom he had taken 
under his charge was relieved by this comforting 
news, and without being summoned they brought 
in their dues before the appointed date. 



4. lussu Constimtii Aug. obeliscus Rornae in Circa 
Maximo subrectiis constituitur ; et de obeliscis 
uc de notis hieorglyphicis. 

1. Inter haec recreandarum exordia Galliaruin, 
administrante secundani adhuc Orfito praefecturam, 
obeliscus Romae in circo erectus est maxirao. Super 
quo nunc (quia tempestivum est) pauca discurram. 
2. Urbeni priscis saeculis conditam, ambitiosa 
moenium strue et portarum centum quondam 
aditibus celebrem, hccatonmpylos Thebas, institu- 
tores ex facto cognominarunt, cuius vocabulo pro- 
vincia nunc usque Thebais appellatur. 3. Hanc 
inter exordia pandentis se late Carthaginis, improvise 
excursu duces oppressere Poenorum, posteaque 
reparatam, Persarum rex ille Cambyses, quoad 
vixerat alieni cupidus et immanis, Aegypto perrupta 
aggressus est, ut opes exinde raperet invidendas, 
ne deorum quidem donariis parcens. 4. Qui dum 
inter praedatores turbulente concursat, laxitate 
praepeditus indumentorum, concidit pronus, ac 
suoraet pugione, quem aptatum femori dextro 
gestabat, subita vi ruiuae nudato, vulneratus paene 
letaliter interisset. 5. Longe autem postea Cornelius 
Callus Octaviano res tenente Romanas, Aegypti 
procurator, exhausit civitatem plurimis interceptis, 
reversusque cum furtorum arcesseretur, et populatae 
pro\anciae, metu nobilitatis acriter indignatae, cui 

1 Iliad, ix. 383 ff. ; Mela, i. 9. 

2 I.e. Thebes. 

^ Gallus was praefectus Aegypti (not procurator) from 
30 to 26 B.C. 


XVIL, 4, 1-5, A.D. 357-9 

4. By order of Coiistantius Augustus an obelisk is 
set up at Rome in the CArcus Maximus ; also an 
account of obelisks and hieroglyphics. 
1. During these first steps towards the rehabili- 
tation of Gaul, and while Orfitus was still conducting 
his second praefecture, an obeUsk was set up at 
Rome in the Circus Maximus ; and of it, since this 
is a suitable place, I shall give a brief account. 

2. The city of Thebes, founded in primitive times 
and once famous for the stately structure of its walls 
and for the hundred approaches formed by its gates, 
was called by its builders from that feature Heca- 
tompylos,^ or Hundred-gated Thebes ; and from this 
name ^ the province is to this day called the Thebaid. 

3. When Carthage was in its early career of wide 
expansion, Punic generals destroyed Thebes by 
an unexpected attack ; and when it was afterwards 
rebuilt, Cambyses, that renowned king of Persia, 
all his life covetous of other possessions, and cruel, 
overran Egypt and attacked Thebes, in the hope 
of carrying off therefrom its enviable wealth, since he 
did not spare even gifts made to the gods. 4. But 
while he was excitedly running about among the 
plundering troops, tripped by the looseness of his 
garments he fell headlong ; and his own dagger, 
which he wore fastened to his right thigh, was un- 
sheathed by the sudden force of the fall and wounded 
him almost mortally. 5. Again, long afterwards, 
when Octavian was ruling Rome, Cornelius Gallus, 
procurator ^ of Egypt, drained the city by extensive 
embezzlements ; and when on his return he was 
accused of peculation and the robbery of the pro- 
vince, in his fear of the bitterly exasperated nobility, 



ncgotium spectandum dederat imperator, stricto 
incubuit ferro. Is est (si recte existimo) Gallus 
poeta, quem flens quodam modo in postrema Bucoli- 
corum parte Vergilius carmine leni decontat. 

6. In hac urbe inter delubra ^ ingentia, diversasque 
moles, figmenta Aegyptiorum numinum exprimentes, 
obeliscos vidimus plures, aliosque iacentes et com- 
minutes, quos antiqui reges bello domitis gentibus, 
aut prosperitatibus summarum rerum elati, montium 
venis vel apud extremos orbis incolas perscrutatis 
excisos, et ^ erectos dis superis in religione dicarunt. 
7. Est autem obeliscus asperrimus lapis, in figuram 
metae cuiusdam sensim ad proceritatem consurgens 
excelsam, utque radium imitetur, gracilescens pau- 
latim, specie quadrata in verticem productus angus- 
tum, manu levigatus artifici. 8. Formarum autem 
innumeras notas, hieroglyphicas appellatas, quas 
ei undique videmus incisas, iuitialis sapientiae vetus 
insiguivit auctoritas. 9. Volucrum enim ferarumque 
etiam alieiii mundi genera multa sculpentes, ut ^ ad 
aevi quoque sequentis aetates, impetratorum vul- 
gatius perveniret memoria, promissa vel soluta 
regum vota monstrabant. 10. Non enim ut nunc 
litterarum numerus praestitutus et facilis exprimit, 

^ delvbra, Cornelissen ; labra, V. ^ et, added by 

Clark ; V omits ; erectosque, BG. ^ ut before ad, 

Clark ; after aetates, Val. ; uti, Gronov ; V omits. 

1 Eclogue., x. 

^Ameta was one of the three conical columns on the 
end of the spine of a circus. 


XVII., 4, 5-10, A.D. 357-9 

to whom the emperor had committed the investiga- 
tion of the case, he drew his sword and fell upon it. 
He was (if I am right in so thinking) the poet Gallus, 
whom Vergil laments in a way in the latter part of the 
Bucolics ^ and celebrates in gentle verse. 

6. In this city, amid mighty shrines and huge struc- 
tures of various kinds, which depict the likenesses of 
the Egyptian deities, we have seen many obelisks, and 
others prostrate and broken, which kings of long 
ago, when they had subdued foreign nations in war 
or were proud of the success of their lofty achieve- 
ments, hewed out of the veins of the mountains (or 
they sought them out even among the remotest 
dwellers on the globe), set them up, and in their 
rehgious devotion dedicated them to the gods of 
heaven. 7. Now an obelisk is a very hard stone, 
rising gradually somewhat in the form of a turning- 
post ^ to a lofty height ; little by little it groAVS 
slenderer, to imitate a sunbeam ; it is four-sided, 
tapers to a narrow point, and is pohshed by the 
workman's hand. 8. Now the infinite carvings of 
characters called hieroglyphics, which we see cut 
into it on every side, have been made known by an 
ancient authority of primeval wisdom.^ 9. For by 
engraving many kinds of birds and beasts, even of 
another world, in order that the memory of their 
achievements might the more widely reach genera- 
tions of a subsequent age, they registered the vows 
of kings, either promised or performed. 10. For not 
as nowadays, when a fixed and easy series of letters 

^ Cf. Diod. Siculus, iii. 3, 5, who says that hieroghqihics 
were understood by the priests alone, and that the know- 
ledge was handed down from father to son. 


VOL. I. X 


quicquid humana mens concipere potest, ita prisci 
quoque scriptitarunt Aegyptii, sed singulae litterae 
singulis nominibus serviebant et verbis ; non 
numquam significabant integros sensus. 11. Cuius 
rei scientiam ^ his interim duobus exemplis mon- 
strari sufficiet : ^ per vulturem naturae vocabulum 
pandunt, quia mares nullos posse inter has alites 
inveniri, rationes memorant physicae, perque speciem 
apis mella conficientis, indicant regem, moderatori 
cum iucunditate aculeos quoque innasci debere his 
rerum insignibus ^ ostendentes. Et similia plurima. 
12. Et quia sufflantes adulatores ex more Con- 
stantiuni id sine modo strepebant, quod cum Octa- 
vianus Augustus obeHscos duos ab Heliupolitana 
oivitate transtulisset Aegyptia, quorum unus in 
Circo Maximo alter in Campo locatus est Martio, 
hunc recens advectum, difficultate magnitudinis 
territus, nee contrectare ausus est nee movere, 
discant qui ignorant, veterem principem translatis 
aliquibus hunc intactum ideo praeterisse, quod Deo 
Soli speciaU munere dedicatus, fixusque intra am- 
bitiosi templi delubra, quae contingi non poterant, 
tamquam apex omnium eminebat. 13. Verum 
Constantinus id parvi ducens, avulsam hanc molem 
sedibus suis, nihilque committere in religionem 

^ scientiam, Eyssen. ; scientia in, V. ^ duobiia ex- 

emplis m^nstrare sufficiet, Novak {d.e. expediam, Schneider) ; 
lac. indicated by Clark ; exem.plum without lac, V. 
^ rerum insignibus, Novak ; signibus (signis, V^), V. 

1 The females were said to be unpregnated by the south 
or the east winds ; Aelian, Hist. Anim. ii. 46 ; cf . Plutarch, 
Quaest. Rom. 9.S. 


XVII.. 4, 10-13, A.D. 357-9 

expresses whatever the mind of man may conceive, 
did the ancient Egyptians also write ; but individual 
characters stood for individual nouns and verbs ; 
and sometimes they meant whole phrases. 11. The 
principle of this thing for the time it will suffice to 
illustrate with these two examples : by a vulture 
they represent the word " nature," because, as natural 
history records, no males can be found among these 
birds ; ^ and under the figure of a bee making honey 
they designate " a king," showing by this imagery 
that in a ruler sweetness should be combined with 
a sting as well ; ^ and there are many similar instances. 
12. And because sycophants, after their fashion, 
kept puffing up Constantius and endlessly dinning it 
into his ears that, whereas Octavianus Augustus 
had brought over two obehsks from the city of 
Heliopolis in Egypt, one of which was set up in 
the Circus Maximus, the other in the Campus 
Martius, as for this one recently brought in, he 
neither ventured to meddle with it nor move it, 
overawed by the difficulties caused by its size — let 
me inform those who do not know it that that early 
emperor, after bringing over several obelisks, 
passed by this one and left it untouched because 
it was consecrated as a special gift to the Sun God, 
and because being placed in the sacred part of his 
sumptuous temple, which might not be profaned, 
there it towered aloft like the peak of the world. 
13. But Constantine,^ making little account of that, 
tore the huge mass from its foundations ; and 
since he rightly thought that he was committing no 

- Seneca, De Clem. i. 19, 2 ff., compares a king to a bee. 
^ That is, Constantine the Great. 


X 2 


recte existimans, si ablatum uno templo miraculum 
Romae sacraret, id est in templo mundi totius, iacere 
diu perpessus est, dum translationi pararentur utilia. 
Quo convecto per alveum Nili, proiectoque Alex- 
andriae, navis amplitudinis antehac inusitatae 
aedificata est, sub trecentis remigibus agitanda. 

14. Quibus ita provisis, digressoque vita principe 
memorato, urgens effectus intepuit, tandeinque 
sero impositus navi, per maria fluentaque Tibridis, 
velut paventis, ne quod paene ignotus miserat 
Nilus, ipse parum sub emeatus ^ sui discrimine moeni- 
bus alumnis inferret, defertur in vicum Alexandri, 
tertio lapide ab urbe seiunctum. Unde chamulcis 
impositus, tractusque lenius per Ostiensem portam 
piscinamque publicam, Circo illatus est Maximo. 

15. Sola post haec restabat erectio, quae vix aut 
ne vix quidem sperabatur posse compleri. At ea 
ita est facta : aggestis erectisque digestisque ad 
perpendiculum '^ altis trabibus (ut machinarum 
cerneres nemus) innectuntur vasti funes et longi, 
ad speciem multiplicium liciorum, caelum densitate 
nimia subtexentes. Quibus colligatus mons ipse 
effigiatus scriptilibus dementis, paulatimque in 

^ emeatus, G, Clark ; emeatu, V. ^ at ea. . . . 

erectisque, Novak ; digestis ad perpendiculum, Haujit. ; 
idestisque pericidum, V. 

1 The origin of the name is unknown ; it was obviously 
on the Tiber, below Rome. 

- Chamulcus, which occui's only here, is the Greek 
xafiovAKos glossed by Latin traha (cf. Virg. Oeorg. i. 164). 
Here, a kind of sledge or platform without wheels, on which 
ships were launched or drawn up on the shore. 


XVII., 4, 13-15, A.D. 357-9 

sacrilege if he took this marvel from one temple 
and consecrated it at Rome, that is to say, in 
the temple of the whole world, he let it lie for a 
long time, while the things necessary for its transfer 
were being provided. And when it had been con- 
veyed down the channel of the Nile and landed at 
Alexandria, a ship of a size hitherto unknown was 
constructed, to be rowed by three hundred oarsmen. 
14. After these provisions, the aforesaid emperor 
departed this life and the urgency of the enterprise 
waned, but at last the obelisk was loaded on the 
ship, after long delay, and brought over the sea and 
up the channel of the Tiber, which seemed to fear 
that it coidd hardly forward over the difficulties of 
its course to the walls of its foster-child the gift 
which the almost unknown Nile had sent. But it 
was brought to the vicus Alexandri ^ distant three 
miles from the city. There it was put on cradles ^ 
and carefully drawn through the Ostian Gate and by 
the Piscina Publica ' and brought into the Circus 
Maximus. 15. After this there remained only the 
raising, which it was thought could be accomplished 
only ^vith great difficulty, perhaps not at all. But 
it was done in the following manner : to tall beams 
which were brought and raised on end (so that you 
would see a very grove of derricks) were fastened 
long and heavy ropes in the likeness of a manifold 
web hiding the sky with their excessive numbers. 
To these was attached that veritable mountain 
written over with engraved characters, and it was 
gradually drawn up on high through the empty 

' One of the regions of the city, a part of the Aventme 



arduuin per inane ^ protentus, diu - peusilis, liominiiin 
milibus multis tamquam molendinarias rotantibus 
metas, cavea locatur in media, eique sphaera super- 
ponitur ahenea, aureis lamminis nitens, qua con- 
festim vi ignis divini contacta, ideoque sublata, 
facis imitamentum infigitur "^ aereum, itidem anro 
imbracteatum, velut abundanti flamma candentis. 
16. Secutaeque aetates alios transtulerunt, quorum 
unus in Vaticano, alter in hortis Sallusti, duo in 
Augusti monumento erecti sunt. 17. Qui autem 
notarum textus obelisco incisus est veteri, quem 
videmus in Circo, Hermapionis librum secuti inter- 
pretatum litteris subiecimus Graecis.* 


18. "HXlos ^acriXel 'Pajxearrj • SeSoJpTj/xat crot 
dva Trdaav olKOVfxevqv jjiera. )(apd? ^aaiXevetv , ov 

1 in arduum per inane, Eyssen. ; id per arduum inane, 
V. ^ diiique, BG ; diutiiis. Her. ' infigitur, 

Val. ; infigura, V. * The entire inscr. is preserved 

only in G. V has two unintelligible lines with lac. of 
1^ pages. Several MSS. omit the Greek, a greater number 
have the same amount of Greek as V. It seems best to 
refer to Clark's crit. app. for the numerous variants and 

^ Here meta must refer to the upper (outer) part of the 
mill, which was tui-ned around the inner stone. 

^ Cavea, regularly used for the spectators' seats, here 


XVII., 4, 15-18, A.D. 357-9 

air, and allcr haugiug for a long time, while iiiauy 
thousand men turned wheels ^ resembling millstones, 
it was finally placed in the middle of the circus ^ 
and capped by a bronze globe gleaming with gold- 
leaf ; this was immediately struck by a bolt of the 
divine fire and therefore removed and replaced 
by a bronze figure of a torch, likewise overlaid 
■with gold-foil and glowing like a mass of flame. 
16. And subsequent generations have brought over 
other obelisks, of which one was set up on the 
Vatican,^ another in the gardens of Sallust,^ and two 
at the mausoleum of Augustus. ""• 17. Now the text 
of the characters cut upon the ancient obelisk which 
we see in the Circus ^ I add below in its Greek trans- 
lation, following the work of Hermapion.'' 18. The 
translation of the first line, beginning on the South 
side, reads as follows : " The Sun speaks to King 
Ramestes. I have granted to thee that thou 
shouldst with joy rule over the whole earth, thou 

means the circus as a whole ; cf. Plautus, True. 931, quod 
verbum in cavea dixit histrio ; Cic, De Leg. ii. 1.5, 38. 

3 On the spina of the Circua Oai et Neronis ; it is now 
in front of St. Peter's ; it is 25.36 in. high and without hiero- 

* These now belonged to the imperial house : the 
obelisk is at present in the Piazza della Trinith dei Monte ; 
it is 13 m. high and has a copy, made in Rome, of the hiero- 
glyphics on the obelisk set up by Augustus in the Circus 

^ These are now before the church of Sta Maria Maggiore 
and on the Quirinal ; the former is 14.40 m. high, the latter 
somewhat less ; neither has hieroglyjjhics. 

* This obelisk, the greatest of them all (32.50 m.), was set 
uj) at the Lateran by Fontana in 1588. 

' He seems to have lived in the time of Augustus. 



"HXios ^tAet. — [/catj ^AttoXXcov Kparepos (fjiXaXrj- 
d-qs vlos " Hpcoi'os , heoyevvrjTos kticttt)? rrjs oIkov- 
fxevrjs, ov "HXios TtpoeKptvev, d'AKt/xos" "Apcco^' 
paaiXeus ' PafjLearrjs . <h Tracra VTroreraKTat r] yrj 
[xera dXKrjs /cat Odpaovs. fSacnXevs: ' PapLearrjs 
HXlov Trat? alcjvo^Los. 


19. " AttoXXojv Kparepo?, 6 earcus" ctt' dXrjdeias, 
heaTTort]^ SiaSt^pLaTO? ,r7^v AtyvTTTov 8o^a.aa<; K&Krrj- 
jLieVos", o dyXaoTTOi-qaa? 'HXlov ttoXlv, /cat Kxtaas" 
rrjv XoLTTrjv oLKOVjJievqv, /cat TToXvTLfjir^cFa? rov? ev 
'HXlov 77oAet deov's dvihpviievov? , ov " HXlo? (jaXeX. 


20. ^ AttoXXojv Kparepo? HXiov ttois Tiafxcfieyyrjg, 
ov "HXiog TrpoeKpivev /cat "Aprjs d'A/ct/xo? ehojpiq- 
aaro. ov rd ay add ev Travrl 8ta/xeVet Kaipo). ov 
"AfjLjxwv dyaTTa, TrXrjpcoaas rov vea>v rov (j)oivLKos 
dyaddjv. CO ol deol l^ojijs XP'^^ov ioojp'qcravTO . 

^AttoXXiov Kparepog vlos "Hpa>vo^ ^aaiXevs 
OLKOVjjievrjg 'PapLearrjs, os i(f>vXa^€V A'tyvirrov rovs 
dXXoedveX^ viKrjaas, ov "HXios cfjiXeX, w ttoXvv 
)(p6vov (,cx)rj? eScop'qaavro deoL. SeaTTorrj? olkov- 
ixlvrjs ' Pafxearrjs ala>v6^ios . 

XVII., 4, 18-20, A.D. 357-9 

whom the Sun loveth — aud powerful Apollo, lover 
of truth, son of Heron, god-born, creator of the 
world, whom the Sun hath chosen, the doughty 
son of Mars, King Ramestes. Unto him the whole 
earth is made subject through his valour aud bold- 
ness. King Ramestes, eternal child of the Sun." 

Second Line. 

19. " Mighty Apollo, seated upon truth. Lord of 
the Diadem, who hath gloriously honoured Egypt 
as his peculiar possession, who hath beautified HeUo- 
polis, created the rest of the world, and adorned 
with manifold honours the Gods erected in Helio- 
polis — he whom the Sun loveth." 

Third Line. 

20. " Mighty ApoUo, child of the Sun, all-radiant, 
whom the Sun hath chosen and valiant Mars en- 
dowed ; whose blessings shall endure forever ; whom 
Ammon ^ loveth, as ha\'ing filled his temple with the 
good fruits of the date palm ; unto whom the Gods 
have given length of life. 

" Apollo, mighty son of Heron,^ Ramestes,^ king 
of the world, who hath preserved Egypt by con- 
quering other nations ; whom the Sun loveth ; to 
whom the Gods have granted length of life ; Lord 
of the world, Ramestes ever-living." 

^Amnion (or Haniiuon), was an important Egyptian 
and Libyan god, identified by the Romans with Jupiter, 
cf. Virg., Aen. iv. 198 &. ji: 

^ See Index. 



21. "HXiog deos jU-eyas' SecTTTOTTj? ovpavov. 8e- 
hcoprjjJLaL cjol ^lov airpoaKOTTov. ^ AttoXXojv Kpa- 
T€p6<s Kvpios SiaSriijiaTOS dvecKaarog, o? tmv uecbv 
dvhpLavrag dveOiqKev ev rijSe rfj jSaaiXelci, heaTTorr}? 
AlyvTTTOv , Koi eKoafX'Qorev ' HXiov ttoXlv opotojs Kai 
avTov "HXiov SeaTTOTTjv ovpavov. avvereXevTrjaev 
epyov dyadov 'HXiov ttoCs ^acnXevs alcovo^ios . 


22. "HXlos deo? hfOTTorr]? ovpavov 'PapLearrj 
jSaatAet. SeScu/DTy/xat ro Kpdrog Kac rrjv Kara 
TTavrojv e^ovalav. ou 'AttoXXojv <^iXaXrjdri<s hea- 
TTorrjs xpovoji^ /cat " H(j)aiaros 6 rcbv decov Trar-qp 
TrpoeKpLvev Scd rov "Apea. /SacrtAei)s~ jrayxo-pT^S 
'HXiov TTOiS, /cat 0770 'HXiov (f)iXovp,evos ■ 


23. '0 d(f)' 'HXiov TToXecjs p.eyas deos euovpdvtos 
^AttoXXojv Kparepo^ , "Hpmvos vlo?, ov "HXios 
rfydTTTjaev, ov ol Oeol eTip^rjcrav, 6 Trdatjs yfjs 
^aaiXevojv, ov "HXlos TrpoeKpivev, 6 dXKLpo<; Sta 
rov "Apea ^acriXev? , ov "Ap,pa)v </)tAfr. K'at o 
7raiJi(f)€yyrjs avyKpivas aicovtov ^aatXia et reliqua. 


XVII., 4, 21-23, \.D. 357-9 

West Side, Secoivd Line.^ 

21. "The Sun, great God, Lord of Heaven; I 
have granted to thee Ufe hitherto unforeseen. Apollo 
the mighty. Lord incomparable of the Diadem, who 
hath set up statues of the Gods in this kingdom, 
ruler of Egypt, and he adorned Heliopohs just as 
he did the Sun himself. Ruler of Heaven ; he finished 
a good work, child of the Sun, the king ever-living." 

Third Line. 

22. " The God Sun, Lord of Heaven, to Ramestes 
the king. I have granted to thee the rule and the 
authority over all men ; whom Apollo, lover of truth. 
Lord of seasons, and Vulcan, father of the Gods, 
hath chosen for Mars. King all-gladdening, child of 
the Sun and beloved of the Sun." 

East Side, First Line. 

23. " The great God of Heliopolis, heavenly, 
mighty Apollo, son of Heron, whom the Sun hath 
loved, whom the Gods hath honoured, the ruler over 
all the earth, whom the Sun hath chosen, a king 
valiant for Mars, whom Ammon loveth, and he that 
is all-radiant, having set apart the king eternal " ; 
and so on. 

^ There seems to be no reason to suspect lacunae. 
Ammianus gave only parts of the inscriptions as specimens, 
in order not to weary his readers by repetitions of the same 
general pui-port. 



5. Constantiiis Au^. rt Snjwr Pvrsarum rex frustra 
(Je parr prr litteras rl legatos agiint. 

1. Datiano et Cereali consulibus, cum universa 
per Gallias studio cautiore disponerentur, formidoque 
praeteritorum barbaricos hebetaret excursus, rex 
Persarum in confiniis agens adhuc gentium extima- 
rum, iamque cum Chionitis et Gelanis, omnium 
acerrimis bellatoribus, pignore icto societatis, re- 
diturus ad sua, Tamsaporis scripta suscepit, pacem 
Romanum principem nuntiantis poscere precativam. 
2. Ideoque non nisi infirmato imperii robore temp- 
tari talia suspicatus, latius semet extentans, pacis 
amplectitur nomen, et condiciones proposuit graves, 
missoque cum muneribus Narseo quodam legato, 
litteras ad Constantium dedit nusquam a genuine 
fastu declinans, quaruin hunc fuisse accepimus 
sensum : 

3. " Rex regum Sapor, particeps siderum, frater 
Solis et Lunae, Constantio Caesari fratri meo 
salutera plurimam dico. 

" Gaudeo tandemque mihi placet, ad optimam 
viam te revertisse, et incorruptum aequitatis agno- 
visse sufFragium, rebus ipsis expertum pertinax 
alieni cupiditas quas aliquotiens ediderit strages. 
4. Quia igitur veritatis ratio soluta esse debet et 

XVII., 5, 1-4, A.D. 357-8 

5. Constantius Augustus and Sapor, king of the 
Persians, negotiate for peace through letters and 
envoys ; but to no purpose. 

1. In the consulship of Datianus and Cerealis, 
while all provisions in Gaul were being made 
^vith very careful endeavour, and dismay due to past 
losses halted the raids of the savages, the king of 
Persia was still encamped in the confines of the 
frontier tribes ; and having now made a treaty 
of alliance with the Chionitae and Gelani, the 
fiercest warriors of all, he was on the point of re- 
turning to his ow^n territories, when he received 
Tamsapor's letter, stating that the Roman emperor 
begged and entreated for peace. 2. Therefore, 
imagining that such a step would not be attempted 
unless the fabric of the empire were weakened, he 
swelled with still greater pride, embraced the name 
of peace, and proposed hard conditions ; and dis- 
patching one Narseus with gifts as his envoy, he 
sent a letter to Constantius, in no wdse deviating 
from his native haughtiness, the tenor of which, as 
we have learned, was as follows : — 

3. '' I Sapor, King of Kings, partner with the 
Stars, brother of the Sun and Moon, to my brother 
Constantius Caesar offer most ample greeting. 

" I rejoice and at last take pleasure that vou have 
returned to the best course and acknowledged the 
inviolable sanction of justice, having learned from 
actual experience what havoc has been caused at 
various times by obstinate covetousness of what 
belongs to others. 4. Since therefore the considera- 
tion of truth ought to be free and untrammelled, 



libera, et celsiores fortunas idem loqui decet atque 
sentire, propositum meum in pauca conferam 
reminiscens, haec quae dicturus sum me saepius 
replicasse. 5. Ad usque Strymona flumen et Mace- 
donicos fines tenuisse maiores imperium ^ meos, 
antiquitates quoque vestrae testantur ; haec me 
convenit flagitare (ne sit arrogans quod aflfirmo) 
splendore virtutumque insignium serie, vetustis 
regibus antistantem. Sed ubique mihi cordi est 
recta ratio,^ cui coalitus ab adulescentia prima, nihil 
umquam paenitendum admisi. 6. Ideoque Ar- 
meniam recuperare ciim Mesopotamia debeo, avo 
meo composita fraude praereptam. Illud apud nos 
numquam in acceptum feretur,^ quod asseritis vos 
exsultantes, nullo discrimine virutis ac doli, pros- 
peros omnes laudari debere bellorum eventus. 7. 
Postremo si morem gerexe suadenti volueris recte, 
contemne partem exiguam, semper luctificam et 
cruentam, ut cetera regas securus, prudenter re- 
putans medellarum quoque artifices urere nori num- 
quam et secare et partes corporum amputare, ut 
reliquis uti Uceat integris, hocque bestias factitare : 
quae cum advertant cur maximo opere capiantur, 
illud propria sponte amittunt, ut \dvere deinde 
possint impavidae. 8. Id sane pronuntio, quod 
si haec mea legatio redierit irrita, post tempus 

1 imperium, added by Clark c.c. ; V omits. - recta 

ratio, Erfurdt ; moderatio or ratio, Val. ; recordatio, V. 
^feretur, Haupt. ; frettis, V. 


XVIL, 5, 4-8, A.D. 357-8 

and it befits those iu high station to speak as they 
feel, I shall state my proposal in brief terms, re- 
calling that what I am about to say I have often 
repeated. 5. That my forefathers' empire reached 
as far as the river Strymon and the boundaries of 
Macedonia even your own ancient records bear 
witness ; these lands it is fitting that I should de- 
mand, since (and may what I say not seem arrogant) 
I surpass the kings of old in magnificence and array 
of conspicuous virtues. But at all times right reason 
is dear to me, and trained in it from my earliest 
youth, I have never allowed myself to do anything 
for which I had cause to repent. 6. And therefore 
it is my duty to recover Armenia with Mesopotamia, 
which double-dealing wrested from my grandfather. 
That principle shall never be brought to acceptance 
among us which you exultantly maintain, that 
without any distinction between virtue and deceit 
all successful events of war should be approved. 
7. Finally, if you wish to follow my sound advice, 
disregard this small tract, always a source of woe 
and bloodshed, so that you may rule the rest in 
security, wisely recalling that even expert physicians 
sometimes cauterize, lance, and even cut away some 
parts of the body, in order to save the rest sound for 
use ; and that even wild beasts do this : for when they 
observe for what possession they are being relent- 
lessly hunted, they give that up of their own accord, 
so as afterwards to live free from fear.^ 8. This 
assuredly I declare, that if this embassy of mine 
returns unsuccessful, after the time of the winter 

' Cf. Cic, pro Scauro, 2, 7 ; Juv. xii. .'54 f., of tho beaver. 



hiemalis quietis exemptum, viribus totis accinctus, 
fortuna condicionumque aequitate spem successus 
secundi fundante, venire, quoad ratio siverit, 

9. His litteris diu libratis, recto pectore (quod 
dicitur) considerateque responsum est, hoc inodo : 

10. " Victor terra niarique Constantius, semper 
Augustus, fratri meo Sapori regi salutem plurimam 

Sospitati quideni tuae gratulor ut futurus (si 
velis,) amicus, cupiditatem vero semper indeflexam 
fusiusque vagantem, vehementer insimulo. 11. 
Mesopotamiam poscis ut tuam, perindeque Ar- 
meniam, at suades integro corpori adimere membra 
quaedam, ut salus eius deinceps locetur in solido, 
quod infindendum ^ est potius quam ulla con- 
sensione firmandum. Accipe igitur veritatem, non 
obtectam praestigiis, sed perspicuam, nullisque 
minis inanibus perterrendam. 12. Praefectus prae- 
torio meus, opinatus aggredi negotium publicae 
utilitati conducens, cum duce tuo per quosdam 
ignobiles, me inconsulto, sermones conseruit super 
pace. Non refutamus banc nee repelbmus : adsit 
modo cum decore et honestate, nihil pudori nostro 
praereptura vel maiestati. 13. Est enim absonum 
et insipiens nunc cum ^ gestarum rerum ordines 
(placatae sint aurae invidiae !) nobis muItipUciter 

^ infindendum, Damste, cf. Val. Flacc. i. 687 ; infringen- 
dum, Haupt. ; in fundendum, V. ^ nunc cu7n, Clark ; 
cum, E* BG ; nam,, Bentley ; num, V. 


XVII., 5, 8-13, A.D. 358 

rest is past I shall gird myself with all my strength 
and with fortune and the justice of my terms up- 
holding my hope of a successful issue, I shall hasten 
to come on, so far as reason permits." 

9. After this letter had long been pondered, 
answer was made with upright heart, as they say, 
and circumspectly, as follows : — 

10. " I, Constantius, victor by land and sea, 
perpetual Augustus, to my brother King Sapor, 
oflPer most ample greeting, 

" I rejoice in your health, and if you will, I 
shall be your friend hereafter ; but this covetous- 
ness of yours, always unbending and more widely 
encroaching, I vehemently reprobate. 11. You 
demand Mesopotamia as your own and likewise 
Armenia, and you recommend lopping off some 
members of a sound body, so that its health may 
afterwards be put upon a firm footing — advice 
which is rather to be refuted than to be confirmed 
by any agreement. Therefore listen to the truth, 
not obscured by any jugghng, but transparent and 
not to be intimidated by any empty threats. 12. 
My praetorian prefect, thinking to undertake an 
enterprise conducing to the public weal, entered 
into conversations with a general of yours, through 
the agency of some individuals of little worth and 
without consulting me, on the subject of peace. 
This we neither reject nor refuse, if only it take 
place with dignity and honour, without at all pre- 
judicing our self-respect or our majesty. 13. For 
at this time, when the sequence of events (may 
en\ious ears be placated !) has beamed in manifold 
form upon us, when with the overthrow of the 


VOL. I. Y 


illuxerunt, cum deletis tyrannis, totus orbis Romanus 
nobis obtemperat, ea prodere, quae contrusi ^ in 
orientales angustias, diu servavimus inlibata. 14. 
Cessent autem quaeso formidines, quae nobis in- 
tentantur ex more, cum ambigi nequeat, non inertia 
nos sed modestia, pugnas interdum excepisse potius 
quam intulisse, et nostra quotiens lacessimur, 
fortissimo bonae conscientiae ^ spiritu defensare, 
id experiendo legendoque scientes, in proeliis qui- 
busdam raro rem titubasse Romanam, in summa 
vero bellorum numquam ad deteriora prolapsam." 
15. Hanc legationem nuUo impetrato remissam, — 
nee enim effrenatae regis cupiditati responderi am- 
plius quicquam potuit — post paucissimos dies secutus 
est Prosper comes et Spectatus tribunus, et notarius 
itemque Eustathius, Musoniano suggerente philo- 
sophus, ut opifex suadendi ; imperatoris scripta 
perferentes et munera, enisuri apparatum interim 
Saporis arte quadam suspendere, ne ^ supra huma- 
num modum provinciae munirentur arctoae. 

^ contrum, Bentley, Haupt. ; contra si, V. - bonae 

conscientme, Novak, cf. xvi. 7, 7, etc. ; benevolentiae, V. 
^ ne, added by Clark ; ut, BG ; clmn, Bentley ; V omits. 

1 That is, when Constantius shared the rule with his 
brothers and governed only the eastern provinces. 


XVIL, 5, 13-15, A.D. 358 

usurpers the whole Roman world is subject to us, it is 
absurd and silly to surrender what we long preserved 
unmolested when we were still confined within the 
bounds of the Orient.^ 14. Furthermore, pray make 
an end of those intimidations which (as usual) 
are directed against us, since there can be no doubt 
that it was not through slackness, but through self- 
restraint that we have sometimes accepted battle 
rather than offered it, and that when we are set upon, 
we defend our territories with the most valiant spirit of 
a good conscience ; for we know both by experience 
and by reading that while in some battles, though 
rarely, the Roman cause has stumbled, yet in the 
main issue of our wars it has never succumbed to 

15. This embassy having been sent back without 
obtaining anything — for no fuller answer coiild be 
made to the king's unbridled greed — after a very 
few days it was followed by Count Prosper,^ 
Spectatus, tribune and secretary,^ and likewise, at 
the suggestion of Musonianus,* the philosopher 
Eustathius,^ as a master of persuasion ; they 
carried with them letters of the emperor and gifts, 
and meanwhile planned by some craft or other to 
stay Sapor's preparations, so that his northern pro- 
vinces might not be fortified beyond the possibility 
of attack. 

2 See xiv. 11, 5 ; xv. 13, 3. 

' There were three classes of secretaries. The highest 
held the rank of tribune ; see Introd.. pp. xliii f. 

* See XV. 13, 1 : xvi. 9, 2. 

* From Cappadocia, a pupil of lambilicus. 



6. Iiithujigi, gens Alamannico, in Raetiis quas 

populabantur, a Romanis caesi fugatique. 

1. Inter quae ita ambigua, luthungi Alamaunorum 
pars Italicis coiiterminans tractibus, obHti pacis et 
foederum, quae adepti sunt obsecrando, Raetias 
turbulente vastabant, adeo ut etiam oppidorum 
temptarent obsidia praeter solitum. 2. Ad quos 
repellendos cum valida manu missus Barbatio, in 
locum Silvani peditum promotus magister, ignavus 
sad verbis effusior, alacritate militum vehementer 
erecta, prostravit acerrime multos, ita ut exigua 
portio, quae periculi metu se dedit in fugam, aegre 
dilapsa, lares ^ suos non sine lacrimis re\'iseret et 
lamentis. 3. Huic pugnae Nevitta, postea consul, 
equestris praepositus turmae, et adfuisse et fortiter 
fecisse firmatur. 

7. Nicomedia terrae motii prostrata ; et qiiot 

modis terra qiiatiatur. 

1. Eisdem diebus terrae motus borrendi, per 
Macedoniam Asiamque et Pontum, assiduis pulsibus 
oppida multa concusserunt et moutes. Inter monu- 
menta tamen midtiformium aerumnarum, eminuere 
Nicomediae clades, Bitbyniae urbium matris, cuius 
ruinarum eventum vere breviterque absolvam. 

1 lares, N^ £2, Gardt. : res, V. 

XVII., 6, 1-3—7, 1, A.D. 357-8 

6. The Juthungi, a tribe of the Alamanni, nho were 

devastating Retia, ivere defeated and put to flight 
by the Romans. 

1, In the midst of these uncertainties the Ju- 
thungi, a branch of the Alamanni bordering on 
Itahan territory, forgetful of the peace and the 
treaty which they had obtained by their prayers, 
were laying waste Raetia with such violence as even 
to attempt the besieging of towns, contrary to their 
habit. 2. To drive them back Barbatio was sent 
with a strong force ; he had been promoted in place 
of Sdvanus to be infantry commander. He was a 
coward but a fluent speaker, and having thoroughly 
roused the enthusiasm of the soldiers he utterly 
defeated a large number of the foe, so that only 
a small remnant, who for fear of danger had taken 
to flight, barely escaped and returned to their 
homes, not without tears and lamentations. 3. 
In this battle, we are assured, Nevitta, commander 
of a troop of cavalry and afterwards consul,^ was 
present and conducted himself manfully. 

7. Nicomedia is destroyed by an earthquake ; the 

different tvays in which the earth is shaken. 

1 . At that same time fearful earthquakes through- 
out x\sia, Macedonia, and Pontus "vvath their repeated 
shocks shattered numerous cities and mountains. 
Now among the instances of manifold disaster was 
pre-eminent the collapse of Nicomedia, the metro- 
polis of Bithynia ; and of the misfortune of its de- 
struction I shall give a true and concise account. 

^ With Mamertinus in 362. 



2. Prinio lucis exortu, diem nonum kal. Septem- 
brium, concreti nubium globi nigrantium, lactam 
paulo ante caeli speciem confuderunt, et amendato 
solis splendore, nee contigua vel apposita cerne- 
bantur ; ita oculorum obtutu praestricto, humo 
involutus crassae caliginis squalor insedit. 3. Dein 
velut numine summo fatales contorqnente manubias, 
ventosque ab ipsis excitante cardinibus, magnitude 
furentium incubuit procellarum, cuius irapetu pxil- 
sorum auditus est montium gemitus, et elisi litoris 
fragor, haecque secuti typhones atque presteres, 
cum horrifico tremore terrarum, civitatem et sub- 
urbana funditus everterunt. 4. Et quoniam ac- 
clivitate collium aedes pleracque vehebantur, aliae 
super alias concidebant, reclangentibus cunctis sonitu 
ruinarum immenso. Inter quae clamoribus variis 
celsa culmina resultabant, quaeritantium coniugium 
liberosque, et siquid necessitudines artae con- 
stringunt. 5. Post horam denique secundam (multo ^ 
ante tertiam) aer iam sudus et liquidus latentes 
retexit funereas strages. Non nulli enim super- 
ruentium ruderum vi nimia constipati, sub ipsis 
interiere ponderibus ; quidam coUo tenus aggeribus 

^ uon multo, Eyssen. ; paulo, Bentley ; multo, V. 

^Augural language; see Seneca. N.Q. ii. 41 ; for the 
usual meaning of manubiae, see Gellius, xiii. 25 ; he does 
not seem to know this use of the word. 

- Cardines are the four cardinal points, north, south, 


XVII., 7, 2-5, A.D. 358 

2. On the twenty-fourth of August, at the first 
break of day, thick masses of darkhng clouds 
overcast the face of the sky, which had just before 
been brilhaut ; the sun's splendour was dimmed, 
and not even objects near at hand or close by could 
be discerned, so restricted was the range of vision, 
as a foul, dense mist rolled up and settled over the 
ground. 3. Then, as if the supreme deity were 
hurling his fateful bolts ^ and raising the winds from 
their very quarters,^ a mighty tempest of raging 
gales burst forth ; and at its onslaught were heard 
the groans of the smitten mountains and the crash 
of the wave-lashed shore ; these were followed by 
whirlwinds and waterspouts, which, together with 
a terrific earthquake, completely overturned the 
city and its suburbs. 4. And since most of the 
houses were carried down the slopes of the hills, 
they fell one upon another, while everything re- 
sounded with the vast roar of their destruction. 
Meanwhile the highest points re-echoed all manner 
of outcries, of those seeking their wives, their 
children, and whatever near kinsfolk belonged to 
them. 5. Finally, after the second hour, but well 
before the third, the air, which was now bright and 
clear, revealed the fatal ravages that lay concealed. 
For some who had been crushed by the huge bulk 
of the debris falling upon them perished under its 
very weight ; some were buried up to their necks 

east, and west. Gellius, ii. 22, in his description of the 
winds, does not use cardines (probably because he speaks 
also of winds coining from between the cardines), but loca, 
regiones (§ 2), limites regionesque (§ 3), regiones caeli (§ 13), 
caeli partibus (§ 17). 



obruti, cum superesse possent siqui iuvissent, 
auxiliorum inopia necabantur ; alii lignorum ex- 
stantium acuminibus fixi pendebant. 6. Uno ictu 
caesi complures, paulo ante homines tunc promiscae 
strages cadaverum cernebantur. Quosdam domo- 
rum inclinata fastigia intrinsecus servabant ^ intactos, 
angore et inedia consumendos. Inter quos Aristae- 
netus afFectatam recens dioecensin curans vicaria 
potestate, quam Constantius ad honorem uxoris 
Eusebiae, Pietatis cognominarat, animam hoc casu 
cruciatam diutius exhalavit. 7. Alii subita mag- 
nitudine ruinae oppressi, eisdem adhuc molibus 
conteguntur. Collisis quidam capitibus, vel umeris 
praesectis aut cruribus, inter vitae mortisque con- 
finia, aliorum adiumenta paria perferentium im- 
plorantes, cum obtestatione magna deserebantur. H. 
Et superesse potuit aedium sacrarum et privatarum, 
hominumque pars maior, ni palantes abrupti 
flammarum ardores per quinque dies et noctes, quic- 
quid consumi poterat exussissent. 

9. Adesse tempus existimo, pauca dicere quae de 
terrae pulsibus coniectura veteres collegerunt. Ad 
ipsius enim veritatis arcana, non modo haec nostra 
vulgaris inscitia, sed ne sempiterna quidem lucubra- 
tionibus longis nondum exhausta, physicorum iurgia 
penetrarunt. 10. Unde et in ritualibus et ponti- 
ficio 2 sacerdotio obtemperantibus libris super auctore 

1 seruabant, N, Bentley, Novak ; serabant, E, Haupt. ; 
sep'iebnnt, Cornelissen ; serebanf, V. ^ pontificio . . . 

dirllur, Novak (lac. susjiected by Clark) ; pontificiis 
(without lac.) obtemperantur oblernperantibiui observantibics 
sacerdotiis, V. 


XVIL, 7, 5-10, A.D. 358 

in the heaps of rubbish, and might have survived 
had anyone helped them, but died for want of 
assistance ; others hung impaled upon the sharp 
points of projecting timbers. 6. The greater num- 
ber were killed at one blow, and where there were 
just now human beings, were then seen confused 
piles of corpses. Some were imprisoned unhurt 
within fallen houseroofs, to be consumed by the 
agony of starvation. Among these was Aristaenetus, 
vice-governor of the recently created diocese which 
Constantius, in honour of his wife, Eusebia, had 
named Pietas ; by this kind of mishap he slowly 
panted out his life amid torments. 7. Others, 
who were overwhelmed by the sudden magnitude 
of the disaster, are still hidden under the same 
ruins ; some who with fractured skulls or amputated 
arms or legs hovered between life and death, im- 
ploring the aid of others in the same case, were 
abandoned, despite their strong entreaties. 8. And, 
the greater part of the temples and private houses 
might have been saved, and of the population as 
well, had not a sudden onrush of flames, sweeping 
over them for five days and nights, burned up 
whatever could be consumed. 

9. I think the time has come to say a few words 
about the theories which the men of old have brought 
together about earthquakes ; for the hidden depths 
of the truth itself have neither been sounded by 
this general ignorance of ours, nor even by the 
everlasting controversies of the natural philosophers, 
which are not yet ended after long study. 10. Hence 
in the books of ritual ^ and in those which are in 

^See Cic, de Div. i. 33, 72; Festus, p. 285 M. 



motus terrae niliil dicitur caute, ne alio deo pro alio 
nominato, cum qui eorum terrain concutiat, sit 
in abstruso, piacula committantur. 11. Accidunt 
autem, (ut opiniones aestimant inter quas Aristoteles 
aestuat et laborat), aut in cavernis minutis terrarum, 
quas Graece (n'piyyas appellamus, impulsu crebriore 
aquis undabundis ; aut certe (ut Anaxagoras 
affirmat,) ventorum vi subeuntium ima terrarum ; 
qui cum soliditatibus concrustatis inciderint, erup- 
tiones nullas reperientes, eas partes soli convibrant, 
quas subrepserint tumidi.^ Unde plerumque ob- 
servatur, terra tremente, ventorum apud nos spira- 
mina nulla sentiri, quod in ultimis eius secessibus 
occupantur. 12. Anaximanderait.arescentemnimia 
aestuum siccitate, aut post madores imbrium 
terram rimas pandere grandiores, quas penetrat 
supernus aer violentus et nimius, ac per eas vehe- 
menti spiritu quassatam, cieri propriis sedibus. 
Qua de causa terrores huius modi, vaporatis tempori- 
bus, aut nimia aquarum caelestium superfusione, 
contingunt. Ideoque Neptunum, umentis sub- 
stantiae potestatem, Ennosigaeon et Sisichthona 
poetae veteres et theologi nuncuparunt. 

^ tumidi, suggested by Gardt. ; umMi, V ; Cornelissen 
deleted as dittographj'. 

1 The poniificiales libri of Seneca, Episi. 108, 31. 

-The Roman ritual reqvdred that in addressing a god, 
the identity of the god must be made sure and he must 
be called by his proper name ; cf. for example, Horace, 
Sat. ii. 6, 20, Matutine pater, seu "lane'' libentiits audis. 
and the altar at the foot of the Palatine, ■•iei deo sei deivae 

^ Meteorologica, ii. 8. •• Subterranean passages. 


XVII., 7, 10-12, A.D. 358 

conformity with the pontifical priesthood,^ nothing is 
said about the god that causes earthquakes, and this 
with due caution, for fear that by naming one deity 
instead of another,^ since it is not clear which of them 
thus shakes the earth, impieties may be perpetrated. 
11. Now earthquakes take place (as the theories 
state, and among them Aristotle ^ is perplexed and 
troubled) either in the tiny recesses of the earth, 
which in Greek we call o-rptyyat,* under the 
excessive pressure of surging waters ; or at any rate 
(as Anaxagoras asserts) through the force of the 
^vinds, which penetrate the innermost parts of the 
earth ; for when these strike the solidly cemented 
walls and find no outlet, they violently shake those 
stretches of land under which they crept when swollen. 
Hence it is generally observed that during an earth- 
quake not a breath of wind is felt where we are,^ 
because the winds are busied in the remotest re- 
cesses of the earth. 12. Anaximander says that 
when the earth dries up after excessive summer 
drought, or after soaking rainstorms, great clefts 
open, through which the upper air enters with ex- 
cessive violence ; and the earth, shaken by the 
mighty draft of air through these, is stirred from 
its very foundations. Accordingly such terrible 
disasters happen either in seasons of stifling heat or 
after excessive precipitation of water from heaven. 
And that is why the ancient poets and theologians 
call Neptune (the power of the watery element) 
Ennosigaeos ^ and Sisichthos.' 

' But compare the procellae of § .3, above. 
* Earthshaker, Juv. x. 182. 
' Earthquaker, Gell. ii. 28, 1. 



13. Fiunt autem terrarum motus modis quattuor : 
aut enim brasmatiae sunt, qui humum more aestus 
imitus ^ suscitantes, sursum propellunt immanissimac 
moles, ut in Asia Delos emersit, et Hiera et Anaphe 
et Rhodus, Ophiusa et Pelagia, prioribus saeculis 
dictitata, aureo quondam imbri perfusa, et Eleusin 
in Boeotia, et apud Tyrrenos Vulcanus, insulaeque 
plures ; aut climatiae qui limes ruentes atque ^ obliqui, 
urbes aedificia montesque complanant ; aut chas- 
matiae qui grandiore motu patefactis subito vora- 
trinis, terrarum partes absorbent, ut in Atlantico 
mari, Europaeo orbe spatiosior insula, et in Crisaeo 
sinu Helice et Bura, et in Ciminia Italiae parte, 
oppidum Saccumum, ad Erebi profundos hiatus 
abactae, aeternis tenebris occultantur. 14. Inter 
haec tria genera terrae motuum, mycematiae 
sonitu audiuntur minaci, cum dissolutis elementa 
compagibus, ultro assiliunt, vel relabuntur con- 
sidentibus terris. Tunc enim necesse est velut 
taurinis reboare mugitibus, fragores fremitusqxie 
terrenos. Sed hinc ad exorsa. 

^ aestus imitus. Her., Clark ; imitus, Haupt. ; itus, V^ ; itiw 
molestv^s, V*. - atque, suggested bj' Clark, c.c. ; et, V. 

^ A Greek word from ^paheiv. " boil up." 

^Cf. Claudian, De Cons. Stil. iii. 226, Auratos Rhodiis 
imbres nascente Minerva indidsisse lovem perhibent : Iliad. 
ii. 070 ; Pindar, Olymp. 7, 5'J ff. (L.C.L. pp. 72 f.) 

^ An ancient town of Boeotia near Lake Copais. It was 
not swallowed up by an earthquake, but destroyed by an 


XVII., 7, 13-14, v.D. 358 

13. Now earthquakes take place in foirr ways ; 
for they are either brasmatiae,^ or upheavings, which 
lift up the ground from far ^vithin, like a tide and 
force upward huge masses, as in Asia Delos came to 
the surface, and Hiera, Anaphe, and Rhodes, called 
in former ages Ophiusa and Pelagia, and once 
drenched with a shower of gold ; ^ also Eleusis ^ in 
Boeotia, Vulcanus in the Tyrrhenian Sea, and 
many more islands. Or they are climatiae ^ which 
rush along to one side and obliquely, levelling cities, 
buildings, and mountains. Or they are chasmatiae, 
or gaping, which with their intensive movement 
suddenly open abysses and swallow up parts of the 
earth ; as in the Atlantic Ocean an island more ex- 
tensive than all Europe,^ and in the Crisaean Gulf,^ 
Helice and Bura ; and in the Ciminian district of 
Italy the town of Saccumum ; ' these were all sunk 
into the deep abysses of Erebus, and lie hidden in 
eternal darkness. 14. Among these three sorts of 
earthquakes the niycematiae ^ are heard with a 
threatening roar, when the elements break up into 
their component parts and clash of their own accord, 
or slide back when the ground settles. For then 
of necessity the crashing and rumbling of the earth 
must resound like the bellowing of a bull. But 
to return to the episode which we began. 

inundation (Strabo, ix. 2, 18 ; Paus. ix. 24, 2) ; and it was 
not an island. 

* Moving sidewise. 

* Atlantis ; see Plato, Timaeus, pp. 24e-25a. 

^ Salona Bay, a part of the Corinthian Gulf ; see Diod. 
xiv. 48, 49. 

' Its exact location is unknown : near Lago di Vico ; see 
Index I. ^ Bellowing. 



8. lulianus C. Salios, gentem Francicam, in dediti- 
onem nccipit ; Chamnvorum alios caedit. <dios 
capit, reliquis pacem trihiiit. 

1. At Caesar hiemem apud Parisios agens, Ala- 
mannos praevenire studio maturabat ingenti, non- 
dum in unum coactos, sed ad ^ insaniam post 
Argentoratum audaces omnes et saevos, opperiensque 
lulium mensem, unde sumunt Gallicani procinctus 
exordia, diutius angebatur. Nee enim egredi pot- 
erat, antequam ex Aquitania aestatis remissione, 
solutis frigoribus et pruinis, veberetur annona. 

2. Sed ut est difficultatum paene omnium diligens 
ratio victrix, multa mente versans et varia, id tan- 
dem repperit solum, ut anni maturitate non ex- 
spectata, barbaris occurreret insperatus, firmatoque 
consilio, XX dierum frumentum, ex eo quod erat 
in sedibus consumendum, ad usus diuturnitatem 
excoctum, bucellatum (ut vulgo appellant,) umeris 
imposuit libentium militum, hocque subsidio fretus, 
secundis (ut ante,) auspiciis profectus est, intra 
mensem quintum vel sextum, duas expeditiones 
consummari posse urgentes et necessarias arbitratus. 

3. Quibus paratis, petit primos omnium Francos, 
eos videlicet quos consuetudo Salios appella\'it, 

^ (td. A, Novak ; in, Lind. ; V omits. 

XVII., 8, 1-3, A.D. 358 

8. Jiilianus Caesar receives the surrender of the Salii, 
a Frankish people ; he kills a part of the Chamavi, 
captures others, and grants peace to the rest. 

1. Now Caesar, while wintering in Paris, hastened 

with the greatest diligence to forestall the Alanianni, 

who were not yet assembled in one body, but were 

all venturesome and cruel to the point of madness 

after the battle of Strasburg ; and whUe waiting for 

the month of July, when the campaigns in Gaul 

begin, he was for a long time in much anxiety. For 

he could not leave until the grain supply was brought 

up from Aquitania during the mild summer season, 

after the breaking up of the cold weather and 

frost. 2. But as careful planning is victorious 

over nearly all difficulties, he turned over in his 

mind many various possibilities ; and this at last 

he found to be the only one, namely, without 

waiting for the height of the season, to fall upon the 

savages before he was looked for. And having 

settled on this plan, he had the grain allowance for 

twenty days taken from what was to be consumed 

in the ^dnter quarters, and baked up to serve for 

I some time ; he put this hard-tack (as they commonly 

I call it) on the backs of his willing soldiers, and 

I rel}dng on this supply he set out under favourable 

J auspices (as he did before), thinking that within 

I the fifth or sixth month two urgent and inevit- 

I able campaigns might be brought to completion. 

'i 3. After these preparations he first of all aimed at the 

:• Franks, those namely whom custom calls the Salii,^ 

J who once had the great assurance to venture to 

1 They dwelt between the Maas and the Schelde. 



ausos olim in Romano solo apud Toxiandriam, 
locum habitacula sibi figere praelicenter. Cui cum 
Tungros venisset, occurrit legatio praedictorum, 
opinantium reperiri imperatorem etiara turn in 
hibernis, pacem sub hac lege praetendens, ut quies- 
centes cos tamquam in suis, nee lacesseret quisquam 
nee vexaret. Hos legatos negotio plene digesto, 
oppositaque condicionum perplexitate, ut in eisdem 
tractibus moraturus, dum redeunt, muneratos 
absolvit. 4. Dictoque citius secutus profectos, 
Severo duce misso per ripam. subito cunctos ag- 
gressus, tamquam fulminis turbo perculsit, iamque 
precantes potius quam resistentes, in opportunam 
clementiae partem efFectu victoriae flexo, dedentes 
se cum opibus liberisque suscepit. 5. Chamavos 
itidem ausos similia adortus, eadem celeritate 
partim cecidit, partim acriter repugnantes, vivosque 
captos, compegit in vincula, alios praecipiti fuga 
repedantes ^ ad sua, ne militem spatio longo de- 
fatigaret, abire interim permisit innocuos ; quorum 
legatis paulo postea missis precatum consultumque 
rebus suis, humi prostratis sub obtutibus eius, 
pacem hoc tribuit pacto, ut ad sua redirent incolumes. 

1 repedantes, Bentley ; trepidcoites, V. 

1 The capital of the Toxiandri, who dwelt in modem ^ 
Zeeland and the northern part of Flanders. It was J 
then connected territory, but intersected bj^ many marshes ; J 
modern Tessejider Lo. t 

2 In the Belgian part of the province of Limberg ; see J 
Tac, Germ. 2. - \ 

^ A German people, living at the mouth of the Rhine ; 


XVII., 8, 3-5, A.n. 358 

iix their abodes on Roman soil at Toxiandria.^ But 
when he had reached Tongres," a deputation of the 
aforesaid people met him, expecting to find the 
commander even then in winter quarters ; and 
they offered peace on these terms, that while they 
remained quiet, as in their own territories, no one 
should attack or molest them. After having fully 
discussed the matter and proposed in reply some 
puzzling conditions, as if intending to remain in 
the same district until they returned, he gave these 
envoys gifts and dismissed them. 4. But quicker 
than a flash he followed them up after their departure, 
and sending his general Severus along the river 
bank, fell upon the whole troop suddenly and 
smote them like a thunderstorm ; at once they took 
to entreaties rather than to resistance, and he 
turned the outcome of his victory into the timely 
direction of mercy by receiving them in surrender 
with their property and their children. 5. The 
Chamavi ^ also had ventured to make a similar 
attempt ; with the same rapidity he attacked 
these, killed a part of them, and a part, who re- 
sisted stoutly and were taken alive, he put in irons ; 
others, who made tracks for home in headlong flight, 
he allowed for the time to get away unharmed, in 
order not to tire his soldiers by a long chase. A little 
later they sent delegates to make supplication and 
to provide for their safety, and as they lay prostrate 
on the ground before his eyes he granted them 
peace on co ndition that Jtjifiy— sliould return un- 
molested to their homes. 

they later crossed the river, to drive the Sahi from their 


VOL. I. Z 


9. lulianus C Iritt munimenta ad Mosam eversa 
a barbaris instaiirat, et a mititv famvm patiente 
probris ac minis iiicessitur. 

1. Cunctis igitur ex voto currentibus, studio 
pervigili properans, modis omnibus utilitatein fun- 
dare provinciarum, munimenta tria recta serie 
superciliis imposita fluminis Mosae, subversa dudum 
obstiiiatione barbarica, reparare pro tempore cogi- 
tabat, et ilico sunt instaurata, procinctu paulisper 
omisso. 2. Atque ^ ut consilium prudens celeritas 
faceret tutum, ex annona decern dierum et septem, 
quam in ^ expeditionem pergens vehebat cervicibus 
mUes, portionem subtractam in eisdem condidit 
castris, sperans ex Chamavorum segetibus id sup- 
pleri posse quod ablatum est. 3. Longe autem 
aliter accidit. Frugibus enim nonduni etiam maturis, 
miles, expensis quae portabat, nusquam reperiens 
victus, extrema minitans lulianum compellationibus 
iucessebat et probris, Asianum appellans Graeculum 
et fallacem, et specie sapientiae stolidum. Utque 
inveniri solent quidam inter armatos verborum 
volubilitate conspicui, haec et similia multa strepe- 
bant : 4. " Quo trahimur spe meliorum abolita, 

1 atque, BG ; tUque, V ; utque id, Novak, Pet. 
E- G ; ad, A ; V omits. 

' in, 

^ Cf. Quiiit. xii. 10, 17, Asiana yens tumidior aliogui 
atque iactantim; vaniore etiam dicendi gloria inflata est. 
- Cf. Juven al, iii. 78 ft'. 


XVII., 9, 1-4, A.D. 358 

9. Jiiliainis Caesar rebuilds three fortresses on the 
Meuse that had been destroyed by the savages, 
and is assailed with insults and threats by the 
soldiers, who are suffering from hunger. 

1. So, as everything was proceeding in accord- 
ance with his prayers, he made haste with watchful 
solicitude to put the well-being of the provinces 
in every way on a firm footing ; and he planned 
to repair (as time would permit) three forts situated 
in a straight line along the heights overhanging 
the river Meuse, which had long since been over- 
thrown by the obstinate assaults of the savages ; 
and they were immediately restored, the campaign 
being interrupted for a short time. 2. And to the 
end that speed might make his wise policy safe, he 
took a part of the seventeen days' provisions, 
which the soldiers, as they marched forward on 
their expedition carried about their necks, and 
stored it in those same forts, hoping that what had 
been deducted might be replaced from the harvests 
of the Chamavi. 3. But it turned out far other- 
wise ; for the crops were not yet even ripe, and 
the soldiers, after using up what they carried, 
could find no food anyw^here ; and resorting to 
outrageous threats, they assailed Julian with foul 
names and opprobrious language, calling him an 
Asiatic,^ a Greekling ^ and a deceiver, and a fool 
with a show of wisdom. And as some are usually 
to be found among the soldiers who are noteworthy 
for their volubility, they kept bawling out such 
words as these and many others to the same purport : 
4. " Where are we being dragged, robbed of the 



oliin ((uidcni dvira et perpeesu asperrima per iiives 
toleraulcs el acumina crudelium pniinaruin V Sed 
nunc (pro nef'as !) cum ultimis hostium fatis in- 
stamus, fame, ignavissimo mortis genera tabes- 
centes. 5. Et nequi nos turbarum existimet con- 
citores, pro vita loqui sola testamur, non aurum 
neque argentum petentes, quae olim nee contrectare 
potuimus nee videre, ita nobis negata, velut contra 
rem publicam, tot suscepisse labores et pericula 
confutatis." 6. Et erat ratio iusta querellarum. 
Inter tot enim rerum probabilium cursus, arti- 
culosque necessitatum ancipites, sudoribus Galli- 
canis miles exbaustus, nee donativum meruit nee 
stipendium, iam inde ut lulianus illo est missus, 
ea re quod nee ipsi quod daret suppetere poterat 
usquam, nee Constantius erogari more solito per- 
mittebat. 7. Hocque exinde claruit fraude potius 
quam tenacitate committi, quod cum idem Caesar 
petenti ex usu gregario cuidam, ut barbas detonderet, 
dedisset aliquid vile, contumeliosis calumniis ap- 
petitus est a Gaudentio tunc notario, ad explorandos 
eius actus diu morato per Gallias, quem postea ipse 
interfici iusserat, ut ^ loco monstrabitur competenti. . 

1 ut, added by EG ; V omits. 

1 He appears as agens in rebus, xv. 3, 8, and as set as a 
spy over Julian in xxi. 7, 2. He was finally executed by 
Julian's order. 

- xxii. 11, 1. 


XVII., 9, 4-7, A.D. 35» 

hope of a better lot ? We have long endured hard- 
ships of the bitterest kind to bear, in the midst of 
snows and the pinch of cruel frosts ; but now (Oh 
shameful indignity !), when we are pressing on to the 
final destruction of the enemy it is by hunger, the 
most despicable form of death, that we are wasting 
away. 5. And let no man imagine us inciters to 
mutiny ; we protest that we are speaking for our lives 
alone, asking for neither gold nor silver, which we 
have not been able to handle or even look upon for 
a long time, and which are denied us just as if it were 
against our country that we had been convicted of 
having undertaken so much toil and danger." 6. And 
they had good reason for their complaints. For 
through all their career of laudable achievements, and 
the inevitable moments of hazard, the soldiers in 
Gaul, though worn out by their labours, had received 
neither donative nor pay from the very day that 
Julian was sent there, for the reason that he himself 
had no funds available anywhere from which to give, 
nor did Constantius allow any to be expended in 
the usual manner. 7. And it was evident that this 
was done through malice rather than through 
niggardliness, from the fact that when this same 
Julian was asked by a common soldier, as they 
often do, for money for a shave, and had given him 
some small coin, he was assailed for it with slan- 
derous speeches by Gaudentius,^ who was then a 
secretary. He had remained in Gaul for a long 
time to watch Julian's actions, and Caesar after- 
wards ordered that he be put to death, as will be 
shown in the proper place.- 



10. Suomariiis et Hortarius, Alamannorum reges, 
captivis redditis, ah luliano Caes. pacem 

1. Lenito tandem tumultu, non sine blanditiarum 
genere vario, contextoque navali ponte transito 
Rheno,^ terris Alamannorum calcatis, Severus 
magister equitum, bellicosus ante haec et industrius, 
repente commarcuit. 2. Et qui saepe universes 
ad fortiter faciendum hortabatur et singulos, tunc 
dissuasor pugnandi, contemptus \ddebatur et timidus, 
mortem fortasse metuens adventantem, ut in Tage- 
ticis libris legitur vel ^ Vegoicis^ fulmine mox tangen- 
dos adeo hebetari, ut nee tonitruum * nee maiores 
aliquos possint audire fragores. Et iter ignaviter 
egerat praeter solitum, ut ductores, viarum prae- 
euntes alacri gradu, ultima minitando terreret, ni 
omnes conspirantes in unum, se loca penitus igno- 
rare firmarent. Qui interdicti, metuentes auctori- 
tatem, nusquam deinde sunt progressi. 

3. Inter has tamen moras, Alamannorum rex 
Suomarius ultro cum suis impro\'isus occurrit, ferox 
ante saeviensque in damna Romana, sed tum 

^ transito Bheno, tr. by Clark, Novak, c.c. ; B. fluminc 
transito. Her. ; R. transito, V. ^ uel, added by Preller, 

Haupt. ; et, Gardi ; V omits. ^uegonicis, V. * tonit- 

ruum, E ; tonitrum, BG ; nectores nitrum, V. 

1 According to Censorinus, Dc Die Nat. 4, 13, and others, 
these books came from a certain Tages, who came up from 
the ground when a peasant was ploughing near Tarquinii 
in Etiairia, and taught the people who flocked to him tlie 
secrets of prophecy. He is described as a boy with the 
wisdom of an old man ; see Cic, De Div. ii. 23, 50 and 
Pease's note. The Tarquitian books of xxv. 2, 7 are 
perhaps the same. 


XVII., 10, 1-3, A.D. 358 

10. Suomarius and Hortarius, kings of the Alamanni. 
on giving back their prisoners are granted 
peace by Julianas Caesar. 

1. At length, after the mutiny had been quelled, 
not without various sorts of fair words, they built 
a pontoon bridge and crossed the Rhine ; but when 
they set foot in the lands of the Alamanni, Severus, 
master of the horse, who had previously been a 
warlike and energetic officer, suddenly lost heart. 
2. And he that had often encouraged one and all 
to brave deeds, now advised against fighting and 
seemed despicable and timid — perhaps through 
fear of his coming death, as we read in the books 
of Tages ^ or of Vegoe ^ that those who are shortly 
to be struck by lightning are so dulled in their senses 
that they can hear neither thunder nor any louder 
crashes whatsoever. And contrary to his usual 
custom, he had marched so lazily that he intimidated 
the guides, who were leading the way rapidly, and 
threatened them with death unless they would 
all agree, and unanimously make a statement, that 
they were wholly ignorant of the region. So they, 
being thus forbidden, and in fear of his authority, 
on no occasion went ahead after that. 

3. Now in the midst of these delays Suomarius, 
king of the Alamanni, of his own initiative met the 
Romans unexpectedly with his troops, and although 
he had previously been haughty and cruelly bent 
upon harming the Romans, at that time on the 

^Cf. Servius, on Aen. vi. 72, Ubri Begoes nympJuie, quae 
artetn scripserat 'fulguritorum apud Tuscos. The correct 
spelling is Vegoe. 



lucrum existimans insperatum, si propria retinere 
permitteretur. Et quia vultus incessusque suppli- 
cem indicabat, susceptus bonoque animo esse iussus 
et placido, nihil arbitrio suo relinquens, pacem 
genibus curvatis oravit. 4. Et earn cum concessione 
praeteritorum sub hac meruit lege, ut captivos 
redderet nostros, et quotiens sit necesse, militibus 
alimenta praeberet, susceptorum ^alium more securi- 
tates accipiens pro illatis : quas si non ostendisset 
in tempore, sciret se rursus eadem flagitandum.^ 
5. Quod ita recte dispositum est, impraepedite 
complete, Hortari nomine petendus erat regis 
alterius pagus, et quia nihil videbatur deesse praeter 
ductores, Nesticae tribuno scutariorum, et Chariet- 
toni viro fortitudinis mirae, imperaverat Caesar, 
ut magna quaesitum industria, comprehensumque 
ofFerrent sibi captivum, et correptus velociter, 
adulescens ducitur Alamannus, pacto obtinendae 
salutis pollicitus itinera se monstraturum. 6. Hoc 
progresso secutus exercitus, celsarum arborum 
obsistente concaede, ire protinus vetabatur. Verum 
per circuitus longos et flexuosos ubi ^ ventum est 
tandem ad loca, ira quisque percitus armorum 
urebat agros et ^ pecora diripiebat et homines, 

1 eadem flagitandum. Pet., Niemeyer ; ea defcUigandum, 
V. -flexuosos ubi. Her.; flexu dissos, V. 'e<, 

before pecora. Her., Clark ; before ira, V. 

^ That is, he was to receive receipts from those in charge 
of the supplies, and show them to Julian. 


XVIL, 10, 3-6, A.D. 358 

contrary he thought it an unlooked-for gain if he 
Mere allowed to keep what belonged to him. And 
inasmuch as his looks and his gait showed him to 
be a suppliant, he was received and told to be of 
good cheer and set his mind at rest ; whereupon he 
completely abandoned his own independence and 
begged for peace on bended knee. 4. And he ob- 
tained it, with pardon for all that was past, on 
these terms : that he should deliver up his Roman 
captives and supply the soldiers with food as often 
as it should be needed, receiving security ^ for 
what he brought in just like any ordinary contractor. 
And if he did not present it on time, he was to know 
that the same amount would again be demanded 
of him, 

5. So this was properly arranged and immediately 
carried out. And since the territory of a second 
king, Hortarius by name, was to be attacked and 
nothing seemed to be lacking but guides, Caesar 
had given orders to Nestica, a tribune of the tar- 
geteers, and Charietto, a man of extraordinary 
bravery, to take great pains to seek out and catch 
one and bring him in captive. Quickly a young 
Aleman was seized and led in, and on condition of 
having his life spared he promised to show the way. 
6. He led and the army followed, but it was pre- 
vented from going forward by a barricade of tall trees 
in the way. But when they finally, by long and 
circuitous detours, reached the spot, every man in 
the army,- wild with anger, joined in setting the 
fields on fire and raiding flocks and men ; and if 

* For tliis use of armorum. cf. xxxi. 10, 5, cum quad- 
raginta armorum milibtis ; etc. 



resistentesque sine ulla parsimonia contruncabant. 
7. His malis perculsus, rex cum multiplices legiones,^ 
vicorumque reliquias cerneret exustorum, ultimas 
fortunarum iacturas adesse iam contemplatus, 
oravit ipse quoque veniam, facturum se imperanda 
iurandi exsecratione promisit.- Captivos ^ resti- 
tuere universos — id enim cura agebatur impensiore — 
iussus fidem non praestitit.'* Detentisque plurimis 
reddidit paucos. 8. Quo cognito ad indignationem 
iustam lulianus erectus, cum munerandus venisset 
ex more, quattuor comites eius, quorum ope et 
fide maxime nitebatur, non ante absolvit, dum 
omnes rediere captivi. 9. Ad colloquium tandem 
accitus a Caesare, trementibus ocuiis adorato, 
victorisque superatus aspectu, condicione difficili 
premebatur, hac scilicet ut quoniam consentaneum 
erat, post tot secundos eventus, civitates quoque 
reparari, vi barbarorum excisas, carpenta et materias 
ex opibus suis suorumque praeberet ; et haec 
poUicitus imprecatusque (si perfidum quicquam 
egisset,) luenda sibi cruore supplicia, ad propria 
remeare permissus est. Annonam enim transferre, 
ita ut Suomarius, ea re compelli non potuit, quod 
ad internicionem regione eius vastata, nihil inveniri 
poterat quod daretur. 

10. Ita reges illi tumentes quondam immaniter, 
rapinisque ditescere assueti nostrorum, Romanae 

^ legiones, Hadr. Val. ; regiones, V ; regionum direptioneK, 
Her. ^promisit, tr. after exsecratione, Novak ; after 

universos, V. ^ captivos, serijjsi ; captivosque added by 

Haupt. ; laf. after exsecratione. Her., Clark. * iussus 

. . . praestitit, added by Novak ; lac. indicated by Clark, 


XVII., 10, 6-10, A.I). 358 

they resisted, they butchered them, without com- 
punction. 7. The king was overwhelmed by these 
calamities, and when he saw the numerous legions 
and the ruins of his villages which they had burned 
down, now fully convinced that the final wreck of 
his fortunes was at hand, he too begged for pardon 
and under the solemn sanction of an oath promised 
that he would do what might be ordered. Being 
bidden to restore all his prisoners — for that was 
insisted on with particular earnestness — he kept 
back a large number and delivered only a few. 8. 
On learning this, Julian was roused to righteous 
indignation, and when the king came to receive 
presents, as was usual, he would not release his 
four attendants, on whose aid and loyalty he chiefly 
relied, until all the captives returned. 9. Finally 
the king was summoned by Caesar to an interview 
and reverenced him with trembling eyes ; and over- 
come at the sight of the conqueror, he was forced 
to accept these hard terms, namely, that inasmuch 
as it was fitting that after so many successes the 
cities also should be rebuilt which the violence of 
the savages had destroyed, the king should furnish 
carts and timber from his own supplies and those of 
his subjects. And when he had promised this and 
taken oath that if he did any disloyal act, he should 
expiate it with his heart's blood, he was allowed 
to return to his own domains. For as to supplying 
grain, as Suomarius did, he could not be coerced, for 
the reason that his country had been ravaged to the 
point of ruin, and nothing to give to us could be found. 
10. So those kings, who in times past were in- 
ordinately puffed up with pride, and accustomed to 



potentiae iugo subdidere coUa iam domita, et velut 
inter tributaries nati et educati, obsecundabant 
imperiis ingravate. Quibus hoc modo peractis, 
disperse per stationes milite consuetas, ad hiberna 
regressus est Caesar. 

11. lulianus Caes., post res in Gallia bene gestas, in 
aula Constantii Aug. ah invidis deridetur, 
segnisque et timidus appellatur. 

1. Haec cum in comitatu Constantii subinde 
noscerentur — erat enini necesse, taniquam appari- 
torem, Caesarem super omnibus gestis ad Augusti 
ret'erre scientiam — omnes qui plus poterant in 
palatio, adulandi professores iam docti, recte con- 
sulta prospereque completa vertebant in deridiculum, 
talia sine modo strepentes insulse : " In odium 
venit cum victoriis suis capella, non homo," ut 
hirsutum lulianum carpentes, appellantesque " lo- 
quacem talpam " et " purpuratam simiam " et 
" htterionem Graecum," et his congruentia plurima. 
Atque ut tintinnabida ^ principi resonantes, audire 
haec taliaque gestienti, virtutes eius obruere verbis 
impudentibus conabantur ut segnem incessentes 
et timidum et umbratilem, gestaque secus verbis 
comptioribus exornantem ; quod non tunc primitus 
accidit. 2. Namque ut solet amphssima quaeque ^ 
gloria obiecta esse semper invidiae, legimus in veteres 

^tintinnabula, R. Unger; tlntinnacula, V, Clark. 
'" ampUssitna quaeqxie, Bentlej', Eyssen. ; amplissimaque, 


XVII., 10, 10—11, 1-2, A.D. 358 

enrich themselves with the spoils of our subjects, 
put their necks, now bowed down, under the voke 
of Roman dominion, and ungrudgingly obeyed our 
commander, as if born and brought up among 
our tributaries. And after this conclusion of events 
the soldiers were distributed among their usual 
posts and Caesar returned to winter quarters.. 

11. Julianus Caesar, after these successful campaigns 
in Gaul, is derided by envious courtiers at the 
palace of Constantius, and called slothful and 

1. Presently, when all this became known at 
Constantius' court — for it Avas necessary that 
Caesar, like any subordinate, should render aii 
account to Augustus of all his acts — all those who 
had the chief influence in the palace and were now- 
past masters in flattery turned Julian's well-devised 
and successful achievements into mere mockery 
by endless silly jests of this sort : " This fellow, 
a nanny-goat and no man, is getting insuff"erable 
with his victories,"' jibing at him for being hairy, 
and calUng him a " talkative mole " and " an ape 
in purple," and " a Greekish pedant," and other 
names like these ; and by ringing bells, so to speak, 
in the ears of an emperor eager to hear these and 
similar things, they tried to bury his merits with 
shameless speeches, railing at him as a lazy, timid, 
unpractical person, and one who embellished his 
ill success with fine words ; all of which did not 
take place then for the first time. 2. For as the 
greatest glory is always habitually subject to envy, 



quoque magnificos duces vitia criminaque, etiam ei 
inveniri non poteraiit, firixisse malignitatem, spec- 
tatissimis actibus eorum offensani. 3. Ut Cim- 
onem Miltiadis filium, insimulatum incesti,^ qui 
saepe ante et "^ prope Eurymedouta Pamphyliura 
fliimen Persarum populum delevit inuiimerum, 
coegitque gentem insolentia semper elatani obsecrare 
suppliciter pacem ; Aemilianum itidem Scipionein 
ut somniculosum aemulorum incusari malivolentia, 
cuius impetrabili vigilantia, obstinatae in perniciem 
Romae, duae potentissimae sunt urbes excisae. 
4. Nee non etiam in Pompeium obtrectatores iniqui, 
multa scrutantes, cum nihil tmde vituperari deberet, 
inveniretur, duo haec observarunt ludibriosa et 
irrita : quod genuino quodani more caput digito 
uno scalpebat, quodque aliquandiu tegendi vdceris 
causa deformis fasciola Candida crus colligatum 
gestabat : ^ quorum alterum factitare ut dissolutum, 
alterum ut novarum rerum cupidum asserebant ; 
nihil interesse oblatrantes argumento subfrigido, 
quam partem corporis redimiret regiae maiestatis 
insigni ; eum virum, quo nee fortior nee autem 
cautior ^ quisquam patriae fuit, ut documenta prae- 
clara testantur. 

5. Dum haec ita aguntur, Romae Artemius curans 
vicariam praefecturam, pro Basso quoque agebat, 

^ incesti, added by Lind. ; lac. before saepe, Gardt. ; 
intemperantiae, V^. ^ ante qui prope, BG ; saepe ante etY 
(no lac.)- * colligatum gestabat (habebat, Xovak), Her., cf. 
Val. Max. vi. 2, 1 ; collibatam, V. * ?^ec autem cautior, 

Walter ; nee cautior, WBG ; nee amantior, Haupt. ; ne 
catUatUior, V. 


XVII., 11, 2-5, A.i). 358 

wc read that even against the renowned leaders 
of ancient days f'aidts and charges were trumped 
up, even if none coukl be discovered, by spiteful 
persons incensed by their brilliant exploits. 3. As, 
for example, Cimon, the son of Miltiades, was accused 
of incest, although often before and particularly 
near the river Eurymedon in Pamphylia he anni- 
hilated a countless host of the Persians, and com- 
pelled a nation always swollen with pride to sue 
humbly for peace. Likewise Scipio Aemilianus was 
accused of inactivity by the malice of his rivals, 
although by his effective vigilance two most power- 
ful cities, bent on the destruction of Rome, were 
razed to the ground. 4. And also even in the case 
of Pompey, some malevolent critics, who after much 
search found nothing for which he coidd be blamed, 
noted these two laughable and silly facts : that in 
a certain characteristic way he used to scratch his 
head with one finger, and that for some time, to 
cover up an ugly ulcer, he wore a white bandage 
tied around his leg ; the one of these things he did, 
they affirmed, because he was dissipated, the other 
because he planned a revolution, snarling at him 
with the somewhat pointless reason, that it mattered 
not what part of his body he bound with the emblem 
of kingly majesty^ — and this to a man than whom, 
as the clearest of proofs show, none was more vahant 
or a greater lover of his country. 

5. While these things were thus happening, at 
Rome Artemius, who held the office of vice-prefect, 

^The white fillet, to which the bandage was likened, 
was emblematic of royalty ; see Suet., Jul. 79, 1. 



qui r(!(;ens promotus urbi praefectus, fatali decesserat 
sorte, cuius administratio .spditioncs porpessa est 
tiirbulentas, nee rnemorabile quicquam habuit quod 
narrari sit dignum. 

12. Constantius Aug. Sarmatas dominos olim, turn 
exules, et Quadras, Pannoniarum et Moesiae 
vastatores, ad obsides dandos et captivos 
reddendos compellit ; atque exidibus Sarmatis, 
in libertatem avitasque sedes restitutis, regem 

1. Augusto inter haec quiescenti per hiemem 
apud Sirmium, indicabant nuntii graves et crebri, 
permixtos Sarmatas et Quados, vicinitate et simili- 
tudine morum armaturaeque Concordes, Pannonias 
Moesiarumque alteram cuneis incursare dispersis. 
2. Quibus ad latrocinia magis quam aperto babilibus 
Marti, hastae sunt longiores et loricae ex cornibu? 
rasis et laevigatis, plumarum specie linteis indu- 
mentis innexae ; equorumque plurimi ex usu cas- 
trati, ne aut feminarum visu exagitati, rapteutur, 
aut in subsidiis ferocientes, prodant hinnitu densiore 
vectores. 3. Et per spatia discurrunt amplissima, 
sequentes alios vel ipsi terga vertentes, insidendo 

^ Junius Bassus died in 359 ; according to Prudentius, 
contra Synim. i. 559, he was the first of his family to become 
a Christian. 

^ That is, First and Second (Lower) Pannonia ; the 
province was divided by Galerius. 

* Pausanias, i. 21, 6, says that the Sarmatians made 
such armour from horses' hoofs, having no iron, and that 


XVIL, 11, 5—12, 1-3, A.D. 3S8 

also succeeded Bassus,^ who a short time after he had 
been promoted to be prefect of the city had died 
a natural death. His administration suffered from 
mutinous disturbances, but had no remarkable in- 
cident which is worth relating. 

12. Constantius Augustus compels the Sarmatians, 
formerly rulers, but now exiles, and the Quadri, 
who were laying ivaste Pannonia and Moesia, 
to give hostages and return their prisoners ; 
and over the exiled Sarmatians, whom he 
restored to freedom and their ancestral abode, 
he appointed a king. 

1. As Augustus meanwhile was taking his winter 
rest at Sirmium, frequent serious reports showed 
that the Sarmatians and the Quadri, who were 
in agreement because they were neighbours and had 
like customs and armour, had united and were raiding 
the Pannonias ^ and Second Moesia in detached 
bands. 2. These people, better fitted for brigand- 
age than for open warfare, have very long spears 
and cuirasses made from smooth and polished 
pieces of horn, fastened like scales to linen shirts ; ^ 
most of their horses are made serviceable by gelding, 
in order that they may not at sight of mares be- 
come excited and run away, or when in ambush 
become unruly and betray their riders by loud 
neighing. 3. And they run over very great distances, 
pursuing others or themselves turning their backs, 

in the temple of Aesculapius at Athens, he saw a specimen, 
in which pieces of horn looked like clefts on a pine-cone. 




velocibus equis et morigeris, trahentesque singnlos, 
interdum et binos, uti perinutatio vires foveat 
iumentorum, vigorque otio integretur alterno. 

4. Aequinoctio itaque temporis verni confecto, 
imperator coacta militum valida manu, ductu 
laetioris fortunae profectus, cum ad locum aptissi- 
mum pervenisset, flumen Histrum exundantem ^ 
pruinarum iam resoluta congerie, super navium 
foros ponte contexto transgressus, populandis bar- 
barorum incubuit terris. Qui itinere festinato 
praeventi, catervasque bellatoris exercitus iugulis 
suis imminere cernentes, quem nondum per anni 
tempus colligi posse rebantur, nee spirare ausi 
nee stare, sed vitantes exitium insperatum, semet 
omnes efFuderunt in fugam. 5. Stratisque plurimis, 
quorum gressus vinxerat timor, si ^ quos exemit 
celeritas morti, inter latebrosas convalles montium 
occultati, videbant patriam ferro pereuntem, quam 
vindicassent profecto, si vigore quo discesserant 
restitissent. 6. Gerebantur haec in ea parte Sar- 
matiae, quae secundam prospectat Pannoniam, 
parique fortitudine circa ^ Valeriam opes barbaras 
urendo rapiendoque occurrentia militaris turbo 
vastabat. 7. Cuius cladis imraensitate permoti. 
postbabito latendi consilio, Sarmatae petendae 
specie pacis, agmine tripertito agentes, securius 

1 exundans (with comma), Novak, c.c. ; exundantem, V. 
~ si, Mommsen ; hi, E- A; ii, BG ; his, V. ^ circa, 

W- HTE, Val. ; contra, DG ; cc, V. 

1 See note 2, p. 253. 

XVII., 12, 3-7, A.D. 358 

being mounted on swift and obedient horses and 
leading one, or sometimes even two, to the end 
that an exchange may keep up the strength of their 
mounts and that their freshness may be renewed 
by alternate periods of rest. 

4. And so, when the spring equinox was past, the 
emperor mustered a strong force of soldiers and set 
out under the guidance of a more propitious fortune ; 
and although the river Ister was in flood since the 
masses of snow and ice were now melted, having 
come to the most suitable place, he crossed it on 
a bridge built over the decks of ships and invaded 
the savages' lands with intent to lay them waste. 
They were outwitted by his rapid march, and on 
seeing already at their throats the troops of a fighting 
army, which they supposed could not yet be 
assembled owing to the time of year, they ventured 
neither to take breath nor make a stand, but to 
avoid unlooked-for destruction all took to precipitate 
flight. 5. The greater number, since fear clogged 
their steps, were cut down ; if speed saved any from 
death, they hid in the obscure mountain gorges and 
saw their country perishing by the sword ; and 
they might undoubtedly have protected her, had 
they resisted with the same vigour that had marked 
their flight. 6. This took place in that part of 
Sarmatia which faces Second Pannonia, and with 
equal courage our soldiers, like a tempest, laid waste 
the enemies possessions round about Valeria,^ burning 
and plundering everything before them. 7. Greatly 
disturbed by the vastness of this disaster, the Sar- 
matians abandoned their plan of hiding, and forming 
in three divisions, under pretence of suing for peace 



nostros aggredi cogitarunt ut ^ nee expedire tela 
nee vim vulnerum deelinare, nee quod est in rebus 
artissimis ultimum, verti possent in fugam. 8. 
Aderant autem ilico Sarmatis periculorum Quadi 
participes, qui noxarum saepe socii fuerant indis- 
creti, sed ne eos quidem prompta iuvit audacia, in 
discrimina ruentes aperta. 9. Caesis enim com- 
pluribus, pars quae potuit superesse, per notos 
calles ^ evasit ; quo eventu vires at animos incitante, 
iunctis densius cuneis, ad Quadorum regna properabat 
exercitus, qui ex praeterito casu impendeutia for- 
midantes, rogaturi suppliciter pacem, fidentes ad 
principis venere conspectum, erga haec et ^ similia 
lenioris, dictoque die statuendis condicionibus pari ^ 
modo Zizais quoque etiam turn regalis, ardui ^ 
corporis iuvenis, ordines Sarmatarum more certa- 
minis instruxit ad preces ; visoque imperatore, 
abiectis armis pectore toto procubuit, exanimis 
stratus. Et amisso vocis officio prae timore, turn 
cum orare deberet, maiorem misericordiam movit, 
conatus aliquotiens, parumque impediente singultu, 
permissus explicare quae poscebat. 10. Recreatus 
denique tandem, iussusque exsurgere, genibus 
nixus, usu linguae recuperato, concessionem de- 
lictorum sibi tribui supplicavit et veniam, eoque ad 

1 ut, added by A in lac. indicated by Langen, Mommsen ; 
V omits without lac. ^ calles, Kiessling, Gardt. ; colles, 

V. ^ et added in EG ; V omits. •• pari. Her. 

in lac. ind. by Eyssen. (Lind. deleted ?nor/o.) ^ ardui, 

Novak ; hand parid, G ; ajmd ui, V. 


XVII., 12, 7-10, A.D. 358 

they planned to attack our soldiers when ofl' their 
guard, so that they could neither get their weapons 
ready nor parry the force of wounds, nor turn to 
flight, which is the last recourse in times of stress. 
8. Furthermore the Quadri, who had often been their 
inseparable companions in raids, came at once to 
share the perils of the Sarmatians ; but their ready 
boldness did not help them either, rushing as they 
were upon evident hazards. 9. For after very 
many of them had been cut down, the part that could 
save themselves escaped by paths familiar to them, 
and our army, their strength and courage aroused by 
this success, formed in closer order and hastened to 
the domain of the Quadri. They, dreading from 
their past disaster what impended, planned to sue 
suppliantly for peace and confidentlv presented 
themselves before the emperor, who was somewhat 
too lenient towards those and similar off"ences ; and 
on the day named for settling the terms in like 
fashion, Zizais, a tall young man who was even then 
a royal prince, drew up the ranks of the Sarmatians 
in battle array to make their petition. And on seeing 
the emperor he threw aside his weapons and fell flat 
on his breast, as if lying lifeless. And since the use 
of his voice failed him from fear at the very time 
when he should have made his plea, he excited all 
the greater compassion ; but after several attempts, 
interrupted by sobbing, he was able to set forth 
only a little of what he tried to ask. 10. At last, 
however, he was reassured and bidden to rise, and 
getting up on his knees and recovering the use of 
his voice, he begged that indulgence for his oft'ences, 
and pardon, be granted him. Upon this the throng 



precandum admissa multitudo, cuius ora formido 
muta claudebat, periculo adhuc praestantioris 
ambiguo, ubi ille solo iussus attolli orandi signum 
cxspectantibus diu monstravit, omnes clipeis telisque 
proiectis, manus precibus dederunt plura excogi- 
tantes, ut vincerent humilitate siipplicandi regalem. 
IL Duxerat potior cum ceteris Sarmatis etiam 
Rumonem et Zinafrum et Fragiledum subregulos, 
plurimosque optimates, cum impetrandi spa similia 
petituros. Qui, licet elati gaudio salutis indultae, 
coudicionum sarcina compensare inimice facta 
poUicebantur, seque cum facultatibus et liberis et 
coniugibus terrarumque suarum ambitu Romanae 
potentiae libenter offerrent. Praevaluit tamen aequi- 
tati iuncla benignitas, iussique obtinere sedes im- 
pavidi, nostros reddidere captivos. Duxeruntque 
obsides postulatos, et obedire praeceptis deinde 
promptissime spoponderunt. 12. Hortante hoc ex- 
emplo clementiae, advolarunt regalis ^ cum suis 
omnibus Araharius, et Usafer inter optimates 
excellens, agminum gentilium duces, quorum alter 
Transiugitanorum Quadorumque parti, alter qui- 
busdam Sarmatis praeerat, locorum confiniis et 
feritate iunctissimis ; quorum plebera veritus ^ 
imperator, ne ferire foedera simulans, in arma 

" 1 regalis, Clark ; regales, V. ^ ueritus, A'al. ; urcuit, 

G ; acrius, V. 


XVII., 12, 10-12, A.D. 358 

was admitted to make its entreaties, but mute terror 
closed their lips, so long as the fate of their superior 
was uncertain. But when he was told to get up 
from the ground and gave the long awaited signal 
for their petition, all threw down their shields and 
spears, stretched out their hands with prayers, and 
succeeded in many ways in outdoing their prince in 
lowly supplication. 11. Their superior had brought 
with the rest of the Sarmatians also Rumo, Zinafer 
and Fragiledus, who were petty kings, and a number 
of nobles, to make like requests, which they hoped 
would be granted. They, though overjoyed that 
their lives were spared, offered to make up for their 
hostile acts by burdensome conditions, and would 
have willingly submitted themselves with their 
possessions, their children, their wives, and the whole 
of their territories to the power of the Romans. How- 
ever, kindness combined with equity prevailed, and 
when they were told to retain their homes without 
fear, they returned all their Roman prisoners. They 
also brought in the hostages that were demanded 
and promised from that time on to obey orders 
with the utmost promptness. 12. Encouraged bv 
this instance of mercy, there hastened to the spot 
with all their subjects the prince Araharius, and 
Usafer, a prominent noble, w'ho were leaders of 
the armies of their countrymen ; one of them ruled 
a part of the Transiugitani and the Quadri, the other 
some of the Sarmatians, peoples closely united by 
the same frontiers and like savagery. Since the 
emperor feared their people, lest under pretence of 
striking a treatv they might suddenly rise to arms, 
he separated the united divisions and bade those 



repente consurgeret, discrete consortio, pro Sar- 
matis obsecrantes iussit paulisper abscedere, dum 
Araharii et Quadorum negotium spectaretur. 13. 
Qui cum reorum ^ ritu oblati, stantes curvatis cor- 
poribus, facinora gravia purgare non possent, ulti- 
mae sortis infortunia metuentes, dederunt obsides 
imperatos, numquam antea pignora foederis ex- 
hibere compulsi. 14. His ex aequo bonoque com- 
positis Usafer in preces admissus est, Arahario 
pertinaciter obstrepente, firmanteque pacera quam 
ipse meruit, ei quoque debere proficere, ut participi 
licet inferiori, et obtemperare suis imperiis consueto. 
15. Verum quaestione discussa, aliena pote&tate eripi 
Sarmatae iussi (ut semper Romanorum clientes,) 
ofFerre obsides quietis vincula conservaudae, gra- 
tanter amplexi sunt. 16. Ingerebat autem se 
post baec maximus numerus catervarum con- 
fluentium nationum et regum, suspendi a iugulis 
suis gladios obsecrantium, postquam Araharium 
impune compererat abscessisse ; et pari modo ipsi 
quoque adepti pacem quam poscebant, accitos 
ex intimis regni procerum filios obsidatus sorte 
• opinione celerius obtulerunt, itidemque captivos 
(ut placuerat) nostros, quos haut minore gemitu 
perdidere quam suos. 

1 reorum, Lind. ; eoruni, V. 

1 Lindenbrog and Wagner translate: "that swords 
shouki be placed at their tliroats as a sjanbol of an oath 
and what would happen to them if they broke it " ; cf. 
xxi. 5, 10, gladiLs cervicibus suis admotis sub exsecrationibus 
diris iuravere ; but that rendering does not seem to fit 
the following sentence. 


XVII., 12, 12-16, A.D. 358 

who were interceding for the Sarmatians to with- 
draw for a time, while the case of Araharius and 
the Quadri was being considered. 13. When these 
presented themselves in the manner of criminals, 
standing with bended bodies, and were unable to 
clear themselves of serious misdeeds, in fear of 
calamities of the worst kind they gave the hostages 
which were demanded, although never before had 
they been forced to present pledges for a treaty. 
14. When they had been justly and fairly disposed 
of, Usafer was admitted to make supplication, 
although Araharius stoutly objected and insisted 
that the terms which he himself had obtained ought 
to be vaHd also for the other as his partner, although 
Usafer was of inferior rank and accustomed to obey 
his commands. 15. But after a discussion of the 
question, orders were given that the Sarmatians (as 
permanent dependents of the Romans) should be freed 
from the domination of others and should present 
hostages as bonds for keeping the peace ; an offer 
which they gladly accepted. 16. Moreover, after this 
there offered themselves a very great number of 
kings and nations, coming together in companies, 
and begged that the swords at their throats might be 
withdrawn,^ as soon as they learned that Araharius 
had got off scot-free. And they too in the same way 
gained the peace which they sought, and sooner 
than was expected they summoned from the inner- 
most parts of the kingdom and brought in as 
hostages the sons of eminent men, and also their 
prisoners (as had been stipulated), from whom they 
parted with as deep sighs as they did from their 
own countrymen. 



17. Quibus ordinatis translata est in Sarmatas 
cura, miseratione dignos potius quam simultate. 
Quibus incredibile quantum prosperitatis ^ haec 
attulit causa : ut verum illud aestiraaretur, quod 
opinantur quidara, fatum vinci principis potestate 
vel fieri. 18. Potentes olim ac nobiles ^ erant 
huius indigenae regni, sed coniuratio clandestina 
servos armavit in facinus. Atque ut barbaris esse 
omne ius in \'iribus adsuevit, vicerunt dominos 
ferocia pares, et ^ numero praeminentes. 19. Qui 
confundente metu consilia, ad \ ictohalos discretos 
longius confugerunt, obsequi defensoribus, (ut in 
malis) optabile, quam servire * mancipiis arbitrati ; 
quae deplorantes, post impetratam veniam recepti 
in fidem, poscebant praesidia libertati, eosque ini- 
quitate rei permotus, inspectante omni exercitu, 
convocatos aUocutus verbis moUioribus imperator, 
nuUi nisi sibi ducibusque Romanis parere praecepit. 
20. Atque ut restitutio libertatis baberet dignitatis 
augmentum, Zizaim regem eisdem praefecit, con- 
spicuae fortunae turn insignibus aptum profecto, 
(ut res docuit) et fidelem, nee discedere quisquam 
post haec gloriose gesta permissus est, antequam 
(ut placuerat) remearent nostri captivi, 21. His 
in barbarico gestis, Bregetionem castra commota 

1 prosperitatis, G ; in ])rosperitatis, V. - ac nobiles, 

Lind. ; potente soli tnagnobiles, V. ^ et, V. ; sed, vulgo. 
* seruire, W- A, Novak ; seruire suis, G ; seruire seruitutem 
(cf. Gell. i. 12, 5), Her.; seruitute, V. 

^ Since Julius Capitolimis, Ant. Phil. xiv. 1, ineutions 
them in connection with the Marcomanni, they probably 
lived in the region of Bohemia. 


XVII., 12, 17-21, A.D. 358 

17. These affairs once set in order, his attention 
was turned to the Sarmatians, -who were deserving 
rather of pitv than of anger ; and to them this 
situation brought an incredible degree of pros- 
perity ; so that the opinion of some might well be 
deemed true, that fortune is either mastered or made 
by the power of a prince 18. The natives of this 
realm were once powerful and noble, but a secret 
conspiracv armed their slaves for rebellion ; and 
since with savages all right is commonlv might, they 
vanquished their masters, being their equals in 
courage and far superior in number. 19. The de- 
feated, since fear prevented deliberation, fled to the 
Victohali,^ who dwelt afar off, thinking that to submit 
to protectors (considering their evil plight) was pre- 
ferable to serving slaves. Bewailing this situation, 
after they had gained pardon and been assured of 
protection they asked that their freedom be guaran- 
teed ; whereupon the emperor, deeply moved by the 
injustice of their condition, in the presence of the 
whole army called them together, and addressing 
them in gracious terms, bade them yield obedience to 
none save himself and the Roman generals. 20. And 
to give their restoration to freedom an increase of 
dignity, he set over them as their king Zizais,^ a man 
even then surely suited for the insignia of a conspicu- 
ous fortune and (as the event showed) loyal ; but no 
one was allowed, after these glorious achievements, 
to leave the place, until (as had been agreed) the 
Roman prisoners should come back. 21. After these 
achievements in the savages' country, the camp 

'" See p. 373, above. 




sunt, ut etiam ibi belli Quadorum reliquias, circa 
illos agitantiuin tractus, lacrimae vel sanguis ex- 
tingueret. Quorum regalis Vitrodorus, Viduari filius 
regis, et Agilimundus subregulus, aliique optimates 
et indices, variis populis praesidentes, viso exercitu 
in gremio regni solique genitalis, sub gressibus 
militum iacuere,^ et adepti veniam iussa fecerunt, 
sobolemque suam obsidatus pignore (ut obsecuturi 
condicionibus impositis) tradiderunt, eductisque 
mucronibus, quos " pro numinibus colunt, iuravere 
se permansuros in fide. 

13. Constantius Aug. Limigantes Sarmatas servos, 
post magnam ipsorum caedem factam, cogit 
sedibus suis emigrare, ac milites suos alloquitur. 

1. His (ut narratum est) secundo finitis eventu, 
ad Limigantes, Sarmatas servos, ocius signa trans- 
ferri utilitas publica flagitabat, quos erat admodum 
nefas, impune multa et nefaria perpetrasse. Nam 
velut obliti priorum, tunc erumpentibus Liberis, 
ipsi quoque tempus aptissimum nancti, limitem 
perrupere Romanum, ad banc solam fraudem domi- 
nis suis hostibusque Concordes. 2. Deliberatum est 

1 militum iacuere, Clark, Novak, c.c. ;, V. 
- quos, added by EW^BG ; V omits. 

^ Apparently Fleckeii Szony in Hungary, not far from 
Koniorn . 

- For this nieanijig of iurlices see Index of Officials, s.v. 

*For their revolt, see 12, 18, above. Limigantes seems 
to be the name that they assumed (Gibbon, ch. xviii.) 


XVIL, 12, 21—13, 1-2, A.D. 358 

was moved to Bregetio,^ to the end that there also 
tears or blood might quench what was left of the 
war of the Quadri, who were astir in those regions. 
Then their prince Vitrodorus, son of King Viduarius, 
and Agihmundus, his vassal, along with other 
nobles and officials ^ governing various nations, 
seeing the army in the heart of their kingdom and 
native sod, prostrated themselves before the march- 
ing soldiers, and having gained pardon, did what 
was ordered, giving their children as hostages by 
way of pledge that thev w ould fulfil the conditions 
imposed upon them. Then, drawing their swords, 
which they venerate as gods, they swore that they 
would remain loyal. 

13. Constantius Augustus compels the Limigantes, 
former slaves of the Sarmatians, after inflicting 
great bloodshed upon them, to leave their abodes ; 
then he addresses his soldiers. 

1. When these events had been brought to a 
successful issue, as has been said, the public welfare 
required that the standards quickly be transported to 
the Limigantes, former slaves of the Sarmatians,^ for 
it was most shameful that they had with impunity 
committed many infamous outrages. For as if for- 
getting the past, when the free Sarmatians rebelled, 
those others also found the opportunity most favour- 
able and broke over the Roman frontier, for this out- 
rage alone making common cause with their masters 
and enemies. 2. Nevertheless, it was determined 

after driving out their former masters ; according to others, 
the Limigantes were a tribe of the Sarmatians. 



tarnen, id quoque leiiius vindicari, quam criminum 
magnitudo poscebat, hactenus ultione porrecta, ut 
ad longinqua translati, amitterent copiam nostra 
vexandi, quos pericula formidare monebat scelerum 
conscientia diutius commissorum. 3. Ideoque in se 
pugnae molem suspicati vertendam, dolos parabant 
et ferrum et preces. Verum aspectu priino exercitus 
tamquam fulminis ictu perculsi, ultimaque cogi- 
tantes, vitam precati, tributum annuum delectumque 
validae iuventutis et servitium spoponderunt, 
abnuere parati si iuberentur aliorsum migrate, ut 
gestibus indicabant et vidtibus, locorum confisi 
praesidio, ubi lares post exactos dominos fixere 
securi. 4. Has enim terras Parthiscus irruens 
obliquatis meatibus, Histro miscetur. Sed dum 
solus licentius fluit, spatia longa et lata sensim prae- 
labens,^ et ea coartans prope exitum in angustias, 
accolas ab impetu Romanorum alveo Danubii 
defendit, a barbaricis vero excursibus suo tutos 
praestat obstaculo, ubi pleraque umidioris soli 
natura, et incrementis fluminum redundantia, 
stagnosa sunt et referta salicibus, ideoque in^•ia- 
nisi perquam gnaris ; et super his insularem an- 

^ ]jraelaben-s-, Novak, praeterluens, Clark, c.c. ; praeter- 
laben.s, V. 

1 The modern Theiss. - The Danube. 


XVIL, 13, 2-4, A.D. 3SR 

after deliberation that this act also should be punished 
less severely than the heinousness of their crimes de- 
manded, and vengeance was confined to transferring 
them to remote places, where they would lose the op- 
portunity of molesting our territories ; yet the con- 
sciousness of their long series of misdeeds warned 
them to fear danger. 3. Accordingly, suspecting that 
the weight of war would be directed against them, 
they got ready wiles and arms and entreaties. But 
at the first sight of our army, as if smitten by a 
stroke of lightning and anticipating the utmost, 
after having pleaded for life they promised a yearly 
tribute, a levy of their able youth, and slavery ; but 
they were ready, as they showed by gestures and 
expression, to refuse if they should be ordered to 
move elsewhere, trusting to the protection of the 
situation in which they had established themselves 
in security, after driving out their masters. 4. For 
the Parthiscus ^ rushing into those lands with 
winding course, mingles with the Hister.'^ But 
while it flows alone and unconfined, it traverses 
a long expanse of broad plain ; near its mouth, 
however, it compresses this into a narrow tract, 
thus protecting those who dwell there from a Roman 
attack by the channel of the Danube, and making 
them safe from the inroads of other savages by the 
opposition of its own stream ; for the greater part 
of the country is of a marshy nature, and since it 
is flooded when the rivers rise, is full of pools and 
overgrown with willows, and therefore impassable 
except for those well acquainted with the region. 
Besides this the larger river, enclosing the winding 
circuit of an island, which almost reaches the mouth 



fractum, aditu Parthisci paene contiguum, amnis 
potior ambiens, terrae consortio separavit. 5. 
Hortante igitur principe, cum genuino fastu ad 
citeriorem venere fluininis ripam, ut exitus docuit, 
non iussa facturi, sed ne viderentur militis prae- 
sentiam formidasse, stabantque contumaciter, ideo- 
que propinquasse monstrantes, ut iubenda repudi- 
arent. 6. Quae imperator accidere posse contem- 
plans, in agmina plurima clam distribute exercitu, 
celeritate volucri morantes ^ intra suorum acies 
clausit. Stansque in aggere celsiore cum paucis, 
et stipatorum praesidio tectus, eos ne ferocirent 
lenius admonebat. 7. Sed fluctuantes ambiguitate 
mentium in diversa rapiebantur, et furori mixta 
versutia, temptabant cum precibus proelium, vici- 
numque sibi in nostros parantes excursum, proiecere ^ 
consulto longius scuta, ut ad ea recuperanda sensim 
progressi, sine uUo fraudis indicio spatia furarentur. 
8. lamque vergente in vesperum die, cum moras 
rumpere lux moneret excedens, erectis vexillis in 
eos igneo miles impetu ferebatur. Qui conferti 
acieque densiore contracta, adversus ipsum prin- 
cipem stantem (ut dictum est) altius, omnem 
impetum contulerunt, eum oculis incessentes et 
vocibus truculentis. 9. Cuius furoris amentiam 

^ morantes, Novak ; pigrantes. Pet. ; mirantes. Her. ; 
migrantes, V. - proiecere, EA ; proiicere, BG ; proi- 

cere, V. 


XVII., 13, 4-9, A.D. 358 

of the Parthiscus, separates it I'rom connection with 
the land. 5. So, at the emperor's request, they 
came with their native arrogance to their bank of 
the river, not, as the event proved, intending to do 
what they were bidden, but in order not to appear to 
have feared the presence of the soldiers ; and there 
they stood defiantly, thus giving the impression 
that they had come there to reject any orders that 
might be given. 6. But the emperor, suspecting 
that this might happen, had secretly divided his 
army into several bands, and with swift speed en- 
closed them, while they were delaying, within the 
lines of his own soldiers ; then standing with a 
few followers on a loftier mound, protected by the 
defence of his guards, in mild terms he admonished 
them not to be unruly. 7. But they, wavering in 
uncertainty of mind, were distracted different ways, 
and with mingled craft and fury they thought 
both of entreaties and of battle ; and aiming at 
getting nearer for an attack upon our men, they 
purposely threw forward their shields a long way, 
so that by advancing step by step to recover them 
they might without any show of treachery gain 
ground by stealth. 

8. When the day was now decUning to evening and 
the waning light warned them to do away with 
delay, the soldiers Ufted up their standards and 
rushed upon them in a fiery attack. Thereupon the 
foe massed themselves together, and, huddled in 
close order, directed all their attack against the 
emperor himself, who, as was said, stood on higher 
ground, charging upon him with fierce looks and 
savage cries. 9. The furious madness of this onset 




exercitus ira ferre non potuit, eosque imperatori 
(ut dictum est) acriter imminentes, desinente in 
angustum fronte (quein habitum caput porci sim- 
plicitas militaris appellat,) impetu disiecit ardenti, 
et dextra pedites catervas peditum obtruncabant, 
equites laeva equitum se turmis agilibus infuderunt. 
10. Cohors praetoria ex adverse Augustum cautius 
stipans, resisteiitium pectora moxque terga fugien- 
tium incidebat, et cadentes insuperabili contumacia 
barbari non tarn mortem ^ dolere, quam nostrorum 
laetitiam, horrendo stridore monstrabant, et iacentes 
absque mortuis plurimi, succisis poplitibus ideoque 
adempto fugiendi subsidio, alii dexteris amputatis, 
non nulli ferro quidem intacti, sed superruentium 
collisi ponderibus, cruciatus alto silentio perfere- 
bant. 11. Nee eorum quisquam inter diversa sup- 
plicia veniam petit aut ferrum proiecit, aut exoravit 
celerem mortem, sed arma iugiter retinentes, licet 
afHicti, minus criminis aestimabant, alienis \'iribus 
potius quam conscientiae suae iudicio vinci ; mussan- 
tesque audiebantur interdum, fortunae non meriti 
fuisse quod evenit. Ita in semihorae curriculo 
discrimine proeliorum emenso, tot procubuere 
subito barbari, ut pugnam fuisse sola victoria 

1 suain mortem, C. F. W. Miiller ; mortem,, V. 

1 Vegetius, iii. 19, says that the soldiers gave the name 
caput porcinurti to the cuneus, a V-shaped formation, with 
the apex towards the enemy. It was the opposite of the 
forceps, or forf ex (xvi. 11, 3). 


XVII., 13, 9-11, A.D. 358 

so angered our army that it could not brook it, and 
as the savages hotly menaced the emperor (as was 
said), they took the form of a wedge (an order which 
the soldier's naive parlance calls " the pig's head,") ^ 
and scattered them with a hot charge ; then on the 
right our infantry slaughtered the bands of their in- 
fantrv, while on the left our cavalry poured into the 
nimble squadrons of their cavalry. 10. The prae- 
torian cohort, which stood before Augustus and was 
carefully guarding him, fell upon the breasts of the re- 
sisting foe, and then upon their backs as they took 
flight. And the savages with invincible stubbornness 
showed as they fell, by their awful gnashing, that they 
did not so much resent death as the triumph of our 
soldiers ; and besides the dead many lay about 
hamstrung and thus deprived of the means of flight, 
others had their right hands cut off", some were 
untouched by any steel but crushed by the weight 
of those who rushed over them ; but all bore their 
anguish in deep silence. 11. And amid their varied 
torments not a single man asked for pardon or threw 
down his weapon, or even prayed for a speedy death, 
but they tightly grasped their weapons, although de- 
feated, and thought it less shameful to be overcome 
by an enemy's strength than by the judgement of 
their own conscience,^ while sometimes they were 
heard to mutter that they had not deserved the 
fortune that befell them. Thus in the course of half 
an hour the decision of this battle was reached, and 
so many savages met a sudden death that the victory 
alone showed that there had been a fight. 

- That is, to be overcome by a superior force rather than 
yield voluntarily. 



12. Vix dum populis hostilibus stratis, gregatiin 
peremptorum necessitudines ducebantur, humilibiis 
extractae tuguriis, aetatis sexusque promiscui, et 
fastu vitae prioris abolito, ad infimitatein obse- 
quiorum venere servilium, et exiguo temporis inter- 
vallo decurso, caesorum aggeres et captivorum 
agmina cernebantur. 13. Incitante itaque fervore 
certaminum, fructuque vincendi, consurrectum est 
in perniciem eorum qui deseruerant ^ proelia, vel 
in tuguriis latitantes occultabantur. Hos, cum ad 
loca venisset avidus barbarici sanguinis miles, dis- 
iectis culmis levibus obtruncabant, nee quemquam 
casa, vel trabibus compacta firmissimis, periculo 
mortis extraxit. 14. Denique cum inflammarentur 
omnia nullusque latere iam posset, cunctis vitae 
praesidiis circumcisis, aut obstinate igni peribat 
absumptus, aut incendium vitans, egressusque uno 
supplicio declinato, ferro sternebatur hostili. 15. 
Fugientes tamen aliqui tela, incendiorumque magni- 
tudinem, amnis vicini se conimisere gurgitibus, 
peritia nandi ripas ulteriores occupare posse sper- 
antes, quorum plerique summersi necati sunt, alii 
iacuHs periere confixi, adeo ut abunde cruore diffuso, 
meatus fluminis spumaret immensi ; ita per elemen- 
tum utrumque, Sarmatas vincentium ira virtusque 

16. Placuerat igitur post hunc rerum ordinem 

^ deseruerant, suggested by Clark, c.c. ; deseruere, V. 

^ With which the houses were thatched. 
2Cf. xvi. 12, 57. , 


XVII., 13, 12-16, A.D. 358 

12. Hardly yet had the hordes of the enemy been 
laid low, when the kinsfolk of the slain, dragged 
from their humble cots, were led forth in droves 
without regard to age or sex, and abandoning the 
haughtiness of their former life, were reduced to 
the abjectness of servile submission ; and only a 
brief space of time had elapsed, when heaps of slain 
and throngs of captives were to be seen. 13. Then, 
excited by the heat of battle and the fruits of 
victory, our soldiers roused themselves to destroy 
those who had deserted the battle or were lurking in 
concealment in their huts. And these, when the 
soldiers had come to the spot thirsting for the blood 
of the savages, they butchered after tearing to pieces 
the light straw ; ^ and no house, even though built 
with the stoutest of timbers, saved a single one from 
the danger of death. 14. Finally, when everything 
was in flames and none could longer hide, since 
every means of saving their lives was cut off", they 
either fell victims to fire in their obstinacy, or, fleeing 
the flames and coming out to avoid one torture, 
fell by the enemy's steel. 15. Yet some "escaped 
the weapons and the fires, great as they were, and 
plunged into the depths of the neighbouring river, 
hoping through skill in swimming to be able to reach 
the opposite banks ; of these the most lost their 
lives by drowning, others were pierced by darts and 
perished, in such numbers that the whole course of 
the immense river foamed with the blood that flowed 
everywhere in abundance."- Thus with the aid of two 
elements the wrath and valour of the victors anni- 
hilated the Sarmatians. 

16. Then it was decided, after this course of events, 



cunctis adimi spem omnem vitaeque solacium. Et 
post lares incensos, raptasque familias, navigia 
iiissa sunt coUigi, ad indagandos eos quos a nostro- 
rum acie ulterior discreverat ripa. 17. Statimque 
ne alacritas intepesceret pugnatorum, impositi 
lintribus, per abditaducti, velites expediti occuparunt 
latibula Sarmatarum, quos repentinus fefellit as- 
pectus, gentiles lembos et nota remigia conspicantes. 
18. Ubi vero procul micantibus telis, quod vere- 
bantur, propinquare senserunt, ad suffugia locorum 
palustrium se ^ contulerunt, eosque secutus infestius 
miles, caesis plurimis ibi victoriam repperit, ubi 
nee caute posse consistere, nee audere aliquid crede- 
batur. 19. Post absumptos paene difFusosque Ami- 
censes, petiti sunt sine mora Picenses, ita ex regioni- 
bus appellati conterminis ; quos tutiores fecere 
sociorum aerumnae, rumorum assiduitate com- 
pertae. Ad quos opprimendos, (erat enim arduum 
sequi per diversa conspersos, imprudentia viarum 
arcente,) Taifalorum auxiliura et Liberorum adae- 
que Sarmatarum assumptum est. 20. Cumque 
auxiliorum agmina locorum ratio separaret, tractus 
contiguos Moesiae sibi miles elegit, Taifali proxima 

1 se, added by NG (deleted by Lofstedt) ; V omits. 

^ A Sarmatian people ; T.L.L. 

- Put by Ptolemy in Upper Moesia. 

3 A tribe of the West Goths ; cf. xxxi. 3, 7. 


XVII., 13, 16-20, A.D. 358 

that every hope and comfort of Hfe should be taken 
from all, and after their homes had been burned 
and their families carried off, orders were given that 
boats should be brought together, for the purpose 
of hunting down those whom the opposite bank 
had kept aloof from our army. 17. And at once, 
for fear that the ardour of the warriors might cool, 
light-armed troops were put into skiffs, and taking 
the course which offered the greatest secrecy, came 
upon the lurking-places of the Sarmatians ; and the 
enemy were deceived as they suddenly came in 
sight, seeing their native boats and the manner of 
rowing of their own country. 18. But when from 
the glittering of the weapons afar off they perceived 
that what they feared was approaching, they took 
refuge in marshy places ; but the soldiers, following 
them still more mercilessly, slew great numbers of 
them, and gained a victory in a place seemed 
impossible to keep a firm footing or venture upon 
any action. 19. After the Amicenses ^ had been 
scattered and all but wholly destroyed, the army 
immediately attacked the Picenses,^ so named from 
the adjoining regions, who had been put on their 
guard by the disasters to their allies, which were 
known from persistent rumours. To subdue these 
(for it was hard to pursue them, since they were 
scattered in divers places, and unfamiliarity with 
the roads was a hindrance) they resorted to the help 
of the Taifuli ^ and likewise of the free Sarmatians. 
20. And as consideration of the terrain made it 
desirable to separate the troops of the allies, our 
soldiers chose the tracts near Moesia, the Taifuli 
undertook those next to their own homes, and the 



suis sedibus obtinebant, Liberi terras occupavcrant 
e rcgione sibi oppositas. 

21. Quae ^ perpessi ^ Limigantes territique subac- 
torum exemplis et subitum ^ prostratorum, diu 
haesitabant ambiguis mentibus, utrum oppeterent 
an rogarent, cum utriusque rei suppeterent docu- 
menta non levia. Vicit tamen ad ultimum coetu 
seniorum urgente, dedendi sese * consilium, Variae- 
que palmae victoriarum accessit eorum quoque 
supplicatio, qui armis libertatem invaserant, et 
reliqui eorum ^ cum precibus, ut superatos et im- 
belles dominos ^spernati, fortioribus visis inclinavere 

22. Accepta itaque publica fide, deserto montium 
propugnaculo, ad castra Romana convolavit eorum 
pars maior, diffusa per spatia ampla camporum, 
cum parentibus et natis atque coniugibus, opumque 
vilitate, quam eis celeritatis ratio furari permisit. 
23. Et qui animas amittere potius, quam cogi solum 
vertere putabantur, dum licentem amentiam Hber- 
tatem existimarent, parere imperiis, et sedes alias 
suscipere sunt assensi, tranquillas et fidas, ut nee 
bellis vexari, nee mutari seditionibus possint. Eis- 
demque ex sententia (ut credebatur,) acceptis, 

1 quae, restored and lac. indicated by Clark. ^ per- 
pessi, added by Pet. ; contemplantes, by Giinther. 
^ subitum,'Pet. ; sitbacie,T>-W'^ ; sribacrum,V. * sese. 
Her. CO.; se, V. ^reliqui eorum, G; re iniquiore. 
Her. ; reliqui ore, V. 


XVII., 13, 20-23, A.D. 358 

free Sarmatians occupied the lands opposite their 

21. The Limigantes ^ having now suflFered this fate, 
and terrified by the example of those who had been 
conquered and suddenly slain, hesitated long with 
wavering minds whether to resist or plead, since 
for either course they had lessons of no slight 
weight ; finally, however, the urgency of an assembly 
of the older men prevailed, and the resolve to sur- 
render. Thus to the laurels of various victories 
there was added also the submission of those who 
had usurped freedom by arms ; and such of them 
as survived bowed their necks with prayers before 
their former masters, whom they had despised as 
vanquished and weak, but now saw to be the 

22. And so, having received a safe-conduct, the 
greater number of them forsook the defence of the 
mountains and hastened to the Roman camp, 
pouring forth over the broad and spacious plains 
with their parents, their children and wives, and 
as many of their poor possessions as haste allowed 
them to carry off by stealth. 23. And those who (as 
it was supposed) would rather lose their lives than 
be compelled to change their country, since they 
believed mad licence to be freedom, now consented 
to obey orders and take other qtiiet and safe abodes, 
where they could neither be harried by wars nor 
affected by rebeUions. And these men, being taken 
under protection according to their own wish (as 
was believed) remained quiet for a short time ; later, 
through their inborn savagery they were aroused 

^ See note on 13, 1, above. 



quievere paulisper, post feritate nativa in exitiale 
scelus erecti, ut congruo docebitur textu. 

24. Hoc rerum prospero currente successu, tutela 
Illyrico competens gemina est ratione firmata, 
cuius negotii duplicem magnitudinem imperator 
aggressus utramque perfecit. Infidis attritis stratis- 
que/ exsules populos (licet mobilitate suppares ^) 
acturos tanien paulo verecundius, tandem reductos 
in avitis sedibus coUocavit. Eisdemque ad gratiae 
cumulum, non ignobilem quempiam regem, sed 
quern ipsi antea sibi praefecere regalem, imposuit, 
bonis animi corporisque praestantem. 25. Tali 
textu recte factorum, Constantius iam metuente 
sublimior, militarique consensu, secundo Sarmaticus 
appellatus, ex vocabulo subactorum, iamque dis- 
cessurus, convocatis cohortibus, et centuriis, et 
manipulis omnibus, tribunali ^ insistens, signisque 
ambitus et aquilis, et agmine multiplicium potesta- 
tum, his exercitum allocutus est, ore omnium 
favorabilis, (ut solebat). 

26. " Hortatur recordatio rerum gloriose gesta- 
rum, omni iucunditate viris fortibus gratior, ea * 
ad modum verecundiae replicare, quae divinitus 
delata sorte vincendi, et ante proelia et in ipso cor- 
reximus fervore pugnarum, Romanae rei fidissimi 
defensores. Quid enim tam pulchrum tamque 

^attritis stratisque, scripsi fcf. 28 below,), in lac. in- 
dicated by Haupt. ; infidis populus without lac, V. 
^suppares, Haupt. : supra*res, V. ^ tribunali, Novak ; tribu- 
nal, V. * gratior, EAG ; gratior ea, Novak ; gratiore ad, V. 

1 See xix. 11. 

^ That is, Zizais, see 13, 9, above. 


XVII., 13, 23-26, A.D. 358 

to an outrage which brought them destruction, as 
will be shown in the proper place. ^ 

24. Through this successful sequel of events 
adequate protection was provided for Illyricum in 
a twofold manner ; and the emperor having in hand 
the greatness of this task fulfilled it in both ways. 
The unfaithful were laid low and trodden under 
foot, but exiled peoples (although equally unstable) 
who yet seemed likely to act with somewhat more 
respect, were at length recalled and settled in their 
ancestral homes. And as a crowning favour, he set 
over them, not some low-born king, but one whom 
they themselves had previously chosen as their ruler, 
a man eminent for his mental and physical gifts. ^ 
25. After such a series of successes Constantius, now 
raised above any fear, by the unanimous voice of 
the soldiers was hailed a second time as Sarmaticus, 
after the name of the conquered people ; and now, 
on the point of departure, he called together all the 
cohorts, centuries, and maniples, and standing on a 
tribunal, surrounded by standards, eagles and a 
throng of many officers of high rank, he addressed 
the army with these words, being greeted (as usual) 
with the acclaim of all : 

26. " The recollection of our glorious deeds, more 
grateful to brave men than any pleasure, moves me 
to rehearse to you, with due modesty, what abuses 
we most faithful defenders of the Roman state 
have corrected by the fortune of victory vouch- 
safed us by Providence both before our battles and 
in the very heat of combat. For what is so noble, 
or so justly worthy to be commended to the memory 
of posterity, as that the soldier should rejoice in his 



posteritatis memoriae iusta ratione mandaudum, 
quam iit miles strenue factis, ductor prudenter con- 
sultis exultet ? 27. Persultabat Illyricum furor 
hostilis, absentiam nostram inanitate tumenti 
despiciens, dum Italos tucremur et Gallos, variisque 
discursibus vastabat extima limitum, nunc cavatis 
roboribus, abquotiens peragrans pedibus flumina, 
non congressibus nee armis fretus aut viribus, sed 
latrociniis assuetus occultis, astu et ludificandi 
varietate, iam inde ab instituta gente nostris quoque 
maioribus formidatus ; quae longius disparati, qua ^ 
ferri poterant tulimus, saeviores ^ iacturas efficacia 
ducum vitari ^ posse sperantes. 28. Ubi vero per 
Hcentiam scandens in maius, ad funestas provin- 
ciarum clades erepsit et crebras, communitis aditibus 
Raeticis, tutelaque pervigili Galliarum securitate 
fundata, terrore nullo relicto post terga, venimus 
in Pannonias, si placuerit * numini sempiterno, 
labentia firmaturi ; cunctisque paratis (ut nostis,) 
vere adulto egressi, arripuimus negotiorum maximas 
moles : primum ne struendo textis compagibus 
ponti, telorum officeret multitude, quo opera levi 
perfecto, visis terris hostilibus et calcatis, obstinatis 
ad mortem animis conatos resistere Sarmatas, 
absque nostrorum dispendio stravimus, parique 
petulantia ruentes in agmina nobilium legionum, 
Quados Sarmatis adiumenta ferentes attrivimus. 

1 qua, Lind. ; quae, V. " saevioi-es, Fletcher, cf . 

Tac, Ann. ii. 26, 3 ; leviores, V. ^ uitari, Cornelissen ; 

uetari, V. * si placuerit, Bentley ; si placebit, sug- 

gested by Clark ; placuit, V. 

1 See xiv. 2, 10, end. 

XVII., 13, 26-28, A.D. 358 

valiant deeds, and the leader in the sagacity of his 
plans. 27. Our enemies in their madness were 
overrunning all Illyricum, with arrogant folly 
despising us in our absence, while we were defending 
Italy and Gaul, and in successive raids were laying 
waste our farthest frontiers, crossing the rivers 
now in canoes ^ and sometimes on foot ; they did 
not trust to engagements nor to arms and strength, 
but, as is their custom, to lurking brigandage, with 
the craft and various methods of deceit dreaded 
also by our forefathers from our very first knowledge 
of the race. These outrages we, being far away, 
endured as well as they could be borne, hoping that 
any more serious losses could be obviated by the 
efficiency of our generals. 28. But when, encour- 
aged by impunity, they mounted higher and burst 
forth in destructive and repeated attacks upon our 
provinces, after securing the approaches to Raetia 
and by vigilant guard ensuring the safety of Gaul, 
leaving no cause of fear behind us, we came into 
Pannonia, intending, if it should please eternal God, 
to strengthen whatever was tottering. And sallying 
forth when all was ready (as you know) and spring 
was well advanced, we took in hand a mighty 
burden of tasks : first, to build a close-jointed 
bridge, without being overwhelmed by a shower of 
missiles, a work which was easily completed ; and 
when we had seen and set foot upon the enemy's 
territories, without any loss of our men we laid low 
the Sarmatians who, with spirits regardless of death 
attempted to resist us. And when with like im- 
pudence the Quadri bore aid to the Sarmatians 
and rushed upon the ranks of our noble legions, we 



Qui post aerumnosa dispendia, inter discursus et 
repugnandi minaces anhelitus, quid nostra valeat 
virtus experti, manus ad dimicandum aptatas, 
armorum abiecto munimine, pone terga vinxerunt, 
restareque solam salutem conteinplantes in precibus, 
affusi sunt vestigiis Augusti dementis, cuius 
proelia saepe compererant exitus habuisse felices. 
29. His sequestratis Limigantes quoque fortitudine 
superavimus pari, interfectisque pluribus, alios 
periculi declinatio adegit suflugia petere latebrarum 
palustrium. 30. Hisque secundo finitis eventu, 
lenitatis tempus aderat tempestivae. Limigantes 
ad loca migrare compulimus longe discreta, ne in 
perniciem nostrorum se commovere possent ulterius 
et pepercimus plurimis, et Zizaim praefecimus 
Liberis, dicatum nobis futurum et fidum, plus 
aestimantes creare quam auferre barbaris regem, 
hoc decore augente sollemnitatem, quod eisdem 
quoque rector tributus antehac electus est et acceptus. 
3L Quadruplex igitur praemium, quod unus pro- 
cinctus absolvit, nos quaesi\T[mus et res publica, 
primo ultione parta de grassatoribus noxiis, deinde 
quod vobis abunde sufficient ex hostibus capta.^ 
His enim virtutem oportet esse contentam, quae 
sudore quaesi\dt et dexteris. 32. Nobis amplae 
facilitates opumque sunt magni thesauri, si ^ integra 

^ capta, Novak ; captivis, V. - si, added bj' Bentley, 

Haupt. ; V omits. 


XVIL, 13, 28-32, a.d. 358 

trod them under foot. The latter, after grievous 
losses, having learned amid their raids and menacing 
efforts at resistance what our valour could effect, 
cast aside the protection of arms and offered hands 
that had been equipped for battle to be bound 
behind their backs ; and seeing that their only 
safety lay in entreaties, they prostrated themselves 
at the feet of a merciful Augustus, whose battles 
they had often learned to have come to a happy issue. 
29. These barely disposed of, we vanquished the Limi- 
gantes as well with equal valour, and after many of 
them had been slain, avoidance of danger forced 
the rest to seek the protection of their lairs in the 
marshes. 30. When these enterprises were brought 
to a successful issue, the time for seasonable mild- 
ness was at hand. The Limigantes we forced to 
move to remote places, so that they could make no 
further attempts to destroy our subjects, and very 
many of them we spared. And over the free Sar- 
matians we set Zizais, knowing that he would be 
devoted and loyal to us, and thinJdng it better to 
appoint a king for the savages than to take one 
from them ; and it added to the happiness of the 
occasion, that a ruler was assigned them whom they 
had previously chosen and accepted. 31. Hence 
a fourfold prize, the fruit of a single campaign, was 
won by us and by our country : first, by taking 
vengeance on wicked robbers ; then, in that you 
will have abundant booty taken from the enemy ; 
for valour ought to be content with what it has 
won by toil and a strong arm. 32. We ourselves 
have ample wealth and great store of riches, if our 
labours and courage have preserved safe and sound 



omnium patrimonia iiostri labores et fortitude 
servarint. Hoc eiiiin boui principis menti, hoc 
successibus congruit prosperis. 33. Postremo ego 
quoque hostilis vocabuli spoHuni prae me fero, 
secundo Sarmatici cognomentum, quod vos unum 
idemque sentientes, mihi (ne sit arrogans dicere,) 
merito tribuistis." 

Post hunc dicendi finem contio omnis alacrior 
solito, aucta spe potiorum et lucris, vocibus festis in 
laudes imperatoris adsurgens, deumque ex usu 
testata non posse Constantium vinci, tentoria 
repetit laeta. Et reductus imperator ad regiam, 
otioque bidui recreatus, Sirmium cum pompa trium- 
phali regressus est, et militares numeri destinatas 
remearunt ad ^ sedes. 

14. RoTtiani legati de pace, re infecta revertuntur ex 
Per side. Sapor e Armeniam et Mesopotamiam 

14. 1. Hisce eisdem diebus. Prosper et Spectatus 
atque Eustathius, legati ad Persas (ut supra docui- 
mus) missi, Ctesiphonta reversum regem adiere, 
litteras perferentes '^ imperatoris et muuera, posce- 
bantque rebus integris pacem, et mandatorum 

1 ad, added by Clark, c.c. ; before destitiatas, C. F. W. 
Miiller ; V omits. - jyerferentes, Kellerbauer ; ]»-ae- 

ferentes, V. 


XVIL, 13, 32-33—14, 1, a.d. 358 

the patrimonies of all ; for this it is that beseems 
the miud of a good prince, this accords with pros- 
perous successes. 33. Lastly, I also display the 
spoil of an enemy's name, surnamed as I am Sar- 
maticus for the second time, a title not undeserved 
(without arrogance be it said), which you have with 
one accord bestowed upon me." 

After this speech was thus ended, the entire as- 
sembly with more enthusiasm than common, since 
the hope of betterment and gains had been increased, 
broke out into festal cries in praise of the emperor, 
and in customary fashion calling God to witness 
that Constantius was in\'incible, went back to their 
tents rejoicing. And when the emperor had been 
escorted to his palace and refreshed by two days' 
rest, he returned in triumphal pomp to Sirmium, and 
the companies of soldiers went back to the quarters 
assigned them. 

14. The Roman envoys about peace return from Persia 
without result, since Sapor was bent on re- 
covering Armenia and Mesopotamia. 

1. On these very same days Prosper, Spectatus, 
and Eustathius, who had been sent as envoys to 
the Persians (as we have shown above), ^ approached 
the king on his return to Ctesiphon,^ bearing letters 
and gifts from the emperor, and demanded peace 
with no change in the present status. Mindful of 
the emperor's instructions, they sacrificed no whit 

^ xvii. 5, 15. 

* A city of Assyria, on the Tigris, the capital nf ihe 
Parthian (Persian) liing. 


VO"L. I. CC 


principis ^ memores, nusquam ab utilitate Ruinanac 
rei maiestateque discedebant, aniicitiae foedus 
sub hac lege firmari debere adseverantes, ne super 
turbando Armeniae vel Mesopotamiae statu quic- 
quam moveretur. 2. Diu igitur ibi morati, cum 
obstinatissimum regem, nisi harum regionum dom- 
inio sibi adiudicato, obdurescentem ad suscipiendam 
cernerent pacem, negotio redierunt infecto. 3. 
Post quod id ipsum condicionum robore pari im- 
petraturi, Lucillianus missus est comes, et Procopius 
tunc notarius, qui postea nodo quodam violentae 
necessitatis adstrictus, ad res consurrexerat ^ novas. 


1. lulianus Caesar Gallorum commodis consulit. et 
iibique ab omnibus ius servandum curat. 

1. Haec per orbis varias partes uno eodemque 
anno sunt gesta. At in Galliis cum in meliore statu 
res essent, et Eusebium atque Hypatium fratres 
sublimarent vocabula consulum, lulianus contextis 
successibus clarus, apud Parisios hibernans,^ seques- 
tratis interim sollicitudinibus bellicis, haut minore 
cura provinciarum fortunis multa conducentia dis- 
ponebat, dUigenter observans nequem tributorum 
sarcina praegravaret, neve potentia praesumeret 

^ principis, added by Clark, e.c. ^ consurrexerat, 

Novak ; consurrexit, HAG ; consurrexerit, V. ^ apud 

Parisios hibernans, Clark : opiid hihernans (ns from a, 
V), V. 

1 See xxvi. 5 and 6. 

XVIL, 14, 1-3— XVIII., 1, ], A.D. 359 

of llic advantage and majesty of Rome, insistiug 
that a treaty of friendship ought to be established 
with the condition that no move should be made to 
disturb the position of Armenia or Mesopotamia. 

2. Having therefore tarried there for a long time, 
since they saw that the king was most obstinately 
hardened against accepting peace, unless the 
dominion over those regions should be made over 
to him, they returned without fulfilling their mission. 

3. Afterwards Count Lxicilianus was despatched, to- 
gether with Procopius, at that time state secretary, 
to accomphsh the self-same thing with like insistence 
on the conditions ; the latter afterwards, bound as 
it were by a knot of stern necessity, rose in re- 


1. Julianus Caesar looks out for the welfare of Gaul, 
and sees to it that justice be observed everywhere 
by every one. 

1. Such are the events of one and the same year 
in various parts of the world. But in Gaul, no^^• 
that affairs were in a better condition and the 
brothers Eusebius and Hypatius had been honoured 
with the high title of consul, Julian, famed for his 
series of successes and in winter quarters at Paris, 
laid aside for a time the cares of war and with no 
I less regard made many arrangements leading to 
the well-being of the provinces, diligently providing 
that no one should be overloaded with a burden of 
tribute ; that the powerful should not grasp the 



aliena, aut hi versarentur in medio, quorum patri- 
nionia publicae clades augebant, vel iudicum quis- 
quam ab aequitate deviaret impune. 2. Idque ea re 
levi labore correxit, quod ipse iurgia dirimens, uhi 
causarum cogebat magnitudo vel personarum, erat 
indeclinabilis iustorum iniustorumque distinctor. 
3. Et licet multa sint eius laudanda in huius modi 
controversiis, unum tamen sufficiet poni, ad cuius 
similitudinem acta vel dicta sunt. 4. Numerium 
Narbonensis paulo ante rectorem, accusatum ut 
furem, inusitato censorio \Tigore, pro tribunali 
palam admissis volentibus audiebat, qui cum in- 
fitiatione defenderet obiecta, nee posset in quoquam 
confutari, Delphidius orator acerrimus, vehementer 
eum impugnans, documentorum inopia percitus, 
exclamavit : " Ecquis, florentissime Caesar, nocens 
esse potent usquam, si negare sufficiet ? " Contra 
quem lulianus prudenter motus ex tempore, 
" Ecquis " ait " innocens esse poterit, si accusasse 
sufficiet ? *' Et haec quidem et huius modi raulta 

2. lulianus C. castellorum ad Rhennni quae receperat 
moenia reparat ; Rhenum transit, et hostili 
Alamanniae parte vastata, V Alamannorum 
reges ad pacem petendam et captivos reddendos 

1. Egressurus autem ad procinctum urgentem, 
cum Alamannorum pagos aliquos esse reputaret 

* For this meaning of index see Index of Officials, s.v, 

XVIIL, 1, 1-4—2, 1, A.D. 359 

property of others, or those hold positions of 
authority whose private estates were being increased 
by public disasters ; and that no official ^ should 
with impunity swerve from equity. 2. And this 
last abuse he reformed with slight difficulty, for the 
reason that he settled controversies himself when- 
ever the importance of the cases or of the persons 
required, and distinguished inflexibly between right 
and wrong. 3. And although there are many 
praiseworthy instances of his conduct in such cases, 
yet it will suffice to cite one, as a sample of his acts 
and words. 4. Numerius, shortly before governor 
of GaUia Narbonensis, was accused of embezzlement, 
and Julian examined him with unusual judicial 
strictness before his tribunal pubhcly, admitting 
all who wished to attend. And when the accused 
defended himself by denying the charge, and could 
not be confuted on any point, Delphidius, a very 
vigorous speaker, assailing him violently and, 
exasperated by the lack of proofs, cried : " Can 
anyone, most mighty Caesar, ever be found guilty, if 
it be enough to deny the charge ? " And Julian at 
once made this wise reply : " Can anyone be proved 
innocent, if it be enough to have accused him ? " 
And this was one of many instances of his humanity. 

2. Julianus Caesar repairs the walls of the fortresses 
on the Rhine ivhich he had recovered. He 
crosses the Rhine, and after laying ivaste the 
hostile part of Alamannia compels five of their 
kings to sue for peace and return their prisoners. 

1. But being on the point of entering upon an 
urgent campaign, since he considered that some 



hostiles, et ausuros immania, ni ipsi quoque ad 
ceterorum sternerentur exempla, haorebat anxius 
qua vi qua celeritate, cum primum ratio copiam 
tribuisset, rumore praecurso, terras eorum invaderet 
repentinus. 2. Seditque tandem multa et varia 
cogitanti, id temptare quod utile probavit eventus. 
Hariobaudem vacantem tribunum, fidci fortitudiiiis- 
que notae, nullo conscio legationis specie ad Hor- 
tarium miserat regem iam pacatum, ut exinde 
facile ad collimitia progressus eorum, in quos erant 
arma protinus commovenda, scitari possit quid moli- 
rentur, sermonis barbarici perquam gnarus. 3. Quo 
fidenter ad baec patranda digresso, ipse anni 
tempore opportune, ad expeditionem undique milite 
convocato, profectus, id inter potissima mature 
duxit impleudum, ut ante proeliorum fervorem, 
civitates multo ante excisas ac vacuas ^ introiret, 
receptasque communiret, horrea quin etiam ex- 
strueret pro incensis, ubi condi possit annona, a 
Britanniis sueta transferri. 4. Et utrumque perfec- 
tum est spe omnium citius. Nam et horrea veloci 
opera surrexerunt, alimentorumque in eisdem satias 
condita, et civitates occupatae sunt septem : Castra 
Herculis Quadriburgium Tricensima et Novesium, 

^ excisas ac vacuas, Her. ; excisa quas, V. 

^ Apparently a fortress on the Rhine. 

* Schenkenschanz. 

" Kellen. also called Colonia Traiani, xvii. 1, 11. 

* Nuj's. ^ Bonn. 


XVIII., 2, 1-4, A.D. 359 

districts of the Alaraanni were hostile and would 
venture on outrages unless they also were over- 
thrown after the example of the rest, he was anxious 
and doubtful with what force and with what speed 
(as soon as prudence gave an opportunity) he might 
anticipate the news of his coming and invade their 
territories unexpected. 2. And after thinking over 
many varied plans he at last decided to try the one 
which the outcome proved to be expedient. With- 
out anyone's knowledge he had sent Hariobaudes, 
an unattached tribune of tried fidelity and courage, 
ostensibly as an envoy to Hortarius, a king already 
subdued, with the idea that he could easily go on 
from there to the frontiers of those against whom 
war was presently to be made, and find out what 
they were plotting ; for he was thoroughly acquainted 
\\-ith the language of the savages. 3. When the 
tribune had fearlessly set out to execute these 
orders, Julian, since the season of the year was 
favourable, called together his soldiers from all 
quarters for a campaign, and set forth ; and he 
thought that above all things he ought betimes to 
attend to this, namely, before the heat of battle to 
enter the cities long since destroyed and abandoned, 
regain arid fortify them, and even build granaries in 
place of those that had been burned, in which he 
could store the grain which was regularly brought 
over from Britain ; and both things were accom- 
plished sooner than anyone expected. 4. For not 
only did the granaries quickly rise, but a sufficiency 
of food was stored in them ; and the cities were^ 
seized, to the number of seven : Castra Herculis,^ 
Quadriburgium,^ Tricensima ^ and Novesium,* Bonna,* 



Bonna Antennacum et Vingo, ubi laeto quodain 
eveutu, etiam Florentius praefectus apparuit subito, 
partem militum ducens, et commeatuum perferens 
copiam, sufficientem usibus longis. 

5. Post haec impetrata, restabat adigente neces- 
sitatum articulo, receptarum urbium moenia re- 
parari, nullo etiam turn interturbante ; idque ^ 
Claris indiciis apparet, ea tempestate utilitati pub- 
licae metu barbaros oboedisse, rectoris amore Roma- 
nes. 6. Reges ex pacto superioris anni aedificiis 
habilia multa suis misere carpentis, et auxiliarii 
milites semper munia spernentes huius modi, ad 
obsequendi seduHtatem luliani blanditiis deflexi, 
quinquagenarias longioresque materias vexere cer- 
vicibus ingravate, et fabricandi ministeriis opem 
maximam contulerunt. 

7. Quae dura diligenti maturantur eflectu, Hario- 
baudes expioratis omnibus rediit, docuitque com- 
perta. Post cuius adventum incitatis viribus omnes 
venere Mogontiacum, ubi Florentio et Lupicino 
(Severi successore) destinate certantibus, per pon- 
tem illic constitutum trausiri debere, renitebatur 
firmissime Caesar, asserens pacatorum terras non 
debere calcari, ne (ut saepe contigit) per incivilitatem ^ 
militis ^ occurrentia vastitantis, abrupte foedera 

8. Alamanni tamcn omnes quos petebat exercitus, 
confine periculum cogitantes, Suomarium regem 

^ idque, G ; et que, V ; consociato labore cunctorum mox est 
perfectuni ; undo, Novak between idque and claris. * indiui- 
tatem, V (emended by a later hand). ^ militis, G ; militio, V. 

' Andernach. * Bingen. ' See § 9, below. 


XVIII., 2, 4-8, A.D. 359 

Antennacum ^ and Vingo,'^ where by a happy stroke 
of fortune the prefect Florentius also appeared un- 
expectedly, leading a part of the forces and bringing 
a store of provisions sufficient to last a long time. 

5. After this had been accomphshed, one pressing 
necessity remained, namely, to repair the walls of 
the recovered cities, since even then no one hindered ; 
and it is evident from clear indications that the 
savages through fear, and the Romans through love 
for their commander, at that time served the 
public welfare. 6. The kings, according to the com- 
pact of the preceding year, sent in their wagons an 
abundance of building material, and the auxiliary 
soldiers, who always disdain such tasks, induced 
to diligent compUance by Julian's fair words, willingly 
carried on their shoulders timbers fifty feet or more 
in length, and in the work of building rendered the 
greatest service. 

7. While these works were being pushed on with 
diligence aud success, Hariobaudes returned after ex- 
amining into everything, and reported what he had 
learned. After his arrival all came at top speed to 
Mayence ; and there, when Florentius and Lupicinus 
(successor to Severus) strongly insisted that they ought 
to build a bridge at that place and cross the river ,^ 
Caesar stoutly opposed, declaring that they ought not 
to set foot in the lands of those who had submitted, 
for fear that (as often happens) through the rudeness 
of the soldiers, who destroy everything in their way, 
the treaties might be rudely broken. 

8. However, the Alamanni as a whole, against 
whom our army was marching, thinking danger 
to be close at hand, with threats warned king 



amicum nobis ex pactione praeterita monuerunt 
minaciter, ut a transitu Romanos arceret. Eius 
enim pagi Rheni ripis ulterioribus adhaerebant. 
Quo tcstante resistere solum non posse, in unum 
coacta barbara multitudo venit prope Mogontiacum, 
prohibitura viribus magnis exercitum, ne transmit- 
teret flumen. 9. Gemina itaque ratione visum est 
habile quod suaserat Caesar, ne pacatorum terrae 
corrumperentur, neve renitente pugnacissima plebe, 
pons cum multorum discrimine iungeretur iri ^ in 
locum ad compaginandum pontem aptissimum. 
10, Quod hostes sollertissime contemplati, per 
contrarias ripas leniter incedentes, ubi nostros figere 
tentoria, procul cernebant, ipsi quoque noctes age- 
bant exsomnes, custodientes pervigili studio, ne 
transitus temptaretur. 11. Verum cum nostri locum 
adventarent provisum, vallo fossaque quievere 
circumdati, et asscito Lupicino in consilium, Caesar 
certis imperavit tribunis, ut trecentenos pararent 
cum sudibus milites expeditos, quid agi quove iri 
deberet penitus ignorantes. 12. Et collecti nocte 
provecta, impositique omnes quos lusoriae naves 
quadraginta quae tunc aderant solae, ceperunt, 
decurrere iubentur per flumen, adeo taciti, ut etiam 
remi suspenderentur, ne barbaros sonitus excitaret 
undarum, atque mentis agilitate et corporum, dum 

1 lac. iiid. Her., CJark ; iri, atldcd by Val., 7ti liy T- ; 
no lac. in V. 

1 Text and exact meaning are uncez-tain ; see crit. note. 

2 See note, p. 313. 


XVIII., 2, 8-12, A.D. 359 

Suomarus, a friend of ours through a previous 
treaty, to debar the Romans from passing over ; 
for his territories adjoined the opposite bank of 
the Rhine. And when he declared that he could 
not resist single-handed, the savages united their 
forces and came to the neighbourhood of Mayence, 
intending with might and main to prevent our army 
from crossing the river. 9. Therefore for a twofold 
reason what Caesar had advised seemed fitting, 
namely, that they should not ravage the lands of 
peaceful natives, nor against the opposition of a 
most warlike people construct the bridge with loss 
of life to many of our men, but should go ^ to the 
place best suited for building a bridge. 10. This step 
the enemy observed with the greatest care, slowly 
marching along the opposite bank ; and when from 
afar they saw our men pitching their tents, they 
themselves also passed sleepless nights, keeping 
guard with watchful diUgence to prevent an attempt 
at crossing. 11. Our soldiers, however, on coming 
to the appointed place rested, protected by a ram- 
part and a trench, and Caesar, after taking counsel 
with Lupicinus, ordered trusty tribunes to provide 
with stakes three hundred light-armed troops, who 
as yet were wholly unaware what was to be done 
or where they were to go. 12. And having been 
brought together when night was well advanced, all 
were embarked whom forty scouting boats " (as many 
as were available at the time) would hold, and ordered 
to go down stream so quietly that not even the oars 
were used, for fear that the sound of the waters 
might arouse the savages ; and while the enemy 
were watching our campfires, the soldiers with 



hostes nostrorum ignes observant, adversas perrum- 
pere milites ^ ripas. 

13. Dum haec celerantur, Hortarius rex nobis 
antea foederatus, non novaturus quaedam, sed 
amicus finitimis quoque suis, reges omnes et regales 
et regulos ad convivium corrogatos retiuuit, epulis 
ad usque vigiliam tertiam gentili more extentis ; 
quos discedentes inde casu nostri ex improviso 
adorti, nee interficere nee corripere ullo genere 
potuerunt, tenebrarum equorumque adiumento, 
quo dubius impetus trusit, abreptos ; lixas vero vel 
servos, qui cos pedibus sequebantur, (nisi quos 
exemit discrimine temporis obscuritas) occiderunt. 

14. Cognito denique transitu Romanorum,^ qui 
tunc perque expeditiones praeteritas, ibi levamen 
sumere laborum opinabantur, ubi hostem contin- 
geret inveniri, perculsi reges eorumque populi, qui 
pontem ne strueretur, studio servabant intento, 
metu exborrescentes diffuse vertuutur in pedes ; 
et indomito furore sedato, necessitudines opesque 
suas transferre longius festinabant. Statimque 
difficultate omni depulsa, ponte constrato, soUici- 
tarura gentium opinione praeventa, visus in bar- 
barico miles per Hortarii regna transibat intacta. 
15. Ubi vero terras infestorum etiam tum tetigit 

1 milites, V, deleted by Eyssen., Xovak ; limitis-, G. 
^ transitu Romanorum, Clark, c.c. ; R.t., V. 

^ The text is corrupt and the account confused. 


XVIII., 2, 12-15, A.D. 359 

nimbleness of mind and body forced the opposite 

13. While this was being done with all haste, 
Hortarius, a king previously allied with us, not 
intending any disloyalty but being a friend also to 
his neighbours, invited all the kings, princes, and 
kinglets to a banquet and detained them until the 
third watch, prolonging the feasting after the native 
fashion. And as they were leaving the feast, it 
chanced that our men unexpectedly attacked them, 
but were in no way able to kill or take any of them, 
aided as they were by the darkness and their horses, 
which carried them off wherever panic haste drove 
them ; they did, however, slay the lackeys or slaves, 
who followed their masters on foot, except such as 
the darkness of the hour saved from danger. 

14. When word at last came of the crossing of 
the Romans,^ who then, as in former campaigns, 
expected to find rest from their labours wherever 
they had succeeded in finding the enemy, the kings 
and their peoples, who were watching with eager 
intentness to prevent the building of the bridge, 
panicstricken and shuddering with fear, took to 
their heels in all directions ; and their unbridled 
anger now laid aside, they hastened to transport 
their kindred and their possessions to a greater 
distance. And at once every difiiculty was removed, 
the bridge was built, and before the anxious nations 
expected it our soldiers appeared in the land of the 
savages, and were passing through the realms of 
Hortarius without doing any damage. 15. But 
when they reached the territories of kings that were 
still hostile, they burned and pUlaged everything, 



regum, urens omnia rapiensquc/ per iiiedium rc- 
bellium solum grassabatur intrepidus. 

Postque saepimenta fragiliuin pcnatium in- 
flammata, et obtruncatam hominum multitudinem, 
vdsosque cadentes multos aliosque supplicantes, cum 
ventum fuisset ad regionem (cui Capillacii vel Palas 
nomen est) ubi terminales lapides Alamannorum 
et Burgundiorum confinia distinguebant, castra sunt 
posita, ea propter ut Macrianus et Hariobaudus, 
germaui fratres et reges, susciperentur impavidi, 
qui propinquare sibi perniciem sentientes, venerant 
paeem anxiis animis precaturi. 16. Post quos 
statim rex quoque \ adomarius venit, cuius erat 
domicilium contra Rauracos, scriptisque Constantii - 
principis, quibus commendatus est artius, allegatis, 
leniter susceptus est (ut ^ decebat), olim ab Augusto 
in clientelam rei Romanae susceptus. 17. Et 
Macrianus quidem cum fratre inter aquilas admissus 
et signa, stupebat armorum viriumque ** varium 
decus, visa tunc primitus, proque suis orabat. 
Vadomarius vero nostris coalitus (utpote Aacinus 
limiti) mirabatur quidem apparatum ambitiosi pro- 
cinctus, sed vidisse se talia saepe ab adulescentia 
meminerat prima. 18. Libratis denique diu con- 
siUis, concordi assensione cunctorum, Macriano 
quidem et Hariobaudo pax est attributa, Vadomario 

1 rapien-ique, G ; rapinisque, V, Gardt. ^ Can- 

stantii, Clark, c.c. ; Constanti, V. ^ ut, added by 

Henr. Val. ; ut conducebatur, Hadr. Val. ; V omits. 
* viriumque, del. Gardt. as dittogi'aph}-. 


XVIII., 2, 15-18, A.D. 359 

raugiug without fear through the uiiclst of the rebel 

After firing the fragile huts that sheltered them, 
killing a great number of men, and seeing many 
falling and others begging for mercy, our soldiers 
reached the region called Capillacii or Palas ^ where 
boundary stones marked the frontiers of the Ala- 
mauni and the Burgundians. There they encamped 
with the design of capturing Macrianus and Hario- 
baudus, kings and own brothers, before they took 
alarm ; for they, perceiving the ruin that threatened 
them, had come with anxious minds to sue for peace. 
16. The kings were at once foUow-ed also by Vado- 
marius, whose abode was over against the Rauraci, 
and since he presented a letter of the emperor 
Constantius, in which he was strongly commended, 
he was received kindly (as was fitting), since he had 
long before been taken by Augustus under the 
protection of the Roman empire. 17. And Macrianus 
indeed, when admitted with his brother among the 
eagles and ensigns, was amazed at the variety and 
splendour of the arms and the forces, things which 
he saw then for the first time, and pleaded for his 
subjects. But Vadomarius, who was familiar wdth 
our aflTairs (since he lived near the frontier) did 
indeed admire the equipment of the splendid array, 
but remembered that he had often seen the like 
from early youth. 18. Finally, after long delibera- 
tion, by the unanimous consent of all, peace was 
indeed granted to Macrianus and Hariobaudus ; 
but to Vidomt\rius, who had come to secure his own 

^A district of the Alainanni on the frontier of the 



vero, qui suam locaturus securitatem in tuto, et 
legationis nomine precator venerat, pro Urio et 
Ursicino et Vestralpo regibus paceni itidem obse- 
crans, interim responderi non poterat, ne (ut sunt 
fluxioris fidei barbari) post abitum recreati nos- 
trorum, parum acquiescerent per alios impetratis. 
19. Sed cum ipsi quoque missis legatis, post messes 
incensas et habitacula, captosque plures et inter- 
fectos, ita supplicarent tamquam ipsi ^ haec deliquis- 
sent in nostros, pacem condicionura similitudine 
meruerunt. Inter quas id festinatum ^ est maxime, 
ut captivos restituerent omnes, quos rapuerant 
excursibus crebris. 

3. Barbationi magistro peditum et uxori eius cur 
capita abscissa sint iussu Constantii Aug. 

1. Haec dum in Galliis caelestis corrigit cura, in 
comitatu Augusti turbo novarum exoritur rerum, a 
primordiis levibus ad luctus et lanienta progressus. 
In donio Barbationis, pedestris militiae tunc rectoris, 
exameu apes fecere ^ perspicuum. Superque hoc 
ei prodigiorum gnaros soUicite consulenti, discrimen 
magnum portendi respousum est, coniectura vide- 
licet tali, quod hae volucres post compositas sedes, 

^ ipsi, V ; non ipsi, Mominsen. -festinatum, V ; 

destinatum, Cornelissen. ^fecere, G; texere. A, 

Mommsen ; struxere. Pet ; pestexere, V {ex above the 
Hne, ere added by V^). 

* This was not always true. Cf. Pliny, N.H. xi. 55 ff. : 
Tunc (apes) ostenta faciunt privata ac pubhca, uva de- 
pendente in domibus tempi isque, saepe expiata magnis 


XVIIL, 2, 18-19—3, 1, A.D. 359 

safety, but at the same time as an envoy and inter- 
cessor, begging for peace in behalf of the kings 
Urius, Ursicinus and Vestralpus, no immediate 
reply could be given, for fear that (since savages are 
of unstable loyalty) they might take courage after 
the departure of our army and not abide by a peace 
secured through others. 19. But when they them- 
selves also, after the burning of their harvests and 
homes and the capture or death of many men, sent 
envoys and made supplication as if they too had 
committed these sins against our people, they 
won peace on the same terms ; and among these 
conditions it was especially stressed that they 
should give up all the prisoners whom they had 
taken in their frequent raids. 

3. Why Barbatio, commander of the infantry, and his 
ivife ivere beheaded by order of Constantius. 

1. While in Gaul the providence of Heaven was 
reforming these abuses, in the court of Augustus 
a tempest of new troubles arose, which from small 
beginnings proceeded to grief and lamentation. In 
the house of Barbatio, then commander of the in- 
fantry forces, bees made a conspicuous swarm ; and 
when he anxiously consulted men skilled in prodigies 
about this, they replied that it portended great 
danger,^ obviously inferring this from the belief, that 

eventibus. Sedore in ore infant is tiun etiani Platonis, 
suavitateni illani praedulcis eloqui portendentes. Sedere 
in castris Drusi imperatoris cum prosperrime pugnatuni 
apud Arbaloneni est, hand quaquain perpetua haruspicum 
coniectura, qui dirum id ostentuin existimant semper. 




opesque congestas, fumo pelluntur, et turbulento 
sonitu cymbalorum. 2. Huic uxor erat AssjTia 
nomine, nee taciturna nee prudens, quae eo ad 
expeditionem profecto, et multiplici metu suspense, 
ob ea quae meminerat sibi praedicta, perculsa 
vanitate muliebri, ancilla asscita notarum perita, 
quani e patrimonio Silvani possederat, ad maritum 
scripsit intempestive, velut flens obtestans ne post 
obitum Constanti propinquantem, in imperium ipse 
ut sperabat adniissus, despecta se anteponeret 
Eusebiae matrimoniuni tunc reginae, decore cor- 
poris inter multas feminas excellentis. 3. Quibus 
litteris occulte quantum fieri potuit missis, ancilla, 
quae domina dictante perscripserat, reversis omni- 
bus e procinctu, exemplum ferens ad Arbetionem 
noctis prima quiete confugit, avideque suscepta. 
chartulam prodidit. 4. Hocque indicio ille confisus, 
ut erat ad criminandum aptissimus, principi detulit, 
atque ex usu, nee mora ulla negotio tributa nee 
quiete, Barbatio epistulam suscepisse confessus, 
et mulier scripsisse documento convicta non levi, 
cervicibus interiere praecisis. 5. Hisque punitis, 
quaestiones longe serpebant, vexatique multi no- 
centes sunt et innocentissimi.^ Inter quos etiam 

1 innocentissimi, Damste, c.c. ; innocentes, V ; Fletcher 
would delete sunt, or write n. simul et innocentes. 


XVIII., 3, 1-5. A.D. 359 

when these insects have made their homes and 
gathered their treasures, they are only driven out 
by smoke and the wild clashing of cymbals. 2. Bar- 
batio had a wife, Assyria by name, who was talka- 
tive and indiscreet. She, when her husband had 
gone forth on a campaign and was worried by manv 
fears because of what he remembered had been fore- 
told him, overcome by a woman's folly, confided 
in a maidservant skilled in cryptic writing, whom 
she had acquired from the estate of Silvanus. 
Through her Assyria wrote at this untimely moment 
to her husband, entreating him in tearful accents 
that when, after Constantius' approaching death, 
he himself had become emperor, as he hoped, he 
should not cast her off and prefer marriage with 
Eusebia, who was then queen and was conspicuous 
among many women for the beauty of her person. 
3. After this letter had been sent with all possible 
secrecy, the maidservant, who had written it at 
her mistress' dictation, as soon as all had returned 
from the campaign took a copy of it and ran off to 
Arbetio in the first quiet of the night ; and being 
eagerly received, she handed over the note. 4. 
Arbetio, who was of all men most clever in framing 
an accusation, trusting to this evidence reported 
the matter to the emperor. The affair was inves- 
tigated, as usual, without delay or rest, and when 
Barbatio admitted that he had received the letter, 
and strong evidence proved that the woman had 
written it, both were beheaded. 5. When they had 
been executed, far-reaching inquisitions followed, 
and many suffered, the most innocent as well as 
the guilty. Among these also Valentinus, formerly 



Valentinus ex primicerio protectorum tribunus, ut 
conscius inter compluxes alios tortus aliquotiens 
supervixit, penitus quid erat gestum ignorans. Ideo- 
que ad iniuriae periculique compensationem, duels 
in Illyrico meruit potestatem. 

6. Erat autem idem Barbatio subagrestis, arro- 
gantisque propositi, ea re multis exosus, quod et 
dum domesticos protectores sub Gallo regeret Gaesare, 
proditor erat et perfidus, et post eius excessum, nobi- 
iioris militiae fastu elatus, in lulianum itidem Caesa- 
rem paria confingebat, crebroque detestantibus 
bonis, sub Augusti patulis auribus multa garriebat 
et saeva. 7. Ignorans profecto veteris ^ Aristotelis 
sapiens dictum, qui Caliisthenem sectatorem et 
propinquum suum ad regem Alexandrum mittens, 
ei saepe mandabat, ut quam rarissime et iucunde 
apud hominem loqueretxur, vitae potestatem et necis 
in acie linguae portantem. 8. Ne sit hoc mirum, 
homines profutura discernere non numquam et 
nocentia, quorum mentes cognatas caelestibus arbi- 
tramur, animaUa ratione carentia salutem suam 
interdum alto tueri silentio solent, ut exemplum 
est hoc perquam notum, 9. Linquentes orientem 
anseres ob calorem, plagamque petentes occiduam, 
cum montem penetrare coeperint Taurum, aquilis 
abundantem, timentes fortissimas volucres, rostra 
lapillis occludunt, ne eis eUciat vel necessitas ex- 
trema clangorem, eisdemque colUbus agiliore volatu 

' uele.ris, Cornelissen, Schneider ; uetun, V. 

XVIII., 3, 5-9, A.D. 359 

captain of the guard and then a tribune, was sus- 
pected with many others of being implicated and, 
although wholly ignorant of what had been done, 
was tortured several times, but survived. And so, 
as compensation for his wrongs and his peril, he 
gained the position of a general in Ill^Tioum. 

6. Now the aforesaid Barbatio was a somewhat 
boorish fellow, of arrogant bearing, who was hated 
by many for the reason that, while he commanded 
the household troops under Gallus Caesar, he was 
a perfidious traitor ; and after Gallus' death, puffed 
up with pride in his higher military rank, he made 
like plots against Julian, when he became Caesar ; 
and to the disgust of all good men he poured into the 
open ears of the Augustus manv cruel accusations. 
7. He surely was unaware of the wise saying of 
Aristotle of old, who, on sending his disciple and 
relative Callisthenes to King Alexander, charged 
him repeatedly to speak as seldom and as pleasantly 
as possible in the presence of a man who had at the 
tip of his tongue the power of life and death. 8. And 
it should not cause surprise that men, whose minds 
we regard as akin to the gods, sometimes distinguish 
what is advantageous from what is harmful ; for 
even unreasoning animals are at times wont to pro- 
tect their lives by deep silence, as appears from this 
well-known fact. 9. The geese, when leaving the 
east because of heat and flying westward, no sooner 
begin to traverse Mount Taurus, which abounds in 
eagles, than in fear of those mighty birds they close 
their beaks with little stones, so that even extreme 
necessity may not call forth a sound from them ; 
and after they have passed over those same hills in 



transcursis, proiciunt calculos, atque ita securius 

4. Rex Persaruin Sapor Roinatios tolls virihus aggredi 

1. Dum apud Sirraium haec diligentia quaeruntur 
impensa, orientis fortuna periculorum terribiles tubas 
reflabat. Rex enim Persidis, ferarum gentium quas 
placarat adiumentis accinctus, augendique regni 
cupiditate supra homines flagrans, arma viresque 
parabat at commeatus, consilia tartareis manibus 
miscens, et superstitiones ^ omnes consulens de 
futuris ; bisque satis collectis, pervadere cuncta 
prima verni temperie cogitabat. 

2. Et cum haec primo rumores, dein nuntii certi 
perferrent, omnesque suspenses adventantium cala- 
mitatum complicaret magna formido, comitatensis 
fabrica eandem incudem (ut dicitur) diu noctuque 
tundendo, ad spadonum arbitrium, imperatori 
suspicaci ac timido intendebat Ursicinum, velut 
vultus Gorgonei torvitatem, haec saepe taliaque re- 
pUcans, quod interempto Silvano, quasi paenuria 
meliorum, ad tuendas partes eoas denuo missus, 
altius anhelabat. 3. Hac autem assentandi nimia 
foeditate, mercari complures nitebantur Eusebi 
favorem, cubiculi tunc praepositi, apud quern 
(si vera dici debeat) multa Constantius posuit,^ 

^ super siitones. Her. ; praesciones, Gronov ; praestionis, 
V. ^ posuil, Damste ; potuit, V. 


XVIII., 3, 9—4, 1-3, A.D. 359 

speedier flight, they cast out the pebbles and so 
go on with greater peace of mind. 

4. Sapor^ king of the Persians, prepares to attack the 
Romans with all his forces. 

1. While at Sirmium these matters were being 
investigated with all diligence, the fortune of the 
Orient kept sounding the dread trumpets of danger ; 
for the king of Persia, armed with the help of the 
savage tribes which he had subdued, and burning 
with superhuman desire of extending his domain, 
was preparing arms, forces, and supplies, minghng 
with them counsel from infernal powers and con- 
sulting all superstitions about the future ; and 
having assembled enough of these, he planned with 
the first mildness of spring to overrun everything. 
2, And when news of this came, at first by rumours 
and then by trustworthy messengers, and great dread 
of impending disasters held all in suspense, the forge 
of the courtiers, hammering day and night at the 
instigation of the eunuchs on the same anvil (as 
the saying is), held up Ursicinus to the suspicious 
and timid emperor as a grim-%asaged gorgon, often 
reiterating these and similar charges : that he, having 
on the death of Silvanus been sent as if in default 
of better men, to defend the east, was panting for 
higher honours. 3. Furthermore, by this foul and 
excessive flattery very many strove to purchase 
the favour of Eusebius, then head-chamberlain, 
upon whom (if the truth must be told) Constantius 
greatly depended, and who was vigorously attacking 
the safety of the aforesaid commander of the cavalry 



ante dicti inagistri equitiim salutem acriter impug- 
nantis ratione bifaria, quod omnium solus nee 
opes ^ eius augebat,^ ut ceteri, et domo sua non 
cederet Antiochiae, quam molestissime flagitabat. 

4. Qui ut coluber copia virus exuberans, natorum 
multitudinem etiam turn aegre serpentium, ex- 
citans ad nocendum, emittebat oubicularios iam 
adultos, ut inter ministeria vitae secretions, gracili- 
tate vocis semper puerilis et blandae, apud principis 
aures nimium patulas, existimationem viri fortis 
invidia gravi pulsarent. Et brevi iussa fecerunt. 

5. Horum et similium taedio iuvat veterem laudarc 
Domitianum, qui licet patris fratrisque dissimilis, 
niemoriam noniinis sui inexpiabili detestatione 
perfudit, tamen receptissima inclaruit lege, qua 
minaciter interdixerat ne intra terminos iuris dic- 
tionis Romanae castraret quisquam puerum ; quod 
ni contigisset, quis eorum ferret examina, quorum 
raritas ^ difficile toleratur ? 6. Actum est tamen 
cautius, ne (ut fingebat) rursus accitus idem Ursi- 
cinus, metu cuncta turbaret, sed cum fors copiam 
detulisset, raperetur ad mortem. 

7. Haec operientibus illis, et ancipiti cogitatione 
districtis, nobis apud Samosatam, Commageni 

1 opes. Her. ; opis, G ; opus, V. ' augebat. Her. : 

agebat, V. ' raritas, Boxh. : paritns, V. 

^ Suetonius, Doui. vii. 

XVIII., 4, 3-7, A.D. 359 

tor a double reason : because he alone of all was not, 
like the rest, adding to Eusebius' wealth, and would 
not give up to him his house at Antiooh, which the 
head-chamberlain most importunately demanded. 
1. Eusebius then, like a viper swelling with abundant 
poison and arousing its multitudinous brood to 
mischief w'hen they were still barely able to crawl, 
sent out his chamberlains, already well grown, 
with directions that, amid the duties of their more 
private attendance, with the soft utterances of 
voices always childish and persuasive they should 
with bitter hatred batter the reputation of that 
brave man in the too receptive ears of the prince. 
And they promptly did what they were ordered. 

5. Through disgust with these and their kind, I 
take pleasure in praising Domitian of old, for 
although, unlike his father and his brother, he 
drenched the memory of his name with indelible 
detestation, yet he won distinction by a most highly 
approved law, by which he had under heavy penalties 
forbidden anyone within the bounds of the Roman 
jurisdiction to geld a boy ; ^ for if this had not 
happened, who could endure the swarms of those 
whose small number is with difficulty tolerated ? 

6. However, Eusebius proceeded warily, lest (as he 
pretended) that same Ursicinvis, if again summoned 
to court, should through fear cause general dis- 
turbance, but actually that he might, whenever 
chance should give the opportunity, be haled off to 

7. While they held these plots in abeyance and 
were distracted by anxious thoughts, and I was stay- 
ing for a time at Samosata, the famous seat of the 



quondam regni clarissimam sedem, parumper moran- 
tibus, repente novi motus rumoribus densis audiun- 
tur et certis.^ Quos doccbit orationis progrediens 

5. AnUmimis protector cum siiis omnibus ad Saporcm 
traiisfugit ; eumque in bellum Romanum sponte 
iam malum impellit. 

1. Antoninus quidam ex mercatore opulento 
rationarius apparitor Mesopotamiae ducis, tunc 
protector exercitatus et prudens, perque omnes 
illas notissimus terras, aviditate quorundani nexus 
ingentibus damnis, cum iurgando contra potentis, 
se magis magisque iniustitia frangi contemplaretur, 
ad deferendam potioribus gratiam, qui spectabant 
negotium, inclinatis, ne contra acumina calcitraret, 
flexus ^ in blanditias molliores, confessusque de- 
bitum per colludia in nomen fisci translatum, 
iamque ausurus immania, rimabatur tectius rci 
pubUcae membra totius, et utriusque hnguae litteras 
sciens, circa ratiocinia versabatur, qui vel quarum 
virium milites ubi agant, vel procinctus tempore 
quo sint venturi ^ describens, itidem armorum et 
commeatuum copiae, aliaque usui bello futura, 
an abunde suppetant indefessa scitatione * per- 
contans. 2. Et cum ^ totius orientis didicisset 

^ certis, Val. ; contextis. Pet. in Index ; concertis, V. 
"Jlexus, Pet. ; fiecten^, Mommsen ; flectis, V. ' quo sint 

uenturi, C. F. W. Miiller ; q.s. itiin, Bentley ; quos in- 
ttienturi, V. * scitatione, BG, Novak ; sciscitatione, EA ; 

indefessas cititatione, V. ^ cum, Val. ; duni, V. 

1 See note 2, p. 198. 

XVIIL, 4, 7—5, 1-2, A.D. 359 

former kingdom of Commagene, on a sudden re- 
peated and trustworthy rumours were heard of new 
commotions ; and of these the following chapter of 
my history shall tell. 

5. Antoninus, of the household troops, goes over with 
all his liimschold to Sapor, and urges him to the 
tvar against the Romans uhich he had already 
set on foot of his own accord. 

1. There was a certain Antoninus, at first a rich 
merchant, then an accountant in the service of the 
governor of Mesopotamia, and finally one of his 
body-guard, a man of experience and sagacity, who 
was widely known throughout all that region. This 
man, being involved in great losses through the greed 
of certain powerful men, found on contending against 
them that he was more and more oppressed by unjust 
means, since those who examined the case were in- 
clined to curry favour with men of higher position. 
Accordingly, in order not to kick against the pricks, 
he turned to mildness and flattery and acknowledged 
the debt, which by collusion had been transferred 
to the account of the pri\y purse. And then, plan- 
ning to venture upon a vast enterprise, he covertly 
pried into all parts of the entire empire, and being 
versed in the language of both tongues,^ busied 
himself with calculations, making record of what 
troops were serving anywhere or of what strength, 
or at what time expeditions would be made, inquir- 
ing also by tireless questioning whether supplies of 
arms, provisions, and other things that would be 
useful in war were at hand in abundance. 2. And 



interna, virorum stipendiique parte maxima per 
Illyriciim distributa, ubi distinebatur ex negotiis 
seriis imperator, allapsiiro iam praestitiito die 
solvendae pecuniae, quam per syngrapham fleberc 
se confiteri, vi metuque compulsus est, cum omnibus 
66 prospiceret undique periculis opprimendum, 
largitionum comite ad alterius gratiam infestius 
perurgente, fugam ad Persas cum coniuge liberie 
et omni vinculo caritatum, ingenti molimine cona- 
batur. 3. Atque ut lateret stationarios milites, 
fundum in laspide (qui locus Tigridis fluentis ad- 
luitur,) pretio non magno mercatur. Hocque com- 
mento cum nullus causam veniendi ad extremas 
Romani limitis partes, iam possessorem cum plurimis 
auderet exigere, per familiares fidos peritosque 
nandi, occultis saepe colloquiis cum Tamsapore 
habitis, qui tractus omnes adversos ducis potestate 
tunc tuebatur, et antea cognitus, misso a Persicis 
castris auxilio virorum pernicium, lembis impositus, 
cum omni penatium ^ dulcedine, nocte coucubia 
transfretatur ^ ex ^ contraria specie Zopyri illius 
simUis Babylonii proditoris. 

4. Rebus per Mesopotamiam in hunc statum de- 
ductis, Palatina cohors palinodiam in exitium con- 
cinens nostrum, invenit tandem amplam nocendi 
fortissimo viro, auctore et incitatore coetu spadonum, 

^ penatium, Bentley ; j>enatuin, AG ; paena dum, V. 
- transfretatur, Clark ; transfretat rex, V. * ex, Moiiun- 

sen ; rex, V. 

1 The chief treasurer ; see Introd., pp. xl. f. 

^ Zopyrus pretended to desert to Babylon, in order to 
betray the city to his king, Darius. Antoninus actually 
deserted, to betray his native country. 


XVIII., 5, 2-4, A.D. 359 

^vheii he had learned the internal aflfairs of the entire 
Orient, since the greater part of the troops and the 
money lor their pay were distributed through Illy- 
ricuni, where the emperor was distracted with serious 
afl'airs, and as the stipulated time would soon be at 
hand for paying the money which he was compelled 
by force and threats to admit by his signature that 
he owed, foreseeing that he must be crushed by 
all manner of dangers on every side, since the count 
of the largesses ^ through favour to his creditor was 
pressing him more urgently, he made a great effort 
to flee to the Persians with his wife, his children, 
and all his dear ones. 3. And to the end that he 
might elude the sentinels, he bought at no great 
price a farm in laspis, a place washed by the waters 
of the Tigris. And since because o^ this device 
no one ventured to ask one who was now a land- 
holder ^vith many attendants his reason for coming 
to the utmost frontier of the Roman empire, through 
friends who were loyal and skilled in swimming he 
held many secret conferences with Tamsapore, then 
acting as governor of all the lands across the river, 
whom he already knew ; and when active men 
had been sent to his aid from the Persian camp, he 
embarked in fishing boats and ferried over all his 
beloved household in the dead of night, Uke Zo- 
pyrus, that famous betrayer of Babylon, but with 
the opposite intention.^ 

4. After affairs in Mesopotamia had been brought 
to this pass, the Palace gang, chanting the old refrain 
with a view to our destruction, at last found an 
opportunity for injuring the most valiant of men, 
aided and abetted by the corps of eunuchs, who 



qui feri et acidi semper, carentesque necessitudiaibus 
ceteris, divitias solas ut filiolas iucundissimas 
amplectuntur. 5. Stetitque sententia, ut Sabini- 
anus cultus ^ quidem senex et bene nummatus, sed 
imbellis et ignavus et ab impetranda magisterii 
digoitate per obscuritatem adhuc longe discretus, 
praeficiendus eois partibus niitteretur, Ursicinus 
vero curaturus pedestreni militiam, et successurus 
Barbationi, ad comitatum reverteretur, quo praesens 
rerum novarum avidus concitor, (ut iactabant,) 
a gravibus ininiicis et metuendis incesseretur. 

6. Dum haec in castris Constantii quasi per lustra 
aguntur et scaenam, et diribitores venundatae subito 
potestatis pretium per potiores diffunditant domes, 
Antoninus ad regis biberna perductus, aventer 
suscipitur, et apicis nobilitatus auctoritate, quo 
honore participantur mensae regales, et ineritorurn 
apud Persas ad suadendum, ferendasque sententias 
in contionibus ora panduntur, non contis nee 
reniulco (ut aiunt,) id est non flexiloqiiis ambagibus 
vel obscuris, sed velificatione plena in rem publicam 
ferebatur, eundemque incitans regem, ut quondam 
Mabarbal lentitudinis Hannibalem ^ increpans, posse 
eum vincere, sed victoria uti nescire, assidue prae- 
dicabat. 7. Educatus enim in medio, ut rerum 

^ cultus. Her. ; uegetus, Cornelissen and Xovak ; victxis, V. 
^ Hannibalem increpans, transposui, c.c. ; i. H., V. Probus 
(Gell. iv. 7) cites Hannihalem, only for early winters. 

1 For bene nummatus, cf. Hor., Epist. i. 6, 38. 

^ The diribitores were originally those who sorted and 
counted the ballots at elections ; in 7 B.C. Agrippa built 
the diribitorium in the Campus Martius for their use ; 
see Suet., Claud. 18. Diribitores seems to have acquired 


XVIII., 5, 4-7, A.D. 359 

are always cruel and sour, and since they lack other \ 
offspring, embrace riches alone as their most dearly 
belo-ved daughters. 5. So it was decided that 
Sabinianus, a cultivated man, it is true, and well- 
to-do,^ but unlit for war, inefficient, and because of 
his obscurity still far removed from obtaining 
magisterial rank, should be sent to govern the 
eastern regions ; but that Ursicinus should return 
to court to command the infantry and succeed 
Barbatio : to the end that by his presence there 
that eager inciter to revolution (as they persisted 
in calling him) might be open to the attacks of his 
bitter and formidable enemies. 

6. While this was being done in the camp of 
Const antius, after the manner of brothels and the 
stage, and the distributors ^ were scattering the price 
of suddenly purchased power through the homes 
of the powerful, Antoninus was conducted to the 
king's winter quarters and received with open arms, 
being graced with the distinction of the turban, an 
honour shared by those who sat at the royal table 
and allowing men of merit among the Persians to 
speak words of advice and to vote in the assemblies. 
Thus, not with poles or tow-rope (as the saying is), 
that is, not by ambiguous or obscure subterfuges, 
but under full sail he was swept into pubhc life, 
urging on the aforesaid king, as long ago Maharbal 
chided the slowness of Hannibal, and kept insisting 
that he could win victories, but not take advantage 
of them.^ 7. For being brought forward as a man 

the meaning of "distributors of bribes"; see Suet., 
Aug. 40, 2, where however the word itself does not occur. 
* Livy, xxii. 51 ; Florus, i. 22, 19. 



omnium gnarus, auditorum nanctus vegetos ^ sensus, 
et aurium delenimenta captantes, nee laudantium, 
sed secundum Homericos Phaeacas cum silentio 
admirantium, iarn inde quadragesimi anni memoriam 
replicabat, post bellorum assiduos casus, et maxime 
apud Hileiam et Singaram, ubi acerrima ilia nocturna 
coucertatione pugnatum est, nostrorum copiis 
ingenti strage confossis, quasi dirimente quodam 
medio fetiali, Persas nondum Edessam nee pontes 
Euphratis tetigisse victores quos armipotentia 
fretos, successibusque magnificis, ita dilatasse de- 
cuerat regna,^ ut ^ toti Asia imperarent,'* eo maxime 
tempore quo diuturnis bellorum civilium motibus, 
sanguis utrimque Romani roboris fundebatur. 

8. His ac talibus subinde inter epulas sobrius 
perfuga, ubi de apparatu bellorum et seriis rebus 
apud eos Graiorum more veteriim consultatur, regem 
incendebat ardentem, ut exacta hieme statim arma 
fretus fortunae suae magnitudine concitaret, ipse 
quoque in multis ac necessariis operam suam 
fidenter proraittens. 

1 uegetos {eius a corr. of iliis) cf, xxi. 16, 19, Her. ; vigiles, 
G ; vigiliis eius, V. - lac. after decueral indie. 

Eyssen. ; regna added by Schneider ; decue ratarenteo, V. 
^ ut, added by Eyssen. * toti Asiae imper{arent), added 

bv Novak. 


XVIIL, 5, 7-8, A.D. 359 

well informed on all matters, and finding eager 
hearers, desirous of having their ears tickled, who 
did not praise him but like Homer's Phaeaceans ^ 
admired him in silence, he would rehearse the his- 
tory of the past forty years and show that after 
constant successes in war, especially at Hileia and 
Singara," where that fvirious contest at night took 
place and our troops were cut to pieces with great 
carnage, as if some fetial priest were intervening ^ 
to stop the fight the Persians did not yet reach 
Edessa nor the bridges of the Euphrates, in spite of 
being victorious ; whereas trusting to their prowess 
and their splendid successes, they ought so to have 
extended their kingdom as to rule over all Asia, 
especially at a time when through the continual 
commotions of civU wars Rome's stoutest soldiers 
were shedding their blood on two sides, 

8. With these and similar speeches from time to 
time at banquets, where after the old Greek custom 
they used to consult about preparations for war 
and other serious affairs, the deserter kept sober 
and fired the already eager king, so soon as winter 
was over, at once to take the field, trusting to his 
good fortune, and Antoninus himself confidently 
promised to aid him in many important ways. 

' Cf. Odyssey, xiii. 1, and Index. 

- In 348, see Gibbon, ch. xviii. 

^ The fetiales had to do with treaties and declaring war. 
Their persons were sacrosanct and they sometimes inter- 
vened to present terms of peace when the opposing armies 
were drawn up ready for battle. 




6. Ursicinus magister militum ex oriente evocatus, 
cum iam venisset in Thraciam, remittitur in 
Mesopntamiam ; quo reversus, per Marcellinum 
Saporis adventum explorat. 

1. Sub eisdem fere diebus, Sabinianus adepta 
repentina potestate sufflatus. et Ciliciae fines in- 
gressus, decessori suo principis litteras dedit, hor- 
tantis ut ad comitatum dignitate afficiendus super- 
iore citius properaret, eo necessitatum articulo, 
quo etiam si apud Thulen moraretur Ursicinus, acciri 
eum magnitude reruni ratione probabili flagitabat, 
utpote disciplinae veteris et longo usu bellandi 
artis Persicae scientissimum. 2. Quo rumore pro- 
vinciis percitis, ordines civitatum et populi, decretis 
et acclamationibus densis, iniecta manu detinebaat 
paene publicum defensorem, memores quod relictus 
ad sui tutelam, cum inerti et umbratili milite, 
nihil amiserat per decennium ; simul metuentes 
saluti, quod tempore dubio. remoto illo advenisse 
bominem compererant inertissimum. 3. Credimus 
(neque enim dubium est) per aerios tramites famam 
praepetem volitare, cuius indicio haec gesta pandente, 
consiliorum apud Persas summa proponebatur ^ ; et 
mvdtis ultro citroque deliberatis, placuit Autonino 

"^proponebatur, Lind. ; praeponebatur, V. 

1 Looked on by the Romans as a land north of Britain, 
apparently Scotland and the neighbouring islands, but 
of which they had no definite conception. It is a pro- 
verbial expression for " the ends of the earth." 


XVIII., 6, 1-3, A.D. 359 

6. Ursicinus, commnnder of the army in the Orient, 
being summoned from there and having already 
reached Thrace, is sent hack to Mesopotamia ; 
on his return lie tries to learn through Marcellinus 
of the coming of Sapor. 

1. At about that same time Sabinianus, puffed 
up by his suddenly acquired power, entered the 
confines of Cilicia and handed his predecessor the 
emperor's letter, which directed him to make all 
haste to the court, to be invested with a higher 
rank ; and that too at a crisis when, even if Ursicinus 
were living in Thule,^ the weight of affairs with good 
reason demanded that he be sent for,- well acquainted 
as he was with the old-time discipline and with the 
Persian methods of warfare from long experience. 
2. The rumour of this action greatly disquieted the 
provinces, and the senates and peoples of the various 
cities, while decrees and acclamations came thick 
and fast, laid hands on him and all but held fast 
their public defender, recalling that though he had 
been left to protect them with weak and ease- 
loving soldiers, he had for ten years suffered no loss ; 
and at the same time they feared for their safety 
on learning that at a critical time he had been de- 
posed and a most inefficient man had come to take 
his place. 3. We believe (and in fact there is no 
doubt of it) that Rumour flies swiftly through the 
paths of air, since it was through her circulation of 
the news of these events that the Persians held 
council as to their course of action. And after long 

- Tliat is, to go to the seat of war against Sapor, instead 
of to the emperor's court. 



suadente, ut Ursicino procul amoto, despectoque 
duce novello,^ posthabitis civitatum perniciosis 
obsidiis, perrumperetur Euphrates, ireturque pror- 
siis, ut occupari possint provinciae, fama celeritate 
praeventa, omnibus ante bellis (nisi temporibus 
Gallieni,) intactae, paceque longissima locupletes, 
cuius rei prosperante deo ductorem commodissimum 
fore spondebat. 4. Laudato firmatoque concordi 
omnium voluntate cousilio, conversisque universis 
ad ea quae erant citius congerenda, commeatus 
milites arma ceteraque instrumenta, quae poscebat 
procinctus adventans, perpetua hieme parabantur. 
5. Nos interea paulisper cis Taurum morati, 
ex imperio ad partes Italiae festinantes, prope 
flumen venimus Hebrum, ex Odrysarum montibus 
decurreutem, ibique priacipis scripta suscepimus 
iubentia omni causatione posthabita, reverti Meso 
potainiam, sine apparitione uUa expeditionem cura 
turi periculosam, ad alium omni potestate translata 
6. Quod ideo per molestos formatores imperii strue 
batur, ut si Persae frustra habiti redissent ad sua 

1 duce novello, transposui c.c. ; n.d., V. 

1 Riifius Festus, ch. xxiii., says that in the time of 
GaUienus the Persians invaded Mesojjotamia and thought 
themselves masters of Syria, when Odenatus (decurio in 
Palmyra and husband of Zenobia) gathered a band of 
Syrian fanners, defeated the Persians several times, and 
pressed on as far as Ctesiphon. 


XVIII., 6, 3-6, A.D. 359 

debate to and fro it was decided, on the advice of 
Antoninus, that since Ursicinus was far away and 
the new commander was lightly regarded, they should 
give up the dangerous sieges of cities, pass the barrier 
of the Euphrates, and push on with the design of 
outstripping by speed the news of their coming and 
seizing upon the provinces, which in all previous wars 
(except in the time of GalHenus) ^ had been untouched 
and had grown rich through long-continued peace ; 
and Antoninus promised that with God's favour 
he would be a most helpful leader in this enter- 
prise. 4. When this plan had been commended and 
approved by unanimous consent, all turned their 
attention to such things as must be amassed with 
speed ; and so the preparation of supplies, soldiers, 
weapons, and other equipment which the coming 
campaign required, went on all -vvinter long. 

5. We ^ meanwhile lingered for a time on this 
side the Taurus, and then in accordance with our 
orders were hastening to the regions of Italy and 
had come to the \dcinity of the river Hebrus,^ which 
flows down from the mountains of the Odrysae ; 
there we received the emperor's dispatch, which 
without offering any excuse ordered us to return 
to Mesopotamia without any attendants and take 
charge of a perilous campaign, after all power 
had been transferred to another. 6. This was de- 
vised by the mischievous moulders of the empire 
with the idea that, if the Persians were baffled and 
returned to their own country, the glorious deed 

- Aniinianns accompanied Ursicinus to the emperor's 

^ A river of Thrace, the modern IMaritza. 



duels iiovi virtuti facinus adsignaretur egrcgium ; 
si fortuna seqiiior ingruisset, Ursicinus reus proditae * 
rei publicae deferretur. 7. Agitatis itaque ^ rationi- 
bus, diu cunctati reversique, fastidii plenum Sabi- 
nianum inveiiimus, hominem mediocris staturae, 
et par\'i angustique animi, vix sine turpi metu 
sufficientem ad levem convivii, nedum proelii 
strepitum, perferendum. 

8. Tamen quoniam speculatores apparatus omnes 
apud hostes fervere, constanti asseveratione per- 
fugis concinentibus, affirmabant, oscitante homun- 
culo, Nisibin propere venimus, utilia paraturi, ne 
dissimulantes obsidium, Persae civitati supcr- 
venirent incautae. 9. Dumque intra muros niatur- 
anda perurgerentur, fumus niicantesque ignes as- 
sidue a ^ Tigride per Castra Maurorum et Sisara et 
collimitia rebqua, ad usque civitatem continui 
perlucebant, soUto crebriores, erupisse hostium 
vastatorias manus superato flumine permonstrantes. 
10. Qua causa ne occuparentur itinera, celeri cursu 
praegressi, cum ad secundum lapidem venissemus, 
liberalis formae puerum torq^latum, (ut coniectaba- 
mus) octennem, in aggeris medio vidimus heiu- 
lantem, ingenui cuiusdam fihum (ut aiebat) ; quem 

^ proditae, Cornelissen ; ut proditor, Bentley ; proditor, V. 
* itaque, Bentley, Haupt. ; ita siue, V. ^ a, added by 

Lind. ; adsiduai trigidae, V. 

^That is, Sabinianus. For his small size see 6, 3. His 
inaction is vividly expressed by oscitante. 

2 A city of Mesopotamia, in Mygdonia, surrendered to 
the Persians in the time of Jovian ; modern Nisibin. 

' See also xxv. 7, 9. It lay north of Nisibis and was 


XVIII., 6, 6-10, A.D. 359 

would be attributed to the ability of the new leader : 
but if Fortune proved unfavourable, Ursicinus 
would be accused as a traitor to his country. 7. 
Accordingly, after careful consideration, and long 
hesitation, we returned, to find Sabinianus a man 
full of haughtiness, but of insignificant stature and 
small and narrow mind, barely able to endure the 
slight noise of a banquet without shameful appre- 
hension, to say nothing of the din of battle. 

8. Nevertheless, since scouts, and with them a 
chorus of deserters, persistently declared that the 
enemy were pushing all their preparations with 
hot haste, while the manikin ^ yawned, we hastily 
marched to Nisibis,^ to prepare what was useful, 
lest the Persians, masking their design of a siege, 
might surprise the city when off its guard. 9. And 
while within the walls the things that required 
haste were being pushed vigorously, smoke and 
gleaming fires constantly shone from the Tigris 
on past Castra Maurorum ^ and Sisara and all 
the neighbouring country as far as the city, in greater 
number than usual and in a continuous line, clearly 
showing that the enemy's bands of plunderers had 
burst forth and crossed the river. 10. Therefore, for \ 
fear that the roads might be blocked, w^e hastened on 
at full speed, and when we were within two miles, 
we saw a fine-looking boy, wearing a neck-chain, 
a child eight years old (as we guessed) and the son 
of a man of position (as he said), crying in the 

called by the Arabic geographers by a name meaning 
pagus mororurn, or " the place of mulberries," of which 
Maurorum seems to be a corruption. Sisara is a neigh- 
bouring fortress. 



mater dum imminentiwm hostium terrore percita 
fugeret, impeditior trepidando reliquerat solum. 
Hunc dum imperalu ducis miiseratione ^ commoti, 
impositum equo, prae me ferens ad civitatem reduco, 
circumvallato murorum ambitu praedatores latius 
vagabantur. 11. Et quia me obsidiouales aerumnae 
terrebant, intra semiclausam posticam exposito 
puero, nostrorum agmen agilitate vohicri repetebara 
exanimis, nee multum afuit ^ quin caperer. 12. Nam 
cum Abdigildum ^ quendam tribunum, fugientem 
cum calone ala sequeretur hostilis, lapsoque per 
fugam domino servum deprehensum, cum ego 
rapido ictu transirem, interrogassent, quisnam pro- 
vectus * sit iudex, audissentque Ursicinum paulo 
ante urbem ingressum, montem Izalam petere ; 
occiso indice in unum quaesiti complures nos ir- 
requietis cursibus sectabantur. 13. Quos cum 
iumenti agilitate praegressus, apud Amudin muni- 
mentum infirmum, dispersis per pabulum equis, 
recubantes nostros securius invenissem, porrecto 
extentius brachio, et summitatibus sagi contortis 
elatius, adesse hostes signo solito demonstrabam, 
eisdemque iunctus impetu communi ferebar, equo 
iam fatiscente. 14. Terrebat autem nos plenilunium 
noctis, et planities supina camporum, nulla (si 
occupasset artior casus,) latibula praebere sufficiens, 

1 miseratione. Her. ; miserali, V. - afuit, Bentley, 

C. F. W. Miillpr, Haupt. ; fuit, V (defended by Lofstfidt ). 
^ Abdigild/um. Her. ; Ahdigidum, G ; ahdigikhitn, V. 
■• provectus, Yiil. ; pmfectns, V. 


XVIII. . G, 10-14, A.D. 359 

middle of the highway ; his mother, while she was 
fleeing, wild with fear of the pursuing enemy, being 
hampered and agitated had left him alone. While I, 
at the command of my general, who was filled with 
pity, set the bov before me on my horse and took 
him back to the city, the pillagers, after building 
a rampart around the entire wall, Vere ranging more 
widely. 11. And because the calamities of a siege 
alarmed me, I set the boy down within a half-open 
postern gate and with winged speed hastened breath- 
less to our troop ; and I was all but taken prisoner. 
12. For a tribune called Abdigildus was fleeing with 
his camp-servant, pursued by a troop of the enemy's 
cavalry. And while the master made his escape, 
they caught the slave and asked him (just as I 
passed by at full gallop) who had been appointed 
governor. And when they heard that Ursicinus 
had entered the city a short time before and was now 
on his way to Mount Izala, they killed their infor- 
mant and many of them, uniting in pursuit of one 
man, followed me with tireless speed. 13. When 
through the fleetness of my mount I had outstripped 
them and come to Amudis, a weak fortress, I found 
our men lying about at their ease, while their horses 
had been turned out to graze. Extending my arm 
far forward and gathering up my cloak and waving 
it on high, I showed by the usual sign that the enemy 
were near, and joining with them I was hurried along 
at their pace, although my horse was now growing 
tired. 14. We were alarmed, however, by the fact 
that it was the full of the moon and by the wide 
stretch of plain, which (in case any pressing emer- 
gency surprised us) could off"er no hiding-places, 



ubi uec arborcs nee frutecta nee quicquam praetcr 
herbas humiles visebatur. 15. Excogitatum est 
ergo ut ardente superposita lampade, et circum- 
ligata ne rueret, iumentum solum quod earn vehebat 
solutum, sine rectore laevorsus ire permitteretur, 
cum nos ad montanos excessus dextra positos ten- 
deremus, ut praelucere sebalem facem duci lenius 
gradienti, Persae credentes, eum tenerent potissimum 
cursum ; quod ni fuisset praevisum, circumventi et 
capti, sub dicionem venissemus hostilem. 

16. Hoc extract! periculo, cum ad nemorosum 
quendam locum vineis arbustisque pomiferis con- 
situm, Meiacarire nomine venissemus, cui fontes 
dedere vocabulum gelidi, dilapsis ^ aceolis omnibus, 
solum in remoto secessu latentem invenimus mili- 
tem, qui oblatus duci et locutus varia prae timore, 
ideoque suspectus, adigente metu qui intentabatur,^ 
pandit rerum integram fidem, docetque quod apud 
Parisios natus in Galliis, et equestri militans turma, 
vindictam quondam commissi facinoris timens, 
ad Persas abierat profugus, exindeque morum 
probitate spectata, sortita coniuge liberisque sus- 
ceptis, speculatorem se missum ad nostra, saepe 

^ dilapsis, Cornelissen ; lapsis, V, ^ intentatur, sug- 

gested by Clark, c.c. 

^ Sebalis fax, which seems to occur only here, is the same 
as sebacea, a torch or candle made of tallow (sebum) instead 
of wax. 


XVIIL, 6, 14-16, A.D. 359 

since neither trees nor shrubs were to be seen, but 
nothing except short grass. 15. Therefore we devised 
the plan of placing a lighted lantern on a single pack- 
animal, binding it fast, so that it should not fall 
ofl', and then turning loose the animal that carried 
the light and letting him go towards the left without 
a driver, while we made our way to the mountain 
heights lying on the right, in order that the Persians, 
supposing that a tallow torch ^ was carried before the 
general as he went slowlv on his way, should take 
that course rather than any other ; and had it not 
been for this stratagem, we should have been sur- 
rounded and captured and come into the power of 
the enemy. 

16. Saved from this danger, we came to a wooded 
tract planted with vineyards and fruitbearing 
orchards, called Meiacarire,^ so named from its 
cold springs. There all the inhabitants had de- 
camped, but we found one soldier hiding in a remote 
spot. He, on being brought before the general, 
because of fear gave contradictory answers and so 
fell under suspicion. But influenced bv threats 
made against him, he told the whole truth, saying 
that he was born at Paris in Gaul and served in 
a cavalry troop ; but in fear of punishment for a 
fault that he had once committed he had deserted 
to the Persians. Then, being found to be of up- 
right character, and having married and reared 
children, he was sent as a spy to our territories and 
often brought back trustworthy news. But now 

^According to Valesius, from Syrian inaia or maio, 
"water," and carire, "cold"; the former word appears 
also in Emmaus. 



veros nuntios reportasse. At nunc se a Tamsapore 
et Nohodare «)ptimatibiis missum, qui catervas 
ductaverant praedatorum, ad eos redire quae 
didicerat perlaturum. Post haec, adiectis quae agi 
in parte diversa norat, occiditur. 

17. Proinde curarum crescente sollicitudine, inde 
passibus citis Amidam pro temporis copia venimus, 
civitatem postea secutis cladibus inclutam. Quo 
reversis exploratoribus nostris, in vaginae internis 
notarum figuris membranam repperinius scriptam, 
a Procopio ad nos perferri mandatam, quern lega- 
tum ad Persas antea missum cum comite LuciJIiano 
praedixi, haec consulto obscurius indicantem, ne 
captis baiulis, sensuque intellecto scriptorum, ex- 
citaretur materia funestissima. 

18. " Amendatis procul Graiorum legatis, forsitan 
et necandis, rex ille ^ longaevus non contentus Hel- 
lesponto, iunctis Grenici ^ et Rhyndaci pontibus, 
Asiam cum numerosis populis pervasurus adueniet, 
suopte ingenio irritabilis et asperrimus, auctore et 
incensore Hadriani quondam Romani Principis 
successore ; actum et conclamatum est, ni caverit 

19. Qui textus significabat Persarum regem trans- 
itis fluminibus Anzaba et Tigride, Antonino hortante, 

1 ill{e), added by Clark ; fiongeuus, V. - Grencci, Her. ; 

yraenicia, V. 

1 Modern Diarbekir, see Gibbon, ii. p. 269, Bury. 
- Ch. ix. below, and xix, 1-8. 

^ Two rivers of Mysia, in north-western Asia Minor, the 
former celebrated for the victory of Alexander the Great 


XVIII., 6, 16-19, A.D. 3S9 

he had been sent out by the grandees Tamsapor and 
IVohodares, who had led the bands of pillagers, and 
was returning to them, to report what he had learned. 
After this, having added what he knew about what 
the enemy were doing, he was put to death. 

17. Then with our anxious cares increasing we 
went from there as quickly as circumstances 
allowed to Amida,^ a city afterwards notorious for 
the calamities which it suffered.- And when our 
scouts had returned there, we found in the scabbard 
of a sword a parchment written in cipher, which 
had been brought to us by order of Procopius, who, 
as I said before, had previously been sent as an 
envoy to the Persians with Count Lucillianus. In 
this, with intentional obscurity, for fear that, if the 
bearers were taken and the meaning of the message 
known, most disastrous consequences would follow, 
he gave the following message : — 

18. " Now that the envoys of the Greeks have been 
sent far away and perhaps are to be killed, that 
aged king, not content with the Hellespont, will 
bridge the Granicus and the Rhyndacus ^ and come 
to invade Asia with many nations. He is naturally 
passionate and very cruel, and he has as an instiga- 
tor and abetter the successor of the former Roman 
emperor Hadrian ; * unless Greece takes heed, it is 
all over with her and her dirge chanted." 

19. This writing meant that the king of the Per- 
sians had crossed the rivers Anzaba and Tigris, and, 
urged on by Antoninus, aspired to the rule of the 

over the Persians, the latter for the defeat of Mithradates 
by Lucullus. 

^ Referring of course to the deserter Antoninus. 



dominium orientis affectare totius. His ob per- 
plexitatem nimiam aegerrime lectis, consilium sus- 
cipitur prudens. 

20. Erat eo tempore satrapa Corduenae, quae 
obtemperabat potestati Persarum, lovinianus nomine 
appellatus in solo Romano,^ adulescens nobiscum 
occulte sentiens ea gratia, quod obsidatus sorte 
in Syriis detentus, et dulcedine liberalium studiorum 
illectus, remeare ad nostra ardenti desiderio gestie- 
bat. 21. Ad hunc missus ego cum centurione quo- 
dam fidissimo, exploratius noscendi gratia quae gere- 
bantur, per avios monies angustiasque praecipites 
veni. Visusque et agnitus, comiterque susceptus, 
causam praesentiae meae uni illi confessus, ad- 
iuncto taciturno aliquo locorum perito, mittor ad 
praecelsas rupes exinde longe distantes, unde nisi 
oculorum deficeret acies, ad quinquagesimum usque 
lapidem, quodvis etiam minutissimum apparebat. 
22. Ibi morati integrum biduum. cum sol tertius 
affulsisset, cernebamus terrarum omnes ambitus 
subiectos, quos 6pi(oi'TU5 appellamus, agminibus 
oppletos innumeris, et antegressum regem vestis 
claritudine rutilantem. Quem iuxta laevus in- 
cedebat Grumbates, Chionitarum rex nervositate ^ 

1 Romano, adulescens, Mommsen ; lac. after R. Coriio- 
lissen, or educatus for adulescens. ^ neruositate. Pet. ; 

uemistate. Her. ; nobilitate, Mommsen ; nobis aetate, V. 

1 A mountainous region in Armenia, taken by Caesar 
Maximianus from the Persians in the time of Galerius, 


XVIIL, 6, 19-22, A.D. 359 

entire Orient. When it had heen read, with the 
greatest difficulty because of its excessive am- 
biguity, a sagacious plan was formed. 

20. There was at that time in Corduene,'^ which 
was subject to the Persian power, a satrap called 
Jovinianus on Roman soil, a youth who had secret 
sympathy with us for the reason that, having been 
detained in Syria as a hostage and allured by the 
charm of liberal studies, he felt a burning desire to 
return to our country. 21. To him I was sent with 
a centurion of tried loyalty, for the purpose of get- 
ting better informed of what was going on ; and I 
reached him over pathless mountains and through 
steep defiles. After he had seen and recognized me, 
and received me cordially, I confided to him alone 
the reason for my presence. Thereupon with one 
silent attendant who knew the country he sent me 
to some lofty cliffs a long distance from there, 
from which, unless one's eyesight was impaired, 
even the smallest object was visible at a distance of 
fifty miles. 22. There we stayed for two full days, 
and at dawn of the third day we saw below us 
the whole circuit of the lands (which we ^ call 
opi^oj'Tas ^) filled with innumerable troops with 
the king leading the way, glittering in splendid 
attire. Close by him on the left went Grumbates, 
king of the Chionitae,* a man' of moderate strength, 
it is true, and with shrivelled limbs, but of a certain 

but not yet wholly freed from their rule. Later it was 
separated from the Persian dominion by Jovian : cf. 
XXV. 2. 

^ That is, the Greeks. ^ The horizon. 

* Sapor had recently made peace with them ; see xvi. 9, 4. 



quidem media rugosisque membris, sed mente 
quadam grandifica, multisque victoriarum insignibus 
nobilis ; dextra rex Albanorum, pari loco atque 
honore sublimis ; post duces varii, auctoritate et po- 
testatibus emineiites, quos ordinum omnium multi- 
tudo sequebatur, ex vicinarum gentium roboribus 
Ipcta, ad tolerandam rerum asperitatem diuturnis 
casibus erudita. 23. Quo usque nobis Doriscum 
Thraciae oppidum, et agminatim intra consaepta 
exercitus, recensitos Graecia fabulosa uarrabis ? 
cum nos cauti vel (ut verius dixerim) timidi, nihil 
exaggeremus, praeter ea quae fidei testimonia neque 
incerta monstrarunt. 

7. Sapor cum Chionitarum et Albanorum regibus 
Mesopotamiam intrat. Romani suos ipsi agros 
inceudunt, agrestes in oppida compellunt, ac 
citeriorem ripam Euphratis castellis praesidiisque 

1. Postquam reges Nineve Adiabenae ingenti 
civitate transmissa, in medio pontis Anzabae 
hostiis caesis, extisque prosperantibus, transiere 
laetissimi, coniectantes nos residuam plebem omnem 
aegre penetrare post triduum posse, citius exinde ad 
satrapen reversi quievimus, hospitalibus officiis 
recreati. 2. Unde per loca itidem deserta et sola, 
magno necessitatis ducente solacio, celerius quam 

1 Dwelling in what is now Georgia. 

^ Cf. Herodotus, vii. 59. Xerxes, in order to reckon 
the size of his army, assembled ten tliousand inen and 


XVIIL, 6, 22-23—7, 1-2. a.d. 359 

greatness of inind and distinguished by the glory 
of many victories. On the right was the king of 
the Albani,^ of equal rank, high in honour. After 
them came various leaders, prominent in reputation 
and rank, followed by a multitude of every degree, 
chosen from the flower of the neighbouring nations 
and taught to endure hardship by long continued 
training. 23. How long, storied Greece, wiU you 
continue to tell us of Doriscus, the city of Thrace, 
and of the armies drawn up in troops within en- 
closures and numbered ? ^ For I am too cautious, 
or (to speak more tridy) too timid, to exaggerate 
anything beyond what is proven by trustworthy 
and sure evidence. 

7. Sapor with the kings of the Chaonitae and the 
Albani invades Mesopotamia. The Romans 
set fire to their oicn fields, drive the peasants into 
the toiins, and fortify our bank of the Euphrates 
tvith strongholds and garrisons. 

1. After the kings had passed by Nineveh, a 
great city of Adiabene, and after sacrificing victims 
in the middle of the bridge over the Anzaba and 
finding the omens favourable, had crossed full of 
joy, I judged that all the rest of the throng coidd 
hardly enter in three days ; so I quickly returned 
to the satrap and rested, entertained with hospitable 
attentions. 2. Then I returned, again passing 
through deserted and solitary places, more quickly 

drew a circle around them ; then he filled the space again 
and again with men, until the whole army was thus 




potuit sperari reversi, coufirmavLmus animos haesi- 
tantium, unum e navalibus pontem transisse reges 
absque uUa circumitione perdoctos. 3. Extemplo 
igitur equites citi mittuntur ad Cassianum, Meso- 
potamiae ducem, rectoremque provinciae tunc ^ 
Euphronium, compulsuri agrestes cum familiis et 
pecoribus universis ad tutiora transire,^ et agiliter 
deseri Carras, oppidum invalidis circumdatum muris ; 
super his campos omnes incendi, ne pabuloruni 
suppeteret copia. 4, Et imperatis sine mora com- 
pletis, iniecto igni furentis element! vis maxima, 
frumenta omnia cum iam stipula flaventi turgerent, 
herbasque pubentes ita contorruit, ut ad usque 
Euphraten, ab ipsis marginibus Tigridis, nihil 
viride cerneretur. Tunc exustae sunt ferae com- 
plures, maximequc leones, per ea loca saevientes 
immaniter, consumi vel caecari sueti paulatim hoc 
modo. 5. Inter harundineta Mesopotamiae flumi- 
num et frutecta, leones vagantur innumeri, dementia 
hiemis ibi mollissimae semper innocui. At ubi 
sobs radiis exarserit tempus, in regionibus aestu 
ambustis, vapore sideris et magnitudine cuhcum 
agitantur, quorum examinibus per eas terras re- 
ferta sunt omnia. Et quoniam oculos, quasi umida 

^ tunc after Cassianum, Giinther, Monimsen ; afte" 
prouinciae, V. - transire compelli et, VEBG, Bentley 

{confestim. Pet.). 


XVIII., 7, 2-5, A.D. 359 

than could be expected, led as I was by the great con- 
solation of necessity, and cheered the spirits of those 
who Mere troubled because they were informed that 
the kings, without any detour, had crossed on a single 
bridge of boats. 3. Therefore at once swift horse- 
men were sent to Cassianus, commander in Meso- 
potamia, and to Euphronius, then governor of the 
province, to compel the peasants with their house- 
holds and all their flocks to move to safer quarters, 
directing also that the city of Carrhae should 
quickly be abandoned, since the town was surrounded 
only by weak fortifications ; and in addition that 
all the plains be set on fire, to prevent the enemy 
from getting supphes. 4. These orders were exe- 
cuted without delay, and when the fires had been 
kindled, the mighty violence of that raging element 
consumed all the grain, which was filled out on 
the now yello\vdng stalk, and every kind of growing 
plant, so utterly that from the very banks of the 
Tigris all the way to the Euphrates not a green 
thing was to be seen. At that time many wild 
beasts were burned up, especially lions, which 
are excessively savage in those regions and usually 
perish or are gradually blinded in the following 
manner. 5. Amid the reed-beds and thickets of 
the Mesopotamian rivers lions range in countless 
numbers ; and during the moderate winter, which 
is there very mild, they are always harmless. But 
when the sun's rays have brought the season of 
burning heat, in regions parched by drought they 
are tormented both by the sultry breath of the sun 
and by huge gnats, swarms of which fill all parts 
of that land. And since these same insects make 



et lucentia membra, eaedem appetunt volucres, 
palpebrarum libramentis mordirus insidentes, idem 
leones, cruciati diutius, aut fluminibus mersi sor- 
bentur, ad quae remedii causa confugiunt. aut amissis 
oculis, quos uiiguibus crebro lacerantes effodiunt, 
immanius efferascunt ; quod ni fieret, universus 
oriens huius modi bestiis abundaret. 

6. Dum campi cremantur (ut dictum est) tribuni 
cum protectoribus miissi, citerioris ripae Euphratis 
castellis et praeacutis sudibus omnique praesidiorum 
genere communibant, tormenta, qua parum ^ erat 
voraginosum, locis opportunis aptantes. 

7. Dum haec celerantur, Sabinianus inter rapienda 
momenta periculorum communium lectissimus mode- 
rator belli internecivi, per Edessena sepulchra, 
quasi fundata cum mortuis pace, nihil formidans, 
more vitae remissioris fluxius agens, militari pyr- 
rice ^ sonantibus modulis pro histrionicis gestibus, 
in silentio summo delectabatur, ominoso sane et 
incepto et loco,^ cum haec et huius modi factu 
dictuque tristia, futures praenuutiantia ^ motus, 
vitare optimum quemque debere saeculi progessione 
discamus. 8. Interea reges, Nisibi pro statione ^ 

^ qua parum erat, Giinther ; qua flumen parum erat, 
Mommsen ; quarum erat, V. ^ pyrrice, Clark ; pyrrica, 

Val. ; pyrrico, V. ^ et loco, Wagner ; et inloco, V. 

* praenuntiantia, Giinther, Mommsen ; pronuntiant, V ; 
futuros . . . motus, del. Val. *j)ro statione, G; 

jirostratione, V. 

^ So that the Persians would be likely to try to cross. 
" Of fourse, ironical. 


XVIII., 7, 5-8, A.D. 359 

for the eyes, as the moist and shining parts of the 
body, and settKng along the eyehds bite them, 
those same Hons, after suffering long torture, either 
plunge into the rivers, to which they flee for pro- 
tection, and are drowned, or after losing their eyes, 
which they dig out by constantly scratching them 
with their claws, become frightfully savage. And 
were it not for this, the entire Orient would be 
overrun by such beasts. 

6. While the plains were burning (as was said), 
tribunes were sent with the guard and fortified the 
nearer bank of the Euphrates with towers, sharp 
stakes, and every kind of defence, planting hurling- 
engines in suitable places, where the river was not 
full of eddies.^ 

7. While these preparations were being hastened, 
Sabinianus, that splendid choice ^ of a leader in 
a deadly war, when every moment should have 
been seized to avert the common dangers, amid the 
tombs of Edessa, as if he had nothing to fear when 
he had made his peace with the dead, and acting 
with the wantonness of a life free from care, in 
complete inaction was being entertained by his 
soldiers with a pyrrhic dance,^ in which music 
accompanied the gestures of the performers — 
conduct ominous both in itself and in its occasion, 
since we learn as time goes on that these and similar 
things that are ill-omened in word and deed ought 
to be avoided by every good man as foreboding 
coming troubles. 8. Meanwhile the kings passed 

^ These were originally war dances in armour, but their 
scope was extended to pantomime of all kinds ; see Suet., 
Nero, 12, 1 and 2. 



vili transmissa, incendiis arida nutrimentorum 
varietate crescentibus, fugitantes inopiam pabuli, 
sub montium pedibus per valles gramineas incede- 
bant. 9. Cumque Bebasen villain venissent, unde 
ad Conslantinam usque oppidum, quod centesimo 
lapide disparatur, arescunt omnia siti perpetua, 
nisi quod in puteis aqua reperitur exilis, quid agerent 
diu cunctati, iamque suorum duritiae fiducia tran- 
situri, exploratore fido docente, cognoscunt Euph- 
ratem, nivibus tabefactis inflatum. late fusis gur- 
gitibus evagari, ideoque vado nequaquam posse 
transiri. 10. Convertuntur ergo ad ea quae amplec- 
tenda fortuita daret occasio, spe concepta praeter 
opinionem exclusi, ac proposito pro abrupto rerum 
praesentium statu urgenti consilio, Antoninus dicere 
quid sentiat iussus, orditur, flecti iter suadens in 
dexterum latus, ut per longiorem circumitum, om- 
nium rerum usu regionum feracium, et considera- 
tione ea qua rectus pergeret hostis, adhue intac- 
tarum, castra duo praesidiaria Barzalo et Claudias ^ 
peterentur, sese ductante, ubi tenuis fluvius prope 
originem et angustus, nullisque adhue aquis advenis 
adolescens, facile penetrari poterit ut vadosus. 
11. His auditis laudatoque suasore, et iusso ducere 

1 Barzalo et Claudias, Kellerbauer ; barzaloc te laudias, 

1 Formerly Aiitoninupolis, renamed after its restoration 
by Constant ine • see 9, 1, below. 

* That is, the Romans had not devastated that part of 


XVITI., 7, 8-11, A.D. 359 

by Nisibis as an unimportant place, and since the 
fires were spreading because of the variety of dry 
fuel, to avoid a scarcity of fodder were marching 
through the grassy valleys at the foot of the moun- 
tains. 9. And now they had come to a hamlet called 
Bebase, from which as far as the town of Constantina,^ 
which is a hundred miles distant, everything is 
parched by constant drought except for a little 
water to be found in wells. There they hesitated 
for a long time what to do, and finallv were planning 
to cross, being confident of the hardiness of their 
men, when they learned from a faithful scout that 
the Euphrates was swollen by the melted snows and 
overflowing in wide pools, and hence could not be 
forded anywhere. 10. Therefore, being unexpectedly 
disappointed in the hope that they had conceived, 
they turned to embrace whatever the chance of 
fortune should ofi'er ; and on holding a council, 
with reference to the sudden urgent difficulties of 
their present situation, Antoninus, on being bidden 
to say what he thought, began by advising that they 
should turn their march to the right, in order to 
make a long detour through regions abounding in 
all sorts of supplies, and still untouched by the 
Romans in the belief that the enemy would march 
straight ahead,^ and that they should go under his 
guidance to the two garrison camps of Barzalo and 
Claudiae ; for there the river was shallow and narrow 
near its source, and as yet increased by no tributaries, 
and hence was fordable and easy to cross. 11. When 
this proposition had been heard and its author 

the eouiitry because they thought that the enemy would 
march straight to the river without making a detour. 



qua norat, agmina cuncta, ab institute itinera 
conversa, praevium sequebantur. 

8. Septingenti equites Illyriciuni necopinantes a 
Persur coniiciuntur in fugnm. Evadunt hinc 
Ursicinus, inde Marcellinus. 

1. Quo certis speculationibus cognito, nos dis- 
posuimus properare Samosatam, ut superato exinde 
flumine, pontiumque apud Zeugma et Capersana 
iuncturis abscisis, hostiles impetus (si iuvisset fors 
ulla,) repelleremus. 2. Sed contigit atrox et silentio 
omni dedecus obruendum. Namque duarum tur- 
marum equites circiter septingenti, ad subsidium 
Mesopotamiae recens ex Illyrico missi, enerves 
et timidi, praesidium per eos tractus ^ agentes, 
nocturnasque paventes insidias, ab aggeribus pub- 
licis vesperi, quando custodiri magis omnes tramites 
conveniret, longius discedebant. 3. Hocque ob- 
servato, eos \dno oppresses et somno, viginti milia 
fere Persarum, Tamsapore et Nohodare ductantibus, 
nullo prospiciente transgressa, post- tumulos celsos 
vicinos Amidae, occultabantur armata. 

4. Moxque (ut dictum est) cum abituri Samosatam 
luce etiam tum dubia pergeremus, ab alta quadam 
specula radiantium armorum splendore perstricti, 
hostisque adesse excitatius clamitantes, signo date 

1 tractu?, Liad. : traducltis, V. 


XVIIL, 7, 11—8, 1-4, A.D. 3S9 

commended and bidden to lead them by the way 
that he knew, the whole array changed its intended 
line of march and followed its guide. 

8. Sfiven hundred Ulyrian horsemen are surprised 
and put to flight by the Persians. Ursicinus 
and Marcellinus escape in different directions. 

1, When this was known through trustworthy 
scouts, we planned to hasten to Samosata, in order 
to cross the river from there and break down the 
bridges at Zeugma and Capersana, and so (if fortune 
should aid us at all) repel the enemy's attacks. 
2. But there befell a terrible disgrace, which de- 
serves to be buried in utter silence. For about 
seven hundred horsemen, belonging to two squad- 
rons who had recently been sent to the aid of 
Mesopotamia from lUyricum, a spiritless and 
cowardly lot, were keeping guard in those parts. 
And dreading a night attack, they withdrew to a 
distance from the pubUc roads at evening, when all 
the paths ought to be better guarded. 3. This was 
observed by the Persians, and about twenty thou- 
sand of them, under the command of Tamsapor and 
Nohodares, passed by the horsemen unobserved, 
while these were overcome with wine and sleep, and 
hid themselves with arms behind some high mounds 
near Amida. 

4. And presently, when we were on the point of 
going to Samosata (as has been said) and were on our 
wav while it was still twilight, from a high point 
our eyes caught the gleam of shining arms, and 
an excited cry was raised that the enemy were upon 



quod ad proelium solet hortari, restitimus con- 
globati, nee fugam capessere. cum essent iam in 
contuitu qui sectarentur, nee eongredi cum hoste 
equitatu et numero praevalente, metu indubitatae 
mortis eautum existimantes. 5. Denique ex ultima 
necessitate manibus iam conserendis, cum quid agi 
oporteat cunctaremur, occiduntur quidam nostrorum, 
temere procursantes, et urgente utraque parte, 
Antoninus ambitiosius ^ praegrediens agmen,^ ab 
Ursicino agnitus, et obiurgatorio sonu vocis increpi- 
tus, proditorque et nefarius appellatus. sublata 
tiara, quam capiti summi ^ ferebat honoris insigne, 
desiluit equo, curvatisque membris, humum vultu 
paene eontingens, salutavit patronum appellans 
et dominum, manus post terga conectens, quod 
apud Assyrios supplicis indicat formam. 6. Et 
" Ignosee mibi " inquit " amplissime comes, neces- 
sitate non voluntate ad haec quae no\d * scelesta, 
prolapso ; egere me praecipitem iniqui ^ flagitatores, 
ut nosti, quorum avaritiae ne tua quidem exeelsa 
ilia fortuna, propugnans miseriis meis, potuit re- 
fragari." Simul haec dicens, e medio prospectu 
abscessit, non aversus, sed dum evanesceret, vere- 
cunde retrogradiens et pectus ostentans. 

7. Quae dum in curriculo semihorae aguntur, 
postsignani nostri, qui tenebant editiora collis 
exclamant, aliam cataphractorum niultitudinem 

1 ambitiosius, Mommsen ; amhitiosum, V. ^ agmen. 

Her. ; agmini, Monunsen ; agmina bursicino, V. 
^ summi, Damste ; nummo, V. * novi, HBG ; moui, 

Kellerbauer, Eyssen. ; nonis, V. * i^iiqui, Haupt. ; 

inquit, EBG ; inquid, V. 


XVIIl.. 8, 4 7, A.D. 359 

us ; then the usual signal for summoning to battle 
was given and we halted in close order, thinking it 
prudent neither to take flight when our pursuers were 
already in sight, nor yet (through fear of certain 
death) to engage with a foe far superior in cavalry 
and in numbers. 5. Finally, after it became abso- 
lutely necessary to resort to arms, while we were 
hesitating as to what ought to be done, some of 
our men ran forward rashly and were killed. And 
as both sides pressed forward, Antoninus, who was 
ostentatiously leading his troops, was recognised 
by Ursicinus and rated ^vith chiding language ; 
and after being called traitor and criminal, Antoninus 
took oft' the tiara which he wore on his head as 
a token of high honour, sprang from his horse, and 
bending his body so that he almost touched the 
ground with his face, he saluted Ursicinus, calhng 
him patron and lord, clasping his hands together 
behind his back, which among the Assyrians is 
a gesture of supplication. 6. Then, " Pardon me," 
said he, " most illustrious Count, since it is from 
necessity and not voluntarily that I have descended 
to this conduct, which I know to be infamous. 
It was unjust duns, as you know, that drove me 
mad, whose avarice not even your lofty station, 
which tried to protect my wretchedness, could 
check." As he said these words he withdrew from 
sight, not turning about, but respectfully walking 
backwards until he disappeared, and presenting his 

7. While all this took place in the course of half 
an hoxir. our soldiers in the rear, who occupied the 
higher part of the hill, cry out that another force, 



equitum pone visam, celeritate quam maxima 
propinquare. 8. Atque ut in rebus solent afflictis, 
ambigentes cuinam deberet aut posset occurri, 
trudente pondere plebis immensae, passim qua 
cuique proximum videbatur, difFundimur universi, 
dumque se quisque expedire discrimine magno 
conatur, sparsim disiecti hosti concursatori miscemur. 
9. Itaque spreta iam vivendi cupiditate, fortiter 
decernentes, ad ripas pellimur Tigridis, alte excisas. 
Unde quidam praecipites pulsi, implicantibus armis, 
haeserunt, ubi vadosus est amnis, alii lacunarum 
hausti vertigine, vorabantur, non nulli cum hoste 
congressi, vario eventu certabant, quidam cuneorum 
densitate perterriti, petebant proximos Tauri mentis 
excessus. 10. Inter quos dux ipse agnitus pug- 
natorumque mole circumdatus, cum Aiadalthe 
tribune, caloneque uno, equi celeritate ereptus, 

11, Mihi dum avius ab itinere comitum quid 
agerem circumspicio, Verennianus domesticus pro- 
tector occurrit, femur sagitta confixus, quam dum 
avellere obtestante coUega conarer, cinctus undique 
antecedentibus Persis, civitatem petebam. anhelo 
cursu rependo, ex eo latere quo incessebamur in 

XVIII., 8, 7-11, A.D. 359 

of heavy-armed cavalry, was to be seen l>rhiinl the 
others, and that they were approaching with all 
possible speed. 8. And. as is usual in times of 
trouble, we were in doubt whom we should, or could, 
resist, and pushed onward by the weight of the vast 
throng, we all scattered here and there, wherever 
each saw the nearest way of escape ; and while 
every one was trying to save himself from the 
great danger, we were mingled in scattered groups 
with the enemy's skirmishers. 9. And so, now 
scorning any desire for life and fighting manfuUy, 
we were driven to the banks of the Tigris, which 
were high and steep. From these some hurled 
themselves headlong, but entangled by their weapons 
stuck fast in the shoals of the river ; others were 
dragged down in the eddying pools and swallowed 
up ; some engaged the enemy and fought with vary- 
ing success ; others, terrified by the dense array of 
hostile ranks, sought to reach the nearest elevations 
of Mount Taurus. 10. Among these the commander 
himself was recognised and surrounded by a horde 
of warriors, but he was saved by the speed of his 
horse and got away, in company with Aiadalthes, 
a tribune, and a single groom. 

11. I myself, having taken a direction apart from 
that of my comrades, was looking around to see what 
to do, when \ erennianus, one of the guard, came up 
with an arrow in his thigh ; and while at the earnest 
request of my colleague I was trying to pull it out, 
finding myself surrounded on all sides by the ad- 
vancing Persians, I made up for the delay by breath- 
less speed and aimed for the city, which from the 
point where we were attacked lay high up and could 



arduo sitam, unoque ascensu peranguslo raeabilem, 
quein scissis collibus molinae,^ a<l calles aptaudas ^ 
aedificalae, densius constringebant. 12. Hie mixti 
cum Persis, eodem ictu procurrentibus ad superiora 
nobiscum, ad usque ortum alterius solis immobiles 
stetimus, ita conferti, ut caesoium cadavera multi- 
tudine fulta, reperire ruendi spatium nusquam 
possent, utque miles ante me quidam, discriminato 
capite, quod in aequas partes ictus gladii fiderat 
validissimus, in stipitis modum undique coartatus 
haereret. 13. Et licet multiplicia tela, per tormen- 
torum omnia genera, volarent e propuguaculis, hoc 
tamen periculo murorum nos propinquitas eximebat, 
tandemque per posticam civitatem ingressus, re- 
fertam inveni, confluente ex finitimis virili et mulie- 
bri secus. Nam et casu illis ipsis diebus, in subur- 
banis peregrina commercia, circumacto anno sobta 
celebrari,^ multitudo convenarum augebat agrestium. 
14. Interea sonitu vario cuncta miscentur, partim 
amissos gementibus, aliis cum exitio sauciis, multis 
caritates diversas, quas prae angustiis videre non 
poterant, invocantibus. 

9. Descriptio Amidae, et quot turn ibi legiones ac 
turmae in praesidio fuerint. 

1. Hanc civitatem oUm perquam brevem, Caesar 
etiam tum Constantius, ut aceolae suffugium possint 

^ molinae, V ; molitnina, Mommsen. - aptandas, 

Clark ; artandas, V. ^ celebrari (i corr. from um), V ; 

celebrare, G, Langen, Mommsen. 

^ That is, apparently, for preparing the material of 
which the paths were made. 


XVIII., 8, 11-14—9, 1, A.D, 359 

he approached only by a single very narrow ascent ; 
and this was made still narrower by mills which 
had been built on the cliffs for the purpose of making 
the paths. ^ 12. Here, mingled with the Persians, 
who were rushing to the higher ground with the same 
effort as ourselves, we remained motionless until 
sunrise of the next day, so crowded together that 
the bodies of the slain, held upright by the throng, 
could nowhere find room to fall, and that in front 
of me a soldier with his head cut in two, and spht 
into equal halves by a powerful sword stroke, was 
so pressed on all sides that he stood erect like a 
stump. 13. And although showers of weapons from 
all kinds of artillery flew from the battlements, 
nevertheless the nearness of the walls saved us from 
that danger, and when I at last entered the city by 
a postern gate I found it crowded, since a throng of 
both sexes had flocked to it from the neighbouring 
countryside. For, as it chanced, it was at that very 
time that the annual fair was held in the suburbs, 
and there was a throng of country folk in addition 
to the foreign traders. 14. Meanwhile there was a 
confusion of varied cries, some bewailing their 
lost kindred, others wounded to the death, many 
calling upon loved ones from whom they were 
separated and could not see because of the press. 

9. A description of Amida, and the number of the 
legions and troops of cavalry that were on guard 

1. This city was once very small, but Constantius, 
when he was still a Caesar, in order that the neighbours 



habere tutissimum, eo tempore quo Antoninupolim 
oppidurn aliud struxit, turribus circumdedit amplis 
et moenibus, locatoque ibi condilorio muraliurn 
tormentorum, fecit hostibus formidatarn, suoque 
nomine voluit appellari. 2. Et a latere quidem 
australi, geniculato Tigridis meatu subluitur, propius 
emergentis ; qua Euri opponitur flatibus, Meso- 
potamiae plana despectat ; unde aquiloni obnoxia 
est, Nymphaeo amni vicina, verticibus Taurinis 
umbratur, gentes Transtigritanas dirimentibus et 
Armeniam ; spiranti zeph^TO contraversa Guma- 
thenam contingit, regionem ubere et ^ cultu iuxta 
fecundam, in qua vicus est Abarne nomine, sospita- 
lium aquarum lavacris calentibus notus. In ipso 
autem Amidae meditullio sub arce fons dives 
exundat, potabilis quidem, sed vaporatis aestibus 
non numquam faetens. 3, Cuius oppidi praesidio 
erat semper Quinta Partbica legio destinata, cum 
indigenarum turma non contemnenda. Sed tunc 
ingruentem Persarum multitudinem sex legiones, 
raptim percursis itineribus antegressae, muris ad- 
stitere firmissimis, Magnentiaci et Decentiaci, quos 
post consummatos civiles procinctus, ut fallaces et 
turbidos, ad orientem venire compulit imperator, 
ubi nihil praeter bella timetur externa, et Tricensi- 
mani Decimanique, Fortenses et Superventores 
^ ubere et, Cornelissen ; iiberem, V. 

^ The soldiers enrolled by Magnentius and called by 
his name and that of his brother. 

^ Also called Ulpia. 

^ Called in early inscriptions Fretenses. 

* According to the Notit. Imp. these were light-armed 
horsemen ; the former were used in surprise attacks, the 
latter as scouts. 


XVIIL, 9, 1-3, A.D. 359 

might have a secure place of refuge, at the same 
time that he built another city called Aiitoninupolis, 
surrounded Amida with strong walls and towers ; 
and by establishing there an armoury of mural 
artillery, he made it a terror to the enemy and wished 
it to be called after his own name. 2. Now, on the 
south side it is washed by the winding course of the 
Tigris, which rises near-by ; where it faces the blasts 
of Eurus it looks down on Mesopotamia's plains ; 
where it is exposed to the north wind it is close to 
the river Nymphaeus and lies under the shadow of 
the peaks of Taurus, which separate the peoples 
beyond the Tigris from Armenia ; opposite the 
breath of Zephyrus it borders on Gumathena, a 
region rich alike in fertihty and in tillage, in which is 
the village called Abarne, famed for its warm baths 
of healing waters. Moreover, in the very heart of 
Amida, at the foot of the citadel, a bountiful spring 
gushes forth, drinkable indeed, but sometimes 
malodorous from hot vapours. 3. Of this town the 
regular garrison was formed by the Fifth Legion, 
Parthica, along with a force of no mean size of 
natives. But at that time six additional legions, hav- 
ing outstripped the advancing horde of Persians by 
rapid marches, were drawn up upon its very strong 
walls. These were the soldiers of Magnentius and 
Decentius,^ whom, after finishing the campaigns of 
the civil wars, the emperor had forced, as being un- 
trustworthy and turbulent, to come to the Orient, 
where none but foreign wars are to be feared ; also 
the soldiers of the Thirtieth,^ and the Tenth, also 
called Fortenses,^andthe Superventores and Praeven- 
tores * with Aelianus, who was then a count ; these 




atque Praevciitorcs, cum Aeliano iaiii comite, 
quos tirones turn etiam novellos, hortaute memorato 
adhuc protectore, erupisse a Singara, Persasque 
fusos ^ in somnum retullimus trucidasse complures. 
4. Aderat comitum quoque sagittariorum pars 
maior, equestris ^ videlicet turmae ita cognominatae. 
ubi merent omnes ingenui barbari, armorura virium- 
que firmitudine inter alios eminentes. 

10. Sapor duo castella Romana in fidem recipit. 

1. Haec dum primi impetus turbo ^ conatibus 
agitat insperatis, rex cum populo sue gentibusque 
quas ductabat, a Bebase loco itinere flexo dextrorsus 
ut monuerat Antoninus, per Horren et Meiacarire 
et Charcha, ut transiturus Amidam, cum prope 
castella Romana venisset, quorum unum Reman, 
alterum Busan appellatur, perfugarum indicio 
didicit, multorum opes illuc translatas servari, ut 
in munimentis praecelsis et fidis, additumque 
est, ibi cum suppellectili pretiosa, inveniri feminam 
pulchram cum filia parvula, Craugasii Nisibeni 
cuiusdam uxorem, in municipali ordine genere 
fama potentiaque circumspecti.* 2. Aviditate ita- 
que rapiendi aiiena festinans, petit impetu fidenti 
castella, unde subita animi consternatione defensores 

^ Persasque ftisos, tr. in G ; /. Persasque, V. ' equestris, 
Mommsen ; eqiiestres, V. " turbo, added in G ; uertigo, 

Her. ; V omits. * lac. of 23 letters at end of page, V. 

1 111 one of the lost books. 


XVIII., 9, 3-4—10, 1-2. A.D. 359 

troops, when still raw recruits, at the urging of the 
same Aelianus, then one of the guard, had made 
a sally from Singara (as I have said ^) and slain 
great numbers of the Persians while they were 
buried in sleep. 4. There were also in the town the 
greater part of the comites sagittarii ^ (household 
archers), that is to say, a squadron of horsemen 
so-named, in which all the freeborn foreigners serve 
who are conspicuous above the rest for their prowess 
in arms and their bodilv strength. 

10. Sapor receives two Roman fortresses in surrender. 

1. While the storm of the first attack was thus 
busied with unlooked-for undertakings, the king 
with his own people and the nations that he was 
leading turned his march to the right from the place 
called Bebase, as Antoninus had recommended, 
through Horre and Meiacarire and Charcha, as if 
he would pass by Amida ; but when he had come 
near two fortresses of the Romans, of which one is 
called Rema and the other Busa, he learned from the 
information of deserters that the wealth of many- 
people had been brought there and was kept in what 
were regarded as lofty and safe fortifications ; and 
it was added that there was to be found there with 
a costly outfit a beautiful woman with her little 
daughter, the wife of a certain Craugasias of Nisibis, 
a man distinguished among the ofiicials of his town 
for family, reputation, and influence. 2. Accord- 
ingly the king, with a haste due to his greed for 
seizing others' property, attacked the fortresses 

- Apparently a division of the household cavalry j see 
XV. 4, 10, note 2, and Index II. (Index of Officials). 



armoruni varietate praestricti, se ^ cunctosque 
prodidere, qui ad praesidia confugerunt, et digredi 
iussi confestim claves obtulere portarum, pate- 
factisque aditibus, quicquid ibi congestum erat 
eruitur, et productae sunt attonitae metu mulieres, 
et infantes matribus implicati, graves aerumnas 
inter initia tenerioris aetatis experti.^ 3. Cumque 
rex percontando cuiusnam coniux esset, Craugasii 
comperisset, vim in se metuentem, prope venire 
permisit intrepidam, et confisam ^ opertamcpie 
ad usque * labra ipsa atro velamine, certiore 
iam spe mariti recipiendi, et pudoris inviolati 
mansuri, benignius confirmavit. Audiens enim 
coniugem miro eius amore flagrare, hoc praemio 
Nisibenam proditionem mercari se posse arbitra- 
batur. 4. Inventas tamen alias quoque ^ virgines, 
Christiano ritu cultui divino sacratas, custodiri 
intactas, et religioni ser\dre solito more, nullo 
vetante, praecepit, lenitudinem profecto in tempore 
simulans, ut omnes quos antehae diritate crudeli- 
tateque terrebat, sponte sua metu remoto venirent, 
exemplis recentibus docti, humanitate eum et 
moribus iam placidis magnitudinem temperasse 

1 praestricti se, Val. ; praestrictis, V. ^ lae. after 

experti, Clark. ^ confisam, Novak ; invisani, Damste ; 

uisam, V. * ad usque, Gronovius pater, Bentley ; 

absque, V. ^ alias quoqus, Liiid. ; aliasqtie, V. 


XVIIL, 10, 2-4, A.D. 359 

with fiery confidence, whereupon the defenders, 
overcome Avith sudden panic and dazzled by the 
variety of arms, surrendered themselves and all 
those who had taken refuge with the garrison ; 
and when ordered to depart, they at once handed 
over the keys of the gates. When entrance was 
given, whatever was stored there was brought out, 
and the women, paralysed with fear, were dragged 
forth with the children clinging to their mothers and 
experiencing grievous woes at the beginning of their 
tender years. 3. And when the king by inquiring 
whose wife the ladv was had found that her husband 
was Craugasias, he allowed her, fearing as she did 
that violence would be offered her, to approach 
nearer without apprehension ; and when she had 
been reassured and covered as far as her very lips 
with a black veil, he courteously encouraged her 
with sure hope of regaining her husband and of 
keeping her honour unsullied. For hearing that 
her husband ardently loved her, he thought that at 
this price he might purchase the betrayal of Nisibis. 
4. Yet finding that there were others also who were 
maidens and consecrated to divine service according 
to the Christian custom, he ordered that they be 
kept uninjured and allowed to practise their religion 
in their wonted manner without any opposition ; 
thus he made a pretence of mildness for the time, 
to the end that all whom he had heretofore terrified 
by his harshness and cruelty might lay aside their 
fear and come to him of their own volition, when 
they learned from recent instances that he now 
tempered the greatness of his fortune with kindli- 
ness and gracious deportment. 




1. Sapor, dum Amidenses ad deditionem hortatur, 
a praesidiariis sagittis et tragulis petitur. Idem 
dum temptat Grumbates rex, filius eius inter- 

1. Hoc miserae nostrorum captivitatis eventu 

rex laetus, successusque operiens similes, egressus 

exinde paulatimque incedens, Amidam die tertio 

venit. 2. Cumque primum aurora fulgeret, uni- 

versa quae videri poterant arinis stellantibus corus- 

cabant, ac ferreus equitatus campos opplevit et 

coUes. 3. Insidens autem equo, ante alios celsior, 

ipse praeibat agminibus cuactis, aureum capitis 

arientini figmentum, interstinctum lapillis. pro 

diademate gestans, niultiplici vertice dignitatum, 

et gentium diversaruin comitatu sublimis. Satisque 

eum constabat, colloquio tenus defensores moenium 

temptaturum, aliorsum Antonini ^ consilio festinan- 

tem. 4. Verum caeleste numen ut Romanae rei 

totius aerumnas intra unius regionis concluderet 

ambitum, adegerat in immensum se extollentem, 

credentemque quod viso statim obsessi omnes metu 

exanimati, supplices veuirent in preces. 5. Portis 

obequitabat,^ comitante cohorte regali, qui dum se 

prope confidentius inserit, ut etiam vultus eius possit 

aperte cognosci, sagittis missilibusque ceteris, ob 

1 Antonini dignitate (d. del. m. 1 ?), V. - obequitabat, 

V ; obequita (lac. 1 line) bat, Clark. 


XIX., 1, 1-5, A.D. 359 


1. Sapor, uhile urging the people of Amida to sur- 

render, is attacked by the garrison with arrows 
and spears. While King Grumbates attempts 
the same thing, his son is slain. 

1. The king, rejoicing in the wretched imprison- 
ment of our men that had come to pass, and antici- 
pating like successes, set forth from there, and 
slowly advancing, came to Amida on the third day. 

2. And when the first gleam of dawn appeared, 
everything so far as the eye could reach shone with 
glittering arms, and mail-clad cavalry filled hill and 
dale. 3. The king himself, mounted upon a charger 
and overtopping the others, rode before the whole 
army, wearing in place of a diadem a golden image 
of a ram's head set with precious stones, distinguished 
too by a great retinue of men of the highest rank 
and of various nations. But it was clear that he 
would merely try the effect of a conference on the 
defenders of the walls, since by the advice of 
Antoninus he was in haste to go elsewhere. 4. 
However, the power of heaven, in order to compress 
the miseries of the whole Roman empire within the 
confines of a single region, had driven the king to 
an enormous degree of self-confidence, and to the 
belief that all the besieged would be paralysed with 
fear at the mere sight of him, and would resort to 
suppliant prayers. 5. So he rode up to the gates 
attended bv his roval escort, and while with too 
great assurance he came so near that even his fea- 
tures could clearly be recognised, because of his 



decora petitus insignia, corruisset, ni pulvere iaculan- 
tium adimente conspectum parte indunienti tragulae 
ictu discissa, editurus postea strages innumeras 
evasisset. 6. Hiuc quasi in sacrileges violati sae- 
viens templi, temeratumque tot regum et gentium 
dominum praedicans, eruendae urbis apparatu 
nisibus magnis instabat, et orantibus potissimis 
ducibus ne profusus in irani a gloriosis descisceret 
coeptis, leni summatum petitione placatus, postridie 
quoque super deditione moneri decreverat defen- 

7. Ideoque cum prima lux advenisset, rex Chioni- 
tarum Grumbates, fidenter domino suam ^ operam 
navaturus, tendebat ad moenia, cum manu promp- 
tissima stipatorum, quern ubi venientem iam telo 
forte contiguum contemplator peritissimus ad- 
vertisset, contorta ballista, filium eius primae pubis 
adulescentem, lateri paterno haerentem, thorace 
cum pectore perforato perfodit,^ proceritate et 
decore corporis aequalibus autestantem. 8. Cuius 
occasu in fugam dilapsi populares eius omnes, 
moxque ne raperetur, ratione iusta regressi, numero- 
sas gentes ad arma clamoribus dissonis concitarunt, 
quarum concursu ritu grandinis bine inde convolanti- 
bus telis, atrox committitur pugna. 9. Et post 
interneciva certamina, ad usque finem diei protenta, 

^ domino suam, Thornell ; Sapori s., Clark ; suam, 
Eyssen. ; ano per atnna batiirus {b to u, V^), V. ^ perfodit, 
G ; praecipitem Judit, Novak ; praeftulit, V. 

1 Which would be delayed by the siege of Aniida. 

XIX., 1, 5-9, A.D. 359 

conspicuous adornment he became the target of 
arrows and other missiles, and would have fallen, 
had not the dust hidden him from the sight of his 
assailants, so that after a part of his garment was 
torn by the stroke of a lance he escaped, to cause 
the death of thousands at a later time. 6. In conse- 
quence of this attack he raged as if against sacrilegious 
violators of a temple, and declaring that the lord 
of so many kings and nations had been outraged, 
he pushed on with great effort every preparation for 
destroying the city ; but when his most distinguished 
generals begged that he would not under stress 
of anger abandon his glorious enterprises,^ he was 
appeased by their soothing plea and decided that 
on the following day the defenders should again 
be warned to surrender. 

7. And so, at the first dawn of day, Grumbates, 
king of the Chionitae, wishing to render courageous 
service to his lord, boldly advanced to the walls 
with a band of active attendants ; but a skilful 
observer caught sight of him as soon as he chanced 
to come within range of his weapon, and discharging 
a ballista, pierced both cuirass and breast of Grum- 
bates' son, a youth just come to manhood, who was 
riding at his father's side and was conspicuous among 
his companions for his height and his handsome 
person. 8. Upon his fall all his countrymen 
scattered in flight, but presently returned in well- 
founded fear that his body might be carried off, 
and with harsh outcries roused numerous tribes 
to arms ; and on their onset weapons flew from both 
sides like hail and a fierce fight ensued. 9. After 
a murderous contest, protracted to the very end of 



cum iam noctis esset initium, per acervos caesorum 
et scaturigines sanguinis aegre defensum caligine 
tenebrarum extrahitur corpus, ut apud Troiam quon- 
dam super comite Thessali ducis exanimi socii ^ 
Marte acerrimo conflixerunt. 10. Quo funere regia 
maesta, et optimatibus universis cum parente 
subita clade perculsis, indicto iustitio, iuvenis no- 
bilitate commendabilis et dilectus ritu nationis pro- 
priae lugebatur. Itaque ut armari solebat elatus, 
in amplo quodam suggestu locatur et celso, circaque 
eum lectuli decern sternuntur. figmenta vehentes 
hominum mortuorum, ita curate pollincta, ut ima- 
gines essent corporibus similes iam sepultis, ac per 
dierum spatium septem, \dri quidem omnes per con- 
tubernia et manipulos epulis indulgebant, saltando, 
et cantando tristia quaedam genera naeniarum, 
regium iuvenem lamentantes. 11. Feminae vero 
miserabili planctu. in primaevo flore succisam spem 
gentis solitis fletibus conclamabant, ut lacrimare 
cultrices Veneris saepe spectantnr, in sollemnibus 
Adonidis sacris, quod simulacrum aliquod esse 
frugum adultarum religiones mysticae docent. 

2. Amida circumsidetur. et intra biduum bis oppug- 
natur a Persis. 

1. Post incensum corpus ossaque in argenteam 
urnam collecta,- quae ad gentem humo mandanda 

1 exanmii socii Marte, Pet. ; exanh7ies aciem arte, V. 
2 conlecta, C. F. W. IMiiller ; coniecta, Val. ; contecta, V. 

1 Patroclus, comrade of Achilles. 


XIX., 1, 9-11—2, 1, A.D. 359 

the day, at nightfall the body, which had with diffi- 
culty been protected amid heaps of slain and streams 
of blood, was dragged off under cover of darkness, 
as once upon a time before Troy his companions 
contended in a fierce struggle over the lifeless com- 
rade ^ of the Thessalian leader. 10. By this death 
the palace was saddened, and all the nobles, as 
well as the father, were stunned by the sudden 
calamity ; accordingly a truce was declared and the 
young man, honoured for his high birth and beloved, 
was mourned after the fashion of his own nation. 
Accordinglv he was carried out, armed in his usual 
manner, and placed upon a large and lofty platform, 
and about him were spread ten couches bearing 
figures of dead men, so carefully fashioned that the 
images were like bodies already in the tomb. For 
the space of seven days all men by communities and 
companies - feasted (lamenting the young prince) 
with dances and the singing of certain sorrowful 
dirges. 11. The women for their part, woefully 
beating their breasts and weeping after their wonted 
manner, loudly bewailed the hope of their nation 
cut off" in the bloom of youth, just as the priestesses 
of Venus are often seen to weep at the annual fes- 
tival of Adonis, which, as the mystic lore of religion 
tells us, is a kind of symbol of the ripened grain. 

2. Amida is besieged and assaulted tivice ivithin tivo 
days by the Persians. 

1. After the body had been burned and the ashes 
collected and placed in a silver urn, since the father 

- That is, those that were associated by their living 
quarters or their places in the ranks. 



portari statuerat pater, agitata summa consiiiorum, 
placuerat busto urbis subversae expiare ^ perempti 
iuvenis manes ; nee enim Grumbates, inulta unici 
pignoris umbra, ire ultra patiebatur. 2. Biduoque 
ad otium dato, ac missis abunde qui pacis modo 
patentes agros pingues cultosque vastarent, quin- 
quiens ordine multiplicato scutorum, cingitur civitas 
ac tertiae principio lucis, corusci globi turmarum 
impleverunt cuncta quae prospectus humanus 
potuit undique contueri, et sorte loca divisa, dementi 
gradu incedentes ordines occuparunt. 3. Persae 
omnes murorum ambitus obsidebant. Pars, quae 
orientem spectabat, Chionitis evenit, qua funestus 
nobis ceciderat adulescens, cuius manibus excidio 
urbis parentari debebat, Geloni "^ meridiano lateri 
sunt destinati, tractum servabant septentrionis 
Albani, occidentali portae oppositi sunt Segestani, 
acerrimi omnium bellatores, cum quibus elata in 
arduum specie elephantorum agmina rugosis hor- 
renda corporibus, leniter incedebant, armatis onusta, 
ultra omnem diritatem taetri spectaculi formidanda, 
ut rettulimus saepe. 

4. Cernentes populos tam indimensos, ad orbis 
Romani incendium diu quaesitos, in nostrum con- 
versos exitium, salutis rata desperatione, gloriosos 
vitae exitus deinde curabamus, iamque omnibus 
nobis optatos. 5. A sole itaque orto usque diei 
ixltimum, acies immobiles stabant, ut fixae nullo 

1 expiari suggested by Clark. ^ manibus . . . Geloni, 

added by Novak ; cf. xiv. 8, 6 ; xix. 7, 1. 

1 That is, the biirned city should take the place of the 
bvMinn where his body was burned; see A..T.P. liv. pp. 
362 f. 


XIX., 2, 1-5, A.D. 359 

Lad decided that they should be taken to his native 
land to be consigned to the earth, they debated 
what it was best to do ; and it was resolved to pro- 
pitiate the spirit of the slain youth by burning ^ and 
destroying the city ; for Grumbates would not allow 
them to go farther while the shade of his only son 
was unavenged. 2. Accordingly, after two days 
had been given to rest, a large force was sent to 
devastate the rich, cultivated fields, which were 
unprotected as in time of peace ; then the city was 
begirt by a fivefold line of shields, and on the morning 
of the third day gleaming bands of horsemen filled 
all places which the eye could reach, and the ranks, 
advancing at a quiet pace, took the places assigned 
them by lot. 3. The Persians beset the whole 
circuit of the walls. The part which faced the east 
fell to the lot of the Chaonitae, the place where the 
youth so fatal to us was slain, whose shade was 
destined to be appeased by the destruction of the 
city. The Gelani were assigned to the southern 
side, the Albani guarded the quarter to the north, 
and to the western gate were opposed the Segestani, 
the bravest warriors of all. With them, making a 
lofty show, slowly marched the lines of elephants, 
frightful with their wrinkled bodies and loaded with 
armed men, a hideous spectacle, dreadful beyond 
every form of horror, as 1 have often declared. 

4. Beholding such innumerable peoples, long 
sought for to set fire to the Roman world and bent 
upon our destruction, we despaired of any hope of 
safety and henceforth strove to end our lives glori- 
ously, which was now our sole desire. 5. And so from 
sunrise until the day's end the battle lines stood fast, 



variato vestigio, ncc sonitu vel equorum audito 
hinnitu, eademque figiira digress i qua venerant, of bo 
recreati et somno, cum superesset exiguum noctis, 
aeneatorum clangore ductante, urbem ut mox 
casuram terribili corona cinxerunt. 6. Vixque ubi 
Grumbates hastam infectam sanguine ritu patrio 
nostrique more coniecerat fetialis, armis exercitus 
concrepans, involat ^ muros, confestimque lacrima- 
bilis belli turbo crudescit, rapido turmarum processu, 
in procinctum alacritate omni tendentium, et contra 
acri intentaque occursatione nostrorum. 

7. Proinde diffractis capitibus, multos hostium 
scorpionum iactu moles saxeae colliserunt, alii 
traiecti sagittis, pars confixi tragulis humum cor- 
poribus obstruebant, vulnerati alii socios fuga 
praecipiti repetebant. 8. Nee minores in civitate 
luctus aut mortes, sagittarum oreberrima nube 
auras spissa multitudine obumbrante, tormentorum- 
que raacbinis, quae direpta Singara possederant 
Persae, vulnera inferentibus plura. 9. Namque 
viribus coUectis propugnatores, omissa vicissim 
certamina repetentes, in maximio defendendi ardore 
saucii perniciose cadebant, aut laniati volvendo 
stantes proxime subvertebant, aut certe spicula 
membris infixa, viventes adhuc vellendi peritos 

1 inuolat, Eyssen. ; inuolnnti, V (second n del. V^). 

XIX., 2, 5-9, A.D. 359 

as though rooted iu the same spot ; no sound was 
heard, no neighing of horses ; and they withdrew 
in the same order in which they had come, and then 
refreshed with food and sleep, when only a small 
part of the night remained, led by the trumpeters' 
blast they surrounded the city with the same awful 
ring, as if it were soon to fall. 6. And hardly had 
Grumbates hurled a bloodstained spear, following 
the usage of his country and the custom of our fetial 
priest, than the army with clashing weapons flew 
to the walls, and at once the lamentable tempest of 
war grew fiercer, the cavalry advancing at full 
speed as they hurried to the fight with general 
eagerness, while our men resisted with courage and 

7. Then heads were shattered, as masses of stone, 
hurled from the scorpions, crushed many of the 
enemy ; others were pierced by arrows, some were 
struck down by spears and the ground strewn with 
their bodies, while others that were only wounded 
retreated in headlong flight to their companions. 
8. No less was the grief and no fewer the deaths in 
the city, since a thick cloud of arrows in compact 
mass darkened the air, while the artillery which 
the Persians had acquired from the plunder of 
Singara inflicted still more wounds. 9. For the 
defenders, recovering their strength and returning 
in relays to the contest they had abandoned, when 
wounded in their great ardour for defence fell with 
destructive results ; or if only mangled, they 
overturned in their writhing those who stood next 
to them, or at any rate, so long as they remained 
alive kept calling for those who had the skill to pull 



quaeritabant. 10. Ita strages stragibus implicatas, 
et ad extremum usque diei productas, ne vespertinae 
quidem hebetaverunt tenebrae, ea re quod obstina- 
tione utrimque magna decerncbatur. 11. Agitatis 
itaque sub onere armorum vigiliis, resultabant altrin- 
secus exortis clamoribus colles, nostris \nrtutes 
Constanti Caesaris extoUentibus, ut domini rerum 
et mundi, Persis Saporem saansaan appellantibus 
et pirosen, quod rex regibus imperans, et bellorum 
victor interpretatur. 

12. Ac priusquam lux quinta ^ occiperet, signo 
per lituos date, ad fervorem similium proeUorum 
excitae undique inaestimabiles copiae in modum 
alituum ferebantur, unde longe ac late prospici 
poterat, campis et convallibus nihil praeter arma 
micantia ferarum gentium demonstrantibus. 13. 
Moxque clamore sublato, cunctis temere prorum- 
pentibus, telorum vis ingens volabat e muris, utque 
opinari dabatur, nuUa frustra mittebantur inter 
hominum cadentia densitatem. Tot enim nos 
circumstantibus maUs, non obtinendae causa salutis, 
(ut dixi) sed fortiter moriendi studio flagrabamus, 
et a diei principio ad usque lucem obscuram, neu- 
trubi proeHo incKnato, ferocius quam consultius 
pugnabatur. Exsurgebant enim terrentium paven- 
tiumque ^ clamores, ut prae alacritate consistere 
sine vulnere vix quisquam possit. 14. Tandemque 
nox finem caedibus fecit, et satias aerumnarum 

1 lux V (i.e. quinta). Her. ; lux, V. ^ terrentium 

paventiunujue. Her., cf . Livy, xxii. .5, 4 ; ru^ntium ferien- 
tiumque, Val. ; terrentiumque, Y . 


XIX., 2, 9-14, A.D. 359 

out the arrows implanted in their bodies. 10. Thus 
slaughter was piled upon slaughter and prolonged 
to the very end of the day, nor was it lessened even 
by the darkness of evening, with such great deter- 
mination did both sides fight. 11. And so the 
night watches were passed under the burden of 
arms, while the hUls re-echoed from the shouts 
rising from both sides, as our men praised the power 
of Constantius Caesar as lord of the world and the 
universe, and the Persians called Sapor " saansaan " 
and " pirosen,'" which being interpreted is " king 
of kings " and " victor in wars." 

12. And before the coming of daylight the signal 
was given on the trumpets and the countless forces 
were aroused anew from all sides to battles of equal 
heat, rushing to the strife like birds of prey ; and 
the plains and dales as far and as wide as the eye 
coiild reach revealed nothing save the flashing arms 
of savage nations. 13. Presently a shout was raised 
and all rushed blindly forward, a vast shower of 
weapons flew from the walls, and as might be sup- 
posed, not one that fell among that dense throng 
of men was discharged in vain. For since so many 
ills hedged us about, we burned, not with the desire 
of saving our lives, but, as I have said, of dying 
bravely ; and from the beginning of the day until 
the light was dim we fought with more fury than 
discretion, without a pause in the battle on either 
side. For the shouts of those who would terrify 
and of those who feared constantly rang out, and 
such was the heat of battle that scarcely anyone 
could stand his ground without a wound. 14. At 
length night put an end to the bloodshed and satiety 




iudutias partibus dederat longiores. Ubi eniin 
quiescendi nobis tempus est datum, exiguas quae 
supererant vires, continuus cum insomnia labor 
absumpsit, sanguine et pallente exspirantium facie 
perterrente, quibus ne suprema quidem humandi 
solacia tribui sinebant angustiae spatiorum, intra 
civitatis ambitum non nimium amplae, legionibus 
septem et promiscua advenarum civiumque sexus 
utriusque plebe, et militibus aliis paucis, ad usque 
numerum milium centum ^ viginti cunctis '^ inclusis. 
15. Medebatur ergo suis quisque vulneribus pro 
possibilitate vel curantium copia, cum quidam 
graviter saucii, cruore exhausto, spiritus reluctantes 
efflarent, alii confossi mucronibus frustraque curati,^ 
animis in ventum solutis, proiciebanlur exstincti, 
aliquorum foratis undique membris mederi periti 
vetabant, ne ofFensionibus cassis animae vexarentur 
afflictae, non nulli vellendis sagittis in ancipiti 
curatione graviora morte supplicia perferebant. 

3. Ursicinus noctu obsidentibus superienire frustra 
conatur, Sabiniano magistro militum repugnante. 

1. Dum apud Amidam hac partium destinatione 
pugnatur, Ursicinus maerens, quod ex alterius pende- 
bat arbitrio, auctoritatis tunc in regendo milite 
potioris, Sabinianum etiam turn sepulcris haerentem, 
crebro monebat, ut compositis velitaribus cunctis, 

1 centum, added by Clark. - cunctis, Eyssen. ; 

quinque, ilominsen ; concitis, V. ^frustraque curati, 

Novak ; post irritam curam, Fletcher ; prostratique huini, 
Clark, of. xvii. 8, 5, xxii. 1, 2 ; prostrati curam, V. 

1 See xviii. 7, 7. 

XIX., 2, 14-15—3, 1, A.D. 359 

«)i" woes had brought both sides a longer rest from 
fighting; for even when time for rest was given 
us, constant toil and sleeplessness sapped the little 
strength that remained, and we were terrified by the 
blood and the pale faces of the dying, to whom not 
even the last consolation of burial could be given 
because of the confined space ; for within the limits 
of a city that was none too large there were shut 
seven legions, a promiscuous throng of strangers 
and citizens of both sexes, and a few other soldiers, 
to the number of 120,000 in all. 15. Therefore each 
cured his wounds according to his ability or the 
supply of helpers ; some, who were severely hurt, 
gave up the ghost slowly from loss of blood ; others, 
pierced through by arrows, after vain attempts to 
relieve them, breathed out their lives, and were cast 
out when death came ; others, whose limbs were 
gashed everywhere, the physicians forbade to be 
treated, lest their sufferings should be increased 
by useless infliction of pain ; still others plucked out 
the arrows and through this doubtful remedy en- 
dured torments worse than death. 

3. Ursicinus vainly attempts to surprise the besiegers 
by night, being opposed by Sabinianus, com- 
mander of the infantry. 

1. While the fight was going on at Amida with such 
determination on both sides, Ursicinus, grieving 
because he was dependent upon the will of another, 
who was then of greater authority in the command 
of the soldiers, frequently admonished Sabinianus, 
who was still clinging to his graves,^ that, getting 


HH 2 


per iinos pedes montium occultis itineribus pro- 
perarent, quo leviuin arinorum auxilio, siqua 
fors iuvisset, stationibus interceptis, uocturnas 
hostium aggrederentur excubias, quae ingeuti cir- 
cumitu vallaverant muros, aut lacessitionibus cre- 
bris occuparent obsidioni fortiter adbaerentes. 
2. Quibus Sabinianus renitebatur ut noxiis, palam 
quidem litteras imperiales praetendens, intacto 
ubique milite, quicquid geri potuisset impleri debere 
aperte iubentes, clam vero corde altissimo retinens, 
saepe in comitatu sibi mandatum, ut amplam omnem 
adipiscendae laudis decessori suo ardenti studio 
gloriae circumcideret, etiam ex re publica proces- 
suram. 3. Adeo vel cum exitio provinciarum 
festinabatur, ne bellicosus homo memorabilis alicuius 
facinoris auctor nuntiaretur aut socius. Ideoque 
his attonitus malis, exploratores ad nos saepe mit- 
tendo, licet ob custodias artas nullus facile oppidum 
poterat introire, et utilia agitando complura, nihil 
proficiens visebatur, ut leo magnitudine corporis 
et torvitate terribilis, inclusos intra retia catulos 
periculo ereptum ire non audens, unguibus ademptis 
et dentibus. 

XIX., 3, 1-3, A.D. 359 

together all his skirmishers, he should hasten by 
secret paths along the foot of the mountains, in 
order that with the help of light-armed troops ^ (if 
fortune was at all favourable) he might surprise the 
pickets and attack the night-watches of the enemy, 
who had surrounded the walls in wide extent, or by 
repeated assaults distract the attention of those who 
were stoutly persisting in the siege. 2. These pro- 
posals Sabinianus opposed as dangerous, publicly 
offering as a pretext letters of the emperor, which ex- 
pressly directed that whatever could be done should 
be effected without injury to the soldiers anywhere, 
but secretly in his inmost heart keeping in mind 
that he had often been instructed at court to cut 
off from his predecessor, because of his burning de- 
sire for glory, every means of gaining honour, even 
though it promised to turn out to the advantage 
of the state. 3. So great pains were taken, even 
though attended with the destruction of the pro- 
vinces, that this valiant warrior should not receive 
mention as author of, or participant in, any note- 
worthy action. Therefore, alarmed by this unhappy 
situation, Ursicinus often sent us scouts, although 
because of the strict guard no one could easily enter 
the town, and attempted many helpful things ; 
but he obviously could accomplish nothing, being 
like a lion of huge size and terrible fierceness which 
did not dare to go to save from danger his whelps 
that were caught in a net, because he had been 
robbed of his claws and teeth. 

1 For this meaning of armorum see xvii. 10, 6, note ; also 
xvi. 12, 7. 



4. Pestilentia Amidae orta, intra decimum diem 
exiguo imbre sedatur. Et de causis ac generibus 

1. Sed in civitate, ubi sparsorum per vias cada- 
verum multitudo humandi officia supcraret, pestilen- 
tia tot malis accessit. verminantium corporum lue 
tabifica, vaporatis aestibus varioque plebis languore 
nutrita, quae genera morborum unde oriri solent 
breviter explicabo. 

2. Nimietatem frigoris aut caloris, vel umoris vel 
siccitatis, pestilentias gignere philosophi et illustres 
medici tradiderunt. Unde accolentes loca palustria 
vel umecta tusses et oculares ^ casus et similia 
perferunt, contra confines caloribus tepore ^ febrium 
arescunt.^ Sed quanto ignis materies ceteris est 
efficacior,* tanto ad perimenduni celerior siccitas. 

3. Hinc cum decennali bello Graecia desudaret, ne 
peregrinus poenas dissociati regalis matrimonii 
lucraretur, huius modi grassante pernicie, telis 
ApoUinis periere complures (qui sol aestimatur). 

4. Atque ut Thucydides exponit, clades ilia, quae 
in Peloponnesiaci belli principiis Athenienses acerbo 
genere morbi vexavit, ab usque ferventi Aethiopiae 

1 humecta tussis et oculares, Lind. ; ujnectatus sese iocu- 
lares, V. ^ tepore, G ; tempore, V. * arescunt, 

G ; arescentes, V ; lac. after arescentes, No%^ak ; arescunt 
frequentes. Her. * materia est acrior ceteris et efftcacior 

suggested by Novak. 

^ Paris, the cause of the Trojan War. 


XIX., 4, 1-4, A.D. 359 

4. A plague which broke out in Amida is ended 
within ten days by a light rain. Remarks on the 
causes and varieties of plagues. 

1. But within the city, where the quantity of 
corpses scattered through the streets was too great 
to admit of burial, a plague was added to so many 
ills, fostered by the contagious infection of maggot- 
infested bodies, the steaming heat, and the weakness 
of the populace from various causes. The origin of 
diseases of this kind I shall briefly set forth. 

2. Philosophers and eminent physicians have 
told us that an excess of cold or heat, or of moisture 
or dryness, produces plagues. Hence those who 
dwell in marshy or damp places suffer from coughs, 
from affections of the eyes, and from similar com- 
plaints ; on the other hand, the inhabitants of hot 
climates dry up with the heat of fever. But by 
as much as the substance of fire is fiercer and more 
effective than the other elements, by so much is 
drought the swifter to kill. 3. Therefore when 
Greece was toiling in a ten years' war in order that 
a foreigner ^ might not evade the penalty for sepa- 
rating a royal pair, a scourge of this kind raged 
and many men perished by the darts of Apollo,^ 
who is regarded as the sun. 4. And, as Thucydides 
shows,^ that calamity which, at the beginning of 
the Peloponnesian war, harassed the Athenians 
with a grievous kind of sickness, gradually crept 

- See Iliad, i. 9 ft", and 43 ft. Apollo was angry because 
the request of his priest was denied. Aminianus rational- 
izes the myth, attributing the pestilence to the heat of the 
sun, and likening its ravs to the arrows of the god. 
Cf. Thuc. ii. i, 7. 



plaga paulatim proserpens, Atticam occupavit. 
5. Aliis placet auras (ut solent) aquasque vitiatas 
faetore cadaverum, vel similibus, salubritatis vio- 
lare maximam partem, vel certe aeris permutationem 
subitam aegritudines parere leviores. 6. Affirmant 
etiam aliqui, terrarum halitu densiore crassatum 
aera, emittendis corporis spiraminibus resistentem, 
necare non nuUos, qua causa animaUa praeter 
homines cetera iugiter prona, Homero auctore, et 
experimentis deinceps multis, cum talis incesserit 
labes, ante novimus interire. 7. Et prima species 
luis pandemus appellatur, quae efficit in aridioribus 
locis agentes, caloribus crebris interpellari, secunda 
epidemus, quae tempore ingruens, acies hebetat 
luminum, et concitat periculosos umores, tertia 
loemodes, quae itidem temporaria est, sed volucri 
velocitate letabilis. 

8. Hac exitiali peste quassatis,^ paucis intem- 
perantia aestuum " consumptis, quos multitudo 
augebat, tandem nocte quae diem consecuta est 
decimum, exiguis imbribus disiecto concrete spiritu 
et crassato, sospitas retenta est corporum firma. 

1 quassatis, Dederichs, Pet. ; quassati, V. - intern- 

peranlia aestuum. Her. ; intemperanti (second n added 
by V-) aestu, V. 


XIX., 4, 4-8, A.D. 359 

all the way from the torrid region of Africa and laid 
hold upon Attica. 5. Others believe that when the 
air, as often happens, and the waters are polluted 
by the stench of corpses or the like, the greater 
part of their healthfulness is spoiled, or at any rate 
that a sudden change of air causes minor ailments. 
6. Some also assert that when the air is made heavy 
by grosser exhalations from the earth, it checks 
the secretions that should be expelled from the body, 
and is fatal to some ; and it is for that reason, as 
we know on the authority of Homer ^ as well as 
from many later experiences, that when such a 
pestilence has appeared, the other animals besides 
man, which constantly look downward, are the 
first to perish. 7. Now the first kind of plague is 
called endemic, and causes those who live in 
places that are too dry to be cut off by frequent 
fevers. The second is epidemic, which breaks out 
at certain seasons of the year, dimming the sight of 
the eyes and causing a dangerous flow of moisture. 
The third is loemodes," which is also periodic, but 
deadly from its winged speed. 

8. After we had been exhausted by this destruc- 
tive plague and a few had succumbed to the excessive 
heat and still more from the crowded conditions, at 
last on the night following the tenth day the thick 
and gross exhalations were dispelled by light showers, 
and sound health of body was regained. 

^ Iliad, i. 50, ovprjas jiev npcorov enaixeTO /cai Kvvas dpyouj. 
* Pestilential. 



5. Amida hinc circum muros. inde per subterraneos 
fornices duce transfuga oppugnatur. 

1. Verum inter haec inquies Persa vineis civitatem 
pluteisque ^ circumdabat, et erigi aggeres coepti, 
turresque fabricabantur, frontibus ferratis excelsae, 
quarum fastigiis ballistae locatae sunt singulae, ut 
a propugnaculis propellerent defensores, levia tamen 
per funditores et sagittarios proelia ne puncto 
quidem brevi cessabant. 2. Erant nobiscum duae 
legiones Magnentiacae recens e Galliis ductae (ut 
praediximus) virorum fortium et pernicium, ad 
planarios conflictus aptorum, ad eas vero belli artes 
quibus stringebamur, non modo inhabiles, sed 
contra nimii turbatores, qui cum ueque in "^ machinis 
neque in operum constructione iu\ arent, aliquotiens ^ 
stolidius ^ erumpentes, dimicantesque fidentissime 
minuto numero revertebant, tantum proficientes, 
quantum in publico (ut aiunt) incendio. aqua unius 
hominis manu adgesta. 3. Postremo obseratis 
portis praecaute vetantibusque ^ tribunis, egredi 
nequeuntes, frendebant ut bestiae. \ erum secutis 
diebus efficacia eorum eminuit (ut docebimus). 

4. In summoto loco partis meridianae murorum, 
quae despectat fluvium Tigrim, turris fuit in sub- 
limitatem exsurgens, sub qua hiabant rupes abscisae, 
ut despici sine vertigine horrenda non posset, unde 
cavatis fornicibus subterraneis, per radices montis 

^pluteisque, Bentley, Kiessling ; et pluteis, Pet., Momm- 
sen ; pluteis, V. - neque in, E, Lind. ; nequem, V. 

^ aliquotiens, Clark ; aliquem, V. * stolidius, G ; studio- 

sius, Fletcher ; studius, V. ** praecaute uetatitibusque 

{u., Bentley, Cornelissen), Novak ; praecantibusque, V. 

1 Cf. xviii. 9, 3. 

XIX., 5, 1-4, A.D. 359 

5. Amida is attacked on one side about the ivails, and 
on the other, under the lead of a deserter, by 
underground passages. 

1. But meanwhile the restless Persian was sur- 
rounding the city with sheds and mantlets, and 
mounds began to be raised and towers were con- 
structed ; these last were lofty, with ironclad fronts, 
and on the top of each a ballista was placed, for the 
purpose of driving the defenders from the ramparts ; 
yet not even for a moment did the skirmishing by 
the slingers and archers slacken. 2, There were 
with us two Magnentian legions, recently brought 
from Gaul (as I have said) ^ and composed of brave, 
active men, experienced in battle in the open field, 
but to the sort of warfare to which we were con- 
strained they were not merely unsuited, but actually 
a great hindrance ; for when thev were not helping 
with the artillery or in the construction of forti- 
fications, they would sometimes make reckless 
sallies and after fighting with the greatest confidence 
return with diminished numbers, accomplishing 
just as much as would the pouring of a single hand- 
ful of water (as the saying is) upon a general con- 
flagration. 3. Finally, when the gates were very 
carefully barred, and their officers forbade them to go 
forth, they gnashed their teeth like Mild beasts. 
But in the days that followed (as I shall show) 
their efficiency was conspicuous. 4. In a remote 
part of the walls on the southern side, which looks 
down on the river Tigris, there was a tower rising 
to a lofty height, beneath which yawned rocks so 
precipitous that one could not look down without 



scalae ad usque civitatis ducebant planitiem, quo 
ex amuis alveo haurirentur aquae furtim, ut iu 
omnibus per eas regiones munimentis quae con- 
tingunt flumina vidimus, fabre politae. 5. Per 
has tenebras ob derupta neglectas, oppidano trans- 
fuga quodam ductante, qui ad diversam partem 
desciverat, septuaginta sagittarii Persae ex agmine 
regio arte fiduciaque praestantes, silentio summoti 
loci defensi, subito singuli noctis medio ad contig- 
nationem turris tertiam ascenderunt, ibique occul- 
tati, mane sago punici coloris elato, quod erat 
subeundae indicium pugnae, cum ex omni parte 
circumveniri urbem suis copiis inundantibus ad- 
vertissent, exinanitis proiectisque ante pedes phare- 
tris, clamoris ululabilis incendio tela summa peritia 
dispergebant. Moxque acies omnes densae petebant 
multo infestius quam antea civitatem. 6. Inter ^ 
incertos nos et ancipites, quibus occurri deberet, 
instantibus supra, an multitudini transcensu scala- 
rum iam propugnacula ipsa prensanti, dividitur 
opera, et translatae leviores quinque ballistae, 
contra tiirrim locantur, quae ocius lignea tela fun- 
dentes, non numquam et ^ binos forabant, e quibus 
pars graviter vulnerati ruebant, alii machinarum 

^ inter, added by G ; V omits. - et, added by Her., cf. 

xvii. 12, 3. 


XIX., 5, 4-6, A.D. 359 

shuddering dizziness. From these rocks subter- 
ranean arches had been hollowed out, and skilfully 
made steps led through the roots of the mountain as 
far as the plateau on which the city stood, in order 
that w ater might be brought secretly from the channel 
of the river, a device which I have seen in all the 
fortifications in those regions which border on 
streams. 5. Through these dark passages, left 
unguarded because of their steepness, led by a 
deserter in the city who had gone over to the opposite 
side, seventy Persian bowmen from the king's 
bodyguard who excelled in skill and bravery, pro- 
tected by the silence of the remote spot, suddenly 
one by one in the middle of the night mounted to 
the third story of the tower and there concealed 
themselves ; in the morning they displayed a cloak 
of red hue, which was the signal for beginning battle, 
and when they saw the city surrounded on all sides 
with the floods of their forces, emptying their 
quivers, and throwing them at their feet, with a con- 
flagration of shouts and yells they sent their shafts in 
all directions with the utmost skill. And presently 
all the Persian forces in dense array attacked the 
city with far greater fury than before. 6. We 
were perplexed and uncertain where first to ofi'er 
resistance, whether to those who stood above us 
or to the throng mounting on scaUng-ladders and 

o o o 

already lapng hold of the very battlements ; so 
the work was divided among us and five of the lighter 
ballistae were moved and placed over against the 
tower, rapidly pouring forth wooden shafts, which 
sometimes pierced even two men at a time. Some 
of the enemy fell, severely wounded ; others, through 



metu stridentium praecipites acti, laniatis corporibus 
interibaxit. 7. Quibus hac celeritate confectis, re- 
latisque ad loca sueta tormentis, paulo securius 
moenia omnium concursu defendebantur. 8. Et 
quoniam augebat iras ^ militum scelestum facinus 
perfugae, quasi decurrentes in planum, ita iaculantes 
diversa missilia lacertis fortibus incumbebant, ut 
vergente in ^ meridiem die, gentes ^ acri repulsa 
disiectae,^ lacrimantes complurium mortes, tentoria 
repeterent vnlnerum ^ metu. 

6. Gallicanarum legionunt eruptio Persis exitiabilis. 

1. Adspiravit auram quandam salutis fortuna, 
innoxio die cum hostili clade emenso, cuius rehquo 
tempore ad quietem reficiendis corporibus date, 
posterae lucis initio ex arce innumeram cernimus 
plebem, quae Ziata capto castello, ad hosticum 
ducebatur, quem in locum ut capacissimum et 
munitum — spatio quippe decern stadiorum ambitur 
— promiscua confugerat multitudo. 2. Nam etiam 
alia munimenta eisdem diebus rapta sunt et incensa, 
unde hominum milia extracta complura, servituri 
sequebantur, inter quos multi senecta infirmi, 
et mulieres iam grandaevae, cum ex variis de- 
ficerent causis, itineris longinquitate ofl'ensae, abiecta 

^ iras, Giintlier ; cumras, V. - uergente in, Gardt. ; 

uergentein, V- {uertem, V^). ' die gentes, Gardt. ; 

degentes, V. * disiectae, Gardt. ; disiecta, V. 

° uulnerum, tr. before tnetu, Clark ; before acri, V. 


XIX., 5, 6-8—6, 1-2, A.D. 359 

fear of the clanging engines, leaped off headlong and 
were dashed to pieces. 7. This being so quickly ac- 
complished and the engines restored to their usual 
places, with a little greater confidence all ran together 
to defend the walls. 8. And since the wicked deed 
of the deserter increased the soldiers' wrath, as if 
they were running down to a plain they used such 
strength of arm as they hurled their various weapons, 
that as the day inclined towards noon the enemy 
were scattered in bitter defeat, and lamenting the 
death of many of their number, retreated to their 
tents through fear of wounds. 

6. A sally of the Gallic legions, destructive to the 

1. Fortune thus breathed upon us some hope of 
safety, since a day had passed without harm to us 
and with disaster to the enemy ; so the remainder 
of that day was devoted to rest, for refreshing our 
bodies. But at the arrival of the following dawn we 
saw from the citadel a countless throng which after 
the capture of the fortress of Ziata was being taken 
to the enemy's camp ; for in that stronghold, which 
was both capacious and well fortified (it covers a 
space of ten stadia) a multitude of people of all 
sorts had taken refuge. 2. For other fortifications 
also were seized and burned during those same days, 
and from them many thousands of men had been 
dragged, and were following into slavery, among 
them many feeble old men, and women already 
advanced in years, who, when they gave out for 
various reasons, discouraged by the long march and 



Vivendi cupiditate, suris vel suffraginibus relinque- 
bantur exsectis. 

3. Has miserabiles turmas Galli milites contuen- 
tes, rationabili quidem sed intempestivo motu, 
conferendae cum hostibus manus copiain sibi dari 
poscebant, mortem tribunis vetantibus, primisque 
ordinibus minitantes, si deinceps prohiberent. 4. 
Utque dentatae ^ in caveis bestiae, taetro paedore 
acerbius efferatae, evadendi spe repagulis versa- 
bilibus illiduntur, ita gladiis portas caedebant, quas 
supra diximus obseratas, admodum anxii, ne urbe 
excisa ipsi quoque sine ullo specioso facinore delean- 
tur, aut exuta periculis, nihil egisse operae pretium 
pro magnanimitate Gallica memorentur, licet antea 
saepe egressi, structoresque aggerum confossis ^ 
quibusdam impedire conati, paria pertulerunt. 

5. Inopes nos consilii, et quid opponi deberet 
saevientibus ambigentes, id potissimum aegre eisdem 
assentientibus, tandem elegimus, ut quoniam ultra 
ferri non poterant, paulisper morati, custodias 
aggredi permitterentur hostiles, quae non procul 
erant a coniectu locatae telorum, ut eis perruptis, 
pergerent prorsus. Apparebat enim eos (si im- 
petrassent) strages maximas edituros. 6. Quae 
dum parantur, per varia certaminum genera de- 
fensabantur acriter muri, laboribus et vigiliis, et 

^ dentatae, G ; tentate, V {tentaiae, def. Val.) ; ut retentatae, 
Bentley. ^ confossis, Lind. ; confusis, VG. 

1 The wild beasts for the arena were kept in cages of 
iron lattice work, at the top of which was a bar that turned 
when struck by their claws and threw them back to the 
floor of the cage. 


XIX., 6, 2-6, A.D. 359 

abandouing the desire to live, were left behind with 
their calves or hams cut out. 

3. The Gallic soldiers, seeing these throngs of 
wretches, with a reasonable, but untimely, impulse 
demanded that the opportunity be given them of 
encountering the enemy, threatening death to the 
tribunes who forbade them, and to the higher officers, 
if they in their turn prevented them. 4. And just as 
ravening beasts in cages, roused to greater fierceness 
by the odour of carrion, in the hope of escape dash 
against the revolving bars,^ so did they hew with 
swords at the gates, which (as I said above) were 
locked, being exceedingly anxious lest, if the city 
shovdd be destroyed, they also might perish without 
any glorious action, or if it were saved from peril, 
they should be said to have done nothing worth 
w^hile, as the greatness of Gaul demanded ; and yet 
before this they had made frequent sallies and 
attempted to interfere with the builders of mounds, 
had killed some, and had suffered the like themselves. 

5. We, at our wit's end and in doubt what opposi- 
tion ought to be made to the raging Gauls, at last 
chose this course as the best, to which they reluc- 
tantly consented : that since they could no longer 
be restrained, they should wait for a while and then 
be allowed to attack the enemy's outposts, which 
were stationed not much farther than a bowshot 
away, with the understanding that if they broke 
through them, they might keep right on. For it was 
apparent that, if their request were granted, they 
would deal immense slaughter. 6. While preparations 
for this were going on, the walls were being \'igorously 
defended by various kinds of effort : by toil and 


VOL. 1, II 


tormentis, ad emittenda undique saxa telaque 
dispositis. Duo tamen aggeres celsi Persarum 
peditum manu, e regione et ex pugnaculo ^ civitatis, 
struebantur ^ operibus lentis, contra quos nostrorum 
quoque impensiore cura moles excitabantur altissi- 
mae, fastigio adversae celsitudinis aequatae, pro- 
pugnatorum vel nimia pondera duraturae. 

7. Inter haec Galli morarum impatientes, securi- 
bus gladiisque succincti, patefacta sunt egressi 
postica, observata nocte squalida et inluni,^ 
orantes caeleste praesidium, ut propitium adesset 
et libens. Atque ipsum spiritum reprimentes, cum 
prope venissent, conferti valido cursu, quibusdam 
stationariis interfectis, exteriores castrorum vigiles 
(ut in nullo tali metu) sopitos obtruncant, et * 
supervenire ipsi regiae (si prosperior iuvisset eventus) 
occulta meditabantur. 8. Verum audito licet levi 
reptantiuin ^ sonitu, gemituque caesorum, discusso 
somno excitatis multis et ad arma pro se quoque 
clamitante, steterunt mUites vestigiis fixis, pro- 
gredi ultra non ausi ; nee enim cautum deinde 
videbatur,^ expergefactis quos petebant insidiae, 
in apertum properare discrimen, cum iam undique 
frendentium catervae Persarum in proelia venirent 
accensae. 9. Contra Galli corporum robore, auda- 
ciaque quoad poterant inconcussi, gladiis secantes 

^ e regione et ex pugnaculo. Her. ; erecti et expugnatio, V. 
^ struebantur, Clark ; struebatur, V. * inluni, edd. before 
Lind., Cornelissen ; interluni, V. * obtruncant et. 

Her. ; obstrunccatis, V.^ '' leui reptantium, Haupt. ; 

re^^e temp dhitium, V. * videbatxir, added by Clark. 


XIX., 6, 6-9, A.D. 359 

watchfulness and by placing engines so as to scatter 
stones and darts in all directions. Moreover, a 
band of Persian footsoldiers were slowly constructing 
two lofty mounds near the city and its ramparts, 
and in opposition to these our soldiers also with 
extreme care were rearing earthworks of great 
height, equal in elevation to those of the enemy and 
capable of supporting the greatest possible weight 
of fighting men. 

7. Meanwhile the Gauls, impatient of delay, armed 
with axes and swords rushed out through an opened 
postern gate, taking advantage of a gloomy, moonless 
night and praying for the protection of heaven, 
that it might propitiously and willingly aid them. 
And holding their very breath when they had come 
near the enemy, they rushed violently upon them 
in close order, and having slain some of the outposts, 
they butchered the outer guards of the camp in their 
sleep (since they feared nothing of the kind), and 
secretly thought of a surprise attack on the king 
himself, if a favourable fortune smiled on them. 
8. But the sound of their cautious advance, slight 
though it was, and the groans of the dying were 
heard, and many of the enemy were roused from sleep 
and sprang up, while each for himself raised the 
call to arms. Our soldiers stood rooted to the spot, 
not daring to advance farther ; for it no longer 
seemed prudent, when those against whom the 
surprise was directed were aroused, to rush into 
open danger, since now throngs of raging Persians 
were coming to battle from every side, fired with 
fury. 9. But the Gauls faced them, relying on 
their strength of body and keeping their courage 



adversos, parte suoruui strata vel sagittaruiu uii- 
dique volantium crebritate confixa, cum unum in 
locum totam periculi molem conversam, et con- 
currentiuni hostium agmina advertissent, nullo 
terga vertente, evadere festinabant, et velut re- 
pedantes sub modulis, sensim extra vallum protrusi, 
cum manipulos confertius invadentes sustinere non 
possent, tubarum perciti clangore castrensium, 
discedebant, 10. Et resultantibus e civitate lituis 
multis, portae panduntur, recepturae nostros si 
pervenire illuc usque valuissent, tormentorumque 
machinae stridebant sine iaculatione uUa telorum, 
ut stationibus praesidentes, post interemptos socios, 
quae pone ^ agerentur ignari, urbis oppositi moeni- 
bus nudarent intuta ^ et porta ^ viri fortes sus- 
ciperentur innoxii. IL Hacque arte Galli portam 
prope confinia lucis introiere minuto, numero 
quidam perniciose, pars leviter vulnerati, quadrin- 
gentis ea nocte desideratis, qui non Rhesum nee 
cubitantes pro muris Iliacis Thracas, sed Persarum 
regem armatorum centum milibus circumsaeptum, 
ni obstitisset violentior casus, in ipsis tentoriis 
obtruncarant. 12. Horum campiductoribus,* ut 
fortium factorum antesignanis, post civitatis ex- 
cidium, armatas statuas apud Edessam in regione 

^ quae, added by Her., Novak. ^ intuta et, added by 

Novak. Oporto, Clark; tn aperfo, Novak ; mi^peiia, V. 
* campiductoribus, V ; campidoctoribus, Cornelissen (see Val. 
ad loc). 

^ Text and exact meaning are uncertain. 
2 Iliad, X. 435 ff. : Virgil, Aen., i. 469 ff. 


XIX., 6, 9-12, A.D. 359 

unshaken as long as they could, cut down their 
opponents with the sword, while a part of their own 
number were slain or wounded by the cloud of arrows 
flying from every side. But when they saw that 
the whole weight of peril and all the troops of the 
enemy were turned against one spot, although 
not one of them turned his back, they made haste 
to get away ; and as if retreating to music, they were 
gradually forced out beyond the rampart, and being 
now unable to withstand the bands of foemen 
rushing upon them in close order, and excited by 
the blare of trumpets from the camp, they withdrew. 
10. And while many clarions sounded from the city, 
the gates were thrown open to admit our men, if 
they could succeed in getting so far, and the hurling- 
engines roared constantly, but without discharging 
any missiles, in order that since those in command 
of the outposts, after the death of their comrades 
were unaware of what was going on behind them, 
the men stationed before the walls of the city 
might abandon their unsafe position, and the brave 
men might be admitted through the gate without 
harm.^ 11. By this device the Gauls entered the 
gate about daybreak in diminished numbers, a part 
severely others slightly wounded (the losses of that 
night were four hundred) ; and if a mightier fate 
had not prevented, they would have slain, not 
Rhesus nor the Thracians encamped before the 
walls of Troy,^ but the king of the Persians in 
his own tent, protected by a hundred thousand 
armed men. 12. In honour of their officers, as 
leaders in these brave deeds, after the destruction 



celebri locari iiisserat imperator, quae ad praesens 
servantur intactae. 

13. Retectis sequenti luce funeribus, cum inter 
caesorum cadavera optimates invenirentur, et 
satrapae, clamoresque dissoni fortunam aliam alibi 
cum lacrimis indicabant, luctus ubique et indignatio 
regum audiebatur, arbitrantium per stationes muris 
obiectas irrupisse Romanes indutiisque ob haec 
tridui datis assensu communi, nos quoque spatium 
ad respirandum accepimus. 

7. Tiirres et alia opera urbis muris admoientur ; 
incenduntur a Romanis. 

1. Perculsae deinde novitate rei eflferataeque 
gentes, omissa omni cunctatione, operibus (quoniam 
vis minime procedebat) decernere iam censebant, 
et concito extreme belli ardore, omnes oppetere 
gloriose iam properabant, aut ruina urbis animis 
litasse caesorum. 

2. lamque apparatu cunctoruni alacritate per- 
fecto, exsiliente lucifero, operum variae species 
cum turribus ferratis admovebantur, quorum in 
verticibus celsis aptatae ballistae propugnatores 
agitantes humilius disiectabant. 3. Et albescente 
iam die, ferrea munimenta membrorum caelum 
omne subtexunt, densetaeque ^ acies non in- 
ordinatim ut antea, sed tubarum sonitu leni 

1 densetaeque, C. F. W. Miiller ; densataeque, G, Bentley ; 
tensitate quae, V. 


XIX., 6, 12-13—7, 1-3, A.D. 359 

of the city the emperor otdered statues in full armour 
to be made and set up in a frequented spot at Edessa, 
and they are preserved intact to the present time. 

13. When on the following day the slaughter 
was revealed, and among the corpses of the slain 
there were found grandees and satraps, and dissonant 
cries and tears bore witness to the disasters in this 
or that place, everywhere mourning was heard and 
the indignation of the kings at the thought that the 
Romans had forced their way in through the guards 
posted before the walls. And as because of this 
event a truce of three days was granted by common 
consent, we also gained time to take breath. 

7. Toicers and other siege-ivorks are brought up to the 
walls of the city ; they are set on fire by the 

1. Then the enemy, horrified and maddened by 
the unexpected mishap, set aside all delay, and 
since force was having little effect, now planned to 
decide the contest by siege-works ; and all of them, 
fired with the greatest eagerness for battle, now has- 
tened to meet a glorious death or with the downfall 
of the city to make off'ering to the spirits of the slain. 

2. And now through the zeal of all the prepara- 
tions were completed, and as the morning star shone 
forth various kinds of siege- works were brought up, 
along with ironclad towers, on the high tops of 
which ballistae were placed, and drove off the de- 
fenders who were busy lower down. 3. And day was 
now dawning, when mail-clad siege-works veiled 
almost the entire sky, and the dense forces moved 
forward, not as before in disorder, but led by the 



ductante, nullis procursantibus incedebant, machin- 
arum operti tegminibus, cratesque vimineas prae- 
tendentes. 4. Cumque propinquantes ad coniec- 
tum venere telorum, oppositis scutis, Persae pedites 
sagittas tormentis excussas e muris aegrius evitantes 
laxaverant ^ aciem, nullo paene iaculi genere in 
vanum cadente ; etiam cataphracti hebetati et 
cedentes animos auxere nostrorum. 5. Tamen. quia 
hostiles ballistae ferratis impositae turribus, in humi- 
liora ex supernis valentes, ut loco dispari ita eventu 
dissimili, nostra ^ multo cruore foedabant, ingruente 
iam vespera, cum requiescerent partes, noctis spatium 
mains consumptum est, ut excogitari possit quid 
exitio ita atroci obiectaretur. 

6. Et tandem multa versantibus nobis, sedit con- 
silium quod tutius celeritas fecit, quattuor eisdem 
ballistis scorpiones opponi, qui dum translati e 
regione, caute (quod artis est difficillimae) collo- 
cantur, lux nobis advenit maestissima, Persarum 
manipulos formidatos ostentans, adiectis elephan- 
torum agminibus, quorum stridore immanitateque 
corporum nihil humanae mentes terribilius cernunt. 
7. Cumque omni ex latere armorum et operum 
bcluarumque molibus urgeremur, per scorpionum 
ferreas fundas e propugnaculis subinde rotundi 

^ laxaverant, suggested by Clark, c.c. ; laxarunl. V. 
- nostras, Mommsen. 

^ The scorpion was an engine for hurlmg stones, also 
called onager, " wild ass." It is described in xxiii. 4, 4 ff. 


XIX., 7, 3-7, A.D. 359 

slow notes of the trumpets and with no one running 
forward, protected too by pent-houses and holding 
before them wicker hurdles. 4. But when their 
approach brought them within bowshot, though 
holding their shields before them the Persian 
infantry found it hard to avoid the arrows shot 
from the walls by the artillery, and took open order ; 
and since almost no kind of dart failed to find its 
mark, even the mail-clad horsemen were checked and 
gave ground, and thus increased the courage of 
our men. 5. However, because the enemy's bal- 
listae, mounted as they were upon iron-clad towers, 
were effective from their higher place against those 
lower down, on account of their different position 
they had a different result and caused terrible 
carnage on our side ; and when evening was already 
coming on and both sides rested, the greater part of 
the night was spent in trying to devise a remedy for 
this awful slaughter. 

6. And at last, after turning over many plans, we 
resolved upon a plan which speedy action made the 
safer, namely, to oppose four scorpions ^ to those 
same ballistae ; but while they were being moved 
from their position and cautiously put in place 
(an act calling for the greatest skill) the most sorrow- 
ful of days dawned upon us, showing as it did for- 
midable bands of Persians along with troops of 
elephants, than whose noise and huge bodies the 
human mind can conceive nothing more terrible. 
7. And while we were hard pressed on every side 
by weight of arms, siege-works, and monsters, 
round stones hurled at intervals from the battle- 
ments by the iron arms of our scorpions shattered 



lapides iacti,^ dissolutis turrium coagmentis, bal- 
listas earumque tortores ita fudere praecipites, ut 
quidam citra vulncrum noxas, alii ^ obtriti magni- 
tudine poriderum interirent, elephantis vi magna 
propulsis, quos flammis coniectis undique circum- 
nexos, iam corporibus tactis, gradientesque retrosus 
regere ^ magistri non poterant, postque * exustis 
operibus, nulla quies certaminibus data. 8. Rex 
enim ipse Persarum, qui numquam adesse certamini- 
bus cogitur, his turbinum infortuniis percitus, novo 
et nusquam antea cognito more, proeliatoris militis 
ritu prosiluit in confertos, et quia conspectior 
tegentium multitudine procul speculantibus \dse- 
batur, petitus crebritate telorum, mxdtis stipatoribus 
stratis, abscessit, alternans regibilis acies, et ad 
extremum diei, nee mortium truci visu ^ nee vul- 
nerum territus, tandem tempus exiguum tribui 
quieti permisit. 

8. Amida per celsos aggeres muris proxlmos temp- 
tatur a Persis ac invaditur. Marcellinus post 
captam urbem node evadit. ac fuga Antiochiam 

1. Verum nocte proelia dirimente, somuo per 
breve otium capto, nitescente iam luce, ad potiunda 

J iacti Pet. ; acti, V. ^ alii, V ; at, Moimaseu ; 

sola. Her. * regere, W^, Val. ; retinere, XBG ; retere, 

V. * post quae. Pet. * uisu, C^ A ; visa, BG ; 

visions, Giinther, Pet. ; visio, V. 

1 That is, by the fall from the high towers. 

XIX., 7, 7-8—8, 1, v.D. 359 

the joints of the towers, and threw down the ballistae 
and those who worked them in such headlong 
fashion, that some perished without injury from 
wounds,^ others were crushed to death by the 
great weight of debris. The elephants, too, were 
driven back with great violence, for they were 
surrounded by firebrands thrown at them from every 
side, and as soon as these touched their bodies, 
thev turned tail and their drivers were unable to 
control them. But though after that the siege- 
works were burned up, there was no cessation from 
strife. 8. For even the king of the Persians himself, 
who is never compelled to take part in battles, 
aroused by these storms of ill-fortune, rushed into 
the thick of the fight like a common soldier (a new 
thing, never before heard of) and because he was 
more conspicuous to those who looked on from a 
distance than the throng of his body-guard, he was 
the mark of many a missile ; and when many of 
his attendants had been slain, he withdrew, passing 
from one part to another of the troops under his 
command, and at the end of the day, though 
terrified by the grim spectacle neither of the dead 
nor of the wounded, he at last allowed a brief time 
to be given to rest. 

8. Amida is attacked fey the Persians over lofty 
mounds close to the walls, and is stormed. 
Marcellinus after the capture of the city escapes 
by night and flees to Antioch. 

1. But night put an end to the conflict ; and 
having taken a nap during the brief period of rest, 



sperata ira et dolore exundans, nee fas ullum prae 

oeulis habiturus, gentes in nos excitabat. Cumque 

crematis operibus (ut docuimus), pugna per aggeres 

eelsos muris proximos temptaretur, ex aggestis 

erectis intrinseeus, quantum facere nitique poterant, 

nostri acquis viribus per ardua resistebant. 

2. Et diu cruentum proelium stetit, nee metu 

mortis quisquam ex aliqua parte a studio propug- 

nandi removebatur, eoque producta contentione, 

cum sors partium eventu regeretur indeclinabili, 

diu laborata moles ilia nostrorum, velut terrae 

quodam tremore quassata ^ procubuit, et tamquam 

itinerario aggere, vel superposito ponte, complana- 

tum spatium, quod inter murum ^ congestamque 

forinsecus struem hiabat, patefecit hostibus transi- 

tum, nullis obicibus impeditum, et pars pleraque 

militum deiectorum oppressa vel debilitata cessavit.^ 

3. ConcuTsum est tamen undique ad propulsationem 

periculi tam abrupti, et festinandi studio aliis im- 

pedientibus * alios, audacia bostium ipso successu 

crescebat. 4. Accitis igitur regis imperio proelia- 

toribus * universis, strictoque comminus ferro, cum 

sanguis utrubique immensis caedibus funderetur, 

oppilatae ^ sunt corporibus fossae latiorque \da ideo 

pandebatur, et concursu copiarum ardenti iam 

^ quassata, EW^G ; quasina, V. - murum, G ; 

m,uros, Kiessling ; murorum, V ; murorum, amhitum,. Her. 
^cessauit,C\avh; cessabat,E&(j; cessabit,y. *proelia- 

toribus, vulgo ; praedatoribus, V. ^ opjrilatae, 

Gronov. pater ; oppletae, W^ ; appellatae, V. 


XIX., 8, 1-4, A.D. 359 

the king, as soon as dawu appeared, boiling with 
wrath and resentment and closing his eyes to all 
right, aroused the barbarians against us, to win what 
he hoped for ; and when the siege-works had been 
burned (as I have shown) they attempted battle 
over high mounds close to the walls, whereupon our 
men erected heaps of earth on the inside as well as 
they could with all their efforts, and under difficulties 
resisted with equal vigour. 

2. For a long time the sanguinary battle remained 
undecided, and not a man anj^vhere through fear 
of death gave up his ardour for defence ; and the 
contest had reached a point when the fate of both 
parties was governed by some unavoidable hap, 
when that mound of ours, the result of long toil, 
fell forward as if shattered by an earthquake. 
Thus the gulf which yawned between the wall and 
the heap built up outside was made a level plain, 
as if by a causeway or a bridge built across it, and 
opened to the enemy a passage blocked by no ob- 
stacles, while the greater part of the soldiers that 
were thrown down ceased fighting, being either 
crushed or worn out. 3. Nevertheless others rushed 
to the spot from all sides, to avert so sudden a danger ; 
but in their desire for haste they impeded one another, 
while the boldness of the enemy was increased by 
their very success. 4. Accordingly, by the king's 
command all the warriors were summoned and there 
was a hand-to-hand contest with drawn swords ; 
blood streamed on all sides from the vast carnage ; 
the trenches were blocked with bodies and so a 
broader path was furnished. And now the city 
was filled with the eager rush of the enemy's forces, 



civitate opplcla, cum oiunis defeudeudi vel fugicndi 
spes essct abscisa, pccorum ritu armati ct imbelles 
sine sexus discrimine truncabantur. 

5. Itaque vespera tenebrante, cum adhue licet 
iniqua reluctante fortuna, multitudo nostrorum 
manu conserta distringeretur, in abstrusa quadani 
parte oppidi cum duobus aliis latens, obscurae 
praesidio noctis postica per quam nihil servabatur 
evado, et squalentum peritia locorum, comitumque 
adiutus celeritate, ad decimum lapidem tandem 
perveni. 6. In qua statione lenius recreati, cum 
ire protinus pergeremus, et incedendi nimietate 
iam superarer, ut insuetus ingenuus, ofFendi dirum 
aspectum, sed fatigato mihi lassitudine gravi leva- 
men impendio tempestivum. 7. Fugaci equo nudo 
et infreni calonum quidam sedens (ne labi possit) 
ex more habenam qua ductabatur sinistra manu 
artius illigavit, moxque decussus, vinculi nodum 
abrumpere nequiens, per avia saltusque membratim 
discerptus, iumentum exhaustum cursu pondere 
cadaveris detinebat, cuius dorsuali ^ comprensi 
servitio usus in tempore, cum eisdem sociis ad fontes 
sidphureos aquarum, suapte natura calentium, 
aegre perveni. 8. Et quia per aestum arida siti 
reptantes, aquam diu quaeritando, profundum 
bene ^ vidimus puteum, et neque descendendi prae 

^ dorsuali, Langen ; dorsuatis, V. ^ bene, Lind. ; 

paenae, V ; pene, WBG. 


XIX., 8, 4-8, A.D. 359 

and since all hope of defence or of flight was cut ofl', 
armed and unarmed alike without distinction of 
sex were slaughtered like so many cattle. 

5. Therefore when the darkness of evening was 
coming on and a large number of our soldiers, 
although adverse fortune still struggled against them, 
were joined in battle and thus kept busy, I hid with 
two others in a secluded part of the city, and under 
cover of a dark night made my escape through a 
postern gate at which no guard was kept ; and, 
aided by my familiarity with desert places and by 
the speed of my companions, I at length reached 
the tenth milestone. 6. At the post-house there 
we got a little rest, and when we were making 
ready to go farther and I was already unequal to 
the excessive walking, to which as a gentleman I 
was unused, I met a terrible sight, which however 
furnished me a most timely relief, worn out as I 
was by extreme weariness. 7. A groom, mounted 
on a runaway horse without saddle or bit, in order 
not to fall off had tied the rein by which, in the usual 
manner, the horse was guided, tightly to his left 
hand ; and afterwards, being thrown off" and unable 
to loose the knot, he was torn limb from limb as 
he was dragged through desert places and woods, 
whUe the animal, exhausted by running, was held 
back by the weight of the dead body ; so I caught it 
and making timely use of the service of its back, 
with those same companions I with difficulty reached 
some springs of sulphurous water, naturally hot. 
8. And since the heat had caused us parching thirst, 
for a long time we went slowly about looking for 
water. And we fortunately found a deep well, 



altitudine, ncc restium aderat copia, necessitate 
doccnte postrema, indumenta lintea, quibiis tege- 
bamur,^ in oblongos discidimus pannulos, unde 
explicate fune ingenti, centonem quern sub galea 
uniis ferebat e nostris, ultimae aptavimus summitati. 
qui per ^ funem coniectus, aquasque hauriens ad 
peniculi modum, facile sitim qua urgebaraur^ ex- 
stinxit. 9. Unde citi ferebamur ad flumen Euphra- 
tem, ulteriorem ripam petituri per navem, quam 
transfretandi causa iumenta et homines, in eo tractu 
diuturna consuetude locarat. 10. Ecce autem 
Romanum agmen cum equestribus signis disiectum, 
eminus cernimus, quod persequebatur multitudo 
Persarum, iucertum unde impetu tam repentiuo 
terga viantum aggressa. 11. Quo exemplo terri- 
genas illos, non sinibus terrae emersos, sed exuber- 
anti pernicitate credimus natos, qui quoniam in- 
opini per varia visebantur, o-irapToi vocitati, humo 
exsiluisse, vetustate rem ^ fabulosius extollente, sunt 
aestimati. 12. Hoc malo ^ conciti, cum omne iam 
esset in celeritate salutis praesidium, per dumeta 
et silvas montes petimus celsiores, exindeque 
Melitinam minoris Armeniae oppidum venimus, 

^ tegebamur, BGA ; tegebatur, V ; lectulics tegebatur, Clark. 
- qui per, added in G (lac. indicated by Clark). ' urge- 

bamur. Her. ; hauriebamur, EBG ; hariebamur, V. * rem, 
Novak, Her. ; materiem, Kiessling ; ut cetera, G ; rem viatere 
(see note 5), V. ^ 7nalo (for viatere. Her.), put after 

hoc by G. 

^ Damste, reading tegebatur, thinks that the groom's 
clothing is meant. But he seems to have been left some 
distance behind, and it is doubtful whether his garments 
were in a condition to use. Where they woukl find a 
couch (lecttilus) is not clear. 


XIX., 8, 8-12, A.D. 359 

but it was neither possible to go dovvu into it be- 
cause of its depth, nor were there ropes at hand ; 
so taught by extreme need, we cut the linen garments 
in which we were clad ^ into long strips and from 
them made a great rope. To the extreme end of 
this we tied the cap which one of us wore under his 
helmet, and when this was let down by the rope 
and sucked up the water after the manner of a 
sponge, it readily quenched the thirst by which we 
were tormented. 9. From there we quickly made 
our way to the Euphrates river, planning to cross 
to the farther bank by a boat which long continued 
custom had kept in that vicinity for the transport 
of men and animals. 10. But lo ! we saw afar off 
a scattered band of Romans with cavalry standards, 
pursued by a great force of Persians ; and we could 
not understand how they appeared so suddenly 
behind us as we went along. 11. Judging from 
this instance, we believe that the famous " sons 
of earth " did not come forth from the bosom of 
the land, but M^ere born with extraordinary swiftness 
— those so-called sparti,'^ who, because they were 
seen unexpectedly in sundry places, were thought 
to have sprung from the earth, since antiquity gave 
the matter a fabulous origin. 12. Alarmed by this 
danger, since now all hope of life depended upon 
speed through thickets and woods, we made for 
the higher mountains, and came from there to the 
town of Melitina in lesser Armenia, where we 

- S-TTapToi (from oTTelpoj, '"sow") was a name applied 
to the Thebans, because of the fable of the dragon's teeth 
sown by Cadmus. The Athenians, who claimed to be 
earth born, were called avToxOoves- 




niox ^ repertum ducem comitatique ^ iam profec- 
tiirum, Antiochiain revisimus insperati.^ 

9. Amidae ex ducibus Rom. alii supplicio affecti, 
alii vincti. Craugasius Nisibenus desiderio 
uxoris captivae transfugit ad Persas. 

At Persae quia tendere iam introrsus autumno 
praeeipiti haedorumque iniquo * sidere exorto pro- 
hihebantur, captivos agentes et praedas, remeare 
nogitabant ad sua. 2. Inter haec tamen funera 
direptionesque civitatis excisae, Aeliano comite et 
tribunis, quorum efficacia diu defensa sunt moenia, 
stragesque multiplicatae Persarum, patibulis sceleste 
suffixis, lacobus et Caesius, numerarii apparitionis 
magistri equitum aliique protectores, post terga 
vinctis manibus ducebantur, Transtigritanis qui 
sollicita quaerebantur industria, nullo infimi summi- 
que discrimiue, ad unum omnibus contruncatis. 

3. Uxor vero Craugasii, quae retinens pudorem 
inviolatum, ut matrona nobilis colebatur, maerebat 
velut orbem alium sine marito visura, quamquam 
sperabat documentis praesentibus altiora. 4. In 
rem itaque consulens suam, et accidentia longe 

^ mox. Pet. ; ubi, W^, vuJgo ; uos, V. ^ comitatique. 
Her. ; comitatumque, Gardt. ; comitateqiie, V. ^ insperati. 
At, Her. ; interea Sapor et, G ; iam impetrata re, Clark ; 
iamimperaior et, V {ini, added by V-). * haedorumque 

iniquo. Pet. ; haedorum quem, pro, V. 

1 Three stars in the constellation Auriga ; they rise 
at the beginning of October and bring stormy weather ; 
cf. Horace, Odes, iii. 1, 28. ^I.e. Persian deserters. 


XIX., 8, 12—9, 1-4, A.D. 359 

presently found and accompanied an officer, who 
was just on the point of leaving ; and so we returned 
unexpectedly to Antioch. 

9. At Amida some of the Roman leaders are executed, 
others imprisoned. Craugasius of Nisibis, 
through longing for his captive wife, deserts to 
the Persians. 

1. But the Persians, since the rapidly approaching 
end of autumn and the rising of the unfavourable 
constellation of the Kids ^ prevented them from 
marching farther inland, were thinking of returning 
to their own country with their prisoners and their 
booty. 2. But in the midst of the slaughter and 
pillage of the destroyed city Count Aelianus and 
the tribunes, by whose efficient service the walls 
had been so long defended and the losses of the 
Persians increased, were shamefully gibbeted ; 
Jacobus and Caesius, paymasters of the commander 
of the cavalry, and other officers of the bodyguard, 
were led ofl' with their hands bound behind their 
backs ; and those who had come from across the 
Tigris ^ were hunted down with extreme care and 
butchered to a man, highest and lowest without 

3. But the wife of Craugasius, who retained her 
chastity inviolate and was honoured as a woman 
of rank, grieved that she was likely to see another 
part of the world without her husband, although 
from present indications she had reason to hope 
for a loftier fortune. 4. Therefore, looking out for 
her own interests and foreseeing long beforehand 
what would happen, she was tormented by two- 




ante prospiciens, anxietate bifaria stringebatur, 
viduitatem detestans et nuptias. Ideo familiarem 
suum perquam fiduui, regionumque Mesopotamiae 
gnarum, per Izalam montem, inter castella prae- 
sidiaria duo Maride et Lome introituruin, Nisibin 
occiilte dimisit, mandatis arcanisque vitae secreti- 
oris, maritum exorans, ut auditis quae contigerint, 
veniret secum beate victurus. 5. Quibus conventis,^ 
expeditus viator per saltuosos tramites et frutecta, 
Nisibin passibus citis ingressus, causatusque se 
domina nusquam visa, et forsitan interempta, data 
evadendi copia castris hostilibus abscessisse, et ideo 
ut vilis neglectus, docet Craugasium gesta ; moxque 
accepta fide quod si tuto licuerit, sequetur coniugem 
libens, evasit, exoptatum mulieri nuntium ferens, 
quae hoc cognito per Tamsaporem ducem supplica- 
verat regi, ut si daretur facultas, antequam Romanis 
excederet finibus, in potestatem suam iuberet pro- 
pitius maritum adscisci. 

6. Praeter spem itaque omnium digresso advena 
repentino, qui postliminio reversus, statim sine 
xdlius evanuit conscientia, perculsus suspicioue dux 
Cassianus, praesidentesque ibi proceies alii, mini- 
tantes ultima Craugasium incessebant, non sine eius 

1 conventis, Damste, cf. Livy xxx. 43, 7 ; contentus, V ; 
contextis, Cornelissen, Petschenig. 

^ Postliminium is literally " a return behind the thresh- 
old"; i.e. a complete return home with restoration of 
one's former rank, privileges, and condition. The slave 
seems to have been captured by the Persians with his 
mistress, and pretended to have escaped from the enemy. 
On his return to Xisibis, he again became the slave of 


XIX., 9, 4-6, A.D. 359 

fold anxiety, dreading both separation from her hus- 
band an«l marriage with another. Accordingly, she 
secretly sent a slave of hers, who was of tried fidelity 
and acquainted with the regions of Mesopotamia, 
to go over Mount Izala between the strongholds of 
Maride and Lome to Nisibis, and take a message 
to her husband and certain tokens of their more 
private life, begging him that on hearing what 
had happened he should come to live happily with 
her. 5. When this had been arranged, the messenger, 
being lightly equipped, made his wav with quick 
pace through forest paths and thickets and entered 
Nisibis. There giving out that he had seen his 
mistress nowhere, that she was perhaps slain, and 
that he himself, taking advantage of an opportunity 
to escape, had fled from the enemy's camp, he was 
accordingly disregarded as of no consequence. 
Thereupon he told Craugasius what had happened 
and then, after receiving assurance that if it could 
safely be done he would gladlv follow" his wife, the 
messenger departed, bearing to the woman the 
desired news. She on hearing it begged the king 
through his general Tamsapor that, if the oppor- 
tunity off'ered before he left the Roman territory, 
he would graciously give orders that her husband 
be received under his protection. 

6. The sudden departure, contrary to every one's 
expectation, of the stranger, who had returned by 
the right of postliminium ^ and immediately vanished 
without anyone's knowledge, aroused the suspicions 
of the general Cassianus and the other important 
officials in Nisibis, who assailed Craugasius with 
dire threats, loudly insisting that the man had 



voluutate vel venisse vel abiss*; lifuniiieiu rlami- 
tantes. 7. Qui proditoris ^ metuens crimen, im- 
pendioque sollicitus, ne transitione perfugae uxor 
eius superesse doceretur et tractari piissime, per' 
simulationem matrimonium alterius splendidae vir- 
ginis affectavit. Et velut paraturus necessaria 
convivio nuptiali, egressus ad villam octavo lapide 
ab urbe distantem, concito equo ad Persarum 
vastatorium globum, quein didicerat adventare, 
confugit, siisceptusque aventer. qui esset ex his 
cognitus quae loquebatur, Tamsapori post diem 
traditur quintum, perque eum regi oblatus, opibus 
et necessitudine omni recuperata cum coniugc, 
quam paucos post menses amiserat, erat ^ secundi 
loci post Antoninum, ut ait poeta praeclarus " longo 
proximus intervallo." 8. Ille enim ingenio et usu 
rerum diuturno firmatus, consiliis validis sufficiebat 
in cuncta quae conabatur, hie natura simplicior, 
nominis tamen itidem pervulgati. Et haec quidem 
haut diu postea contigerunt. 

9. Rex vero licet securitatem praeferens ^ vultu, 
exultansque specie tenus urbis excidio videbatur, 
profundo tamen animi graviter aestuabat, reputans 
in obsidionalibus malis saepe luctuosas se pertulisse 
iacturas multoque ampliores se ipsum populos perdi- 
disse, quam e nostris ceperat vivos, vel certe per 
diversas fuderat pugnas, lit apud Nisibin aliquotiens 
evenit, et Singaram, parique modo cum septuaginta 

^ proditoris, W^, Lind. : proditores, V. ^ amiserat, 

erat. Her. ; amisit, erat, Val. ; amiserat, V. ^ prae- 

feren^, Val., Bentley ; ref evens, V^ (re fens, V). 

1 Ci. Virgil, Aen. v. 320. 

XIX., 9, 6-9, A.D. 359 

neither come nor gone without his wish. 7. He, 
then, fearing a charge of treason and greatly troubled 
lest through the coming of the deserter it should 
become known that his wife was alive and treated 
with great respect, as a blind sought marriage with 
another, a maiden of high rank, and, under pretence 
of preparing what was needed for the wedding- 
banquet, went to a country house of his eight miles 
distant from the city ; then, at full gallop he fled to 
a band of Persian pillagers that he had learned to 
be approaching. He was received with open arms, 
being recognized from the story that he told, and 
five days later was brought to Tamsapor, and by him 
taken to the king. And after recovering his pro- 
perty and all his kindred, as well as his wife, whom he 
lost a few months later, he held the second place 
after Antoninus, but was, as the eminent poet says, 
" next by a long interval." ^ 8. For Antoninus, aided 
by his talent and his long experience of the world, 
had available plans at hand for all his enterprises, 
while Craugasius was by nature most simple, yet 
of an equally celebrated reputation. And these 
things happened not long afterward.^ 

9. But the king, although making a show of ease 
of mind in his expression, and to all appearance 
seeming to exult in the destruction of the city, yet 
in the depths of his heart was greatly troubled, 
recalling that in unfortunate sieges he had often 
suffered sad losses, and had sacrificed far more men 
himself than he had taken alive of ours, or at any 
rate had killed in the various battles, as happened 
several times at Nisibis and at Singara ; and in the 
- That is, not long after the fall of Amida. 



tresque dies Amidam multitudine circumsedihset 
armorum, triginta milia perdidit bellatorurn, quae 
paulo postea per Discencn tribuuum et notarium 
numerata sunt, hac discretione facilius, quod 
nostrorum cadavera mox caesorum fatiscunt ac ^ 
diffluunt,"'^ adeo ut nullius mortui facies post qua- 
triduum agnoscatur, interfectorum vero Persarum 
inarescunt in modum stipitum corpora, ut nee 
liquentibus membris, nee sanie perfusa, madescant, 
quod \'ita parcior facit, et ubi nascuntur exustae 
caloribus terrae. 

10. Plebs Romana inopiavi frumenti metuens, sedi- 
tiones movet. 

1. Dum haec per varios turbines in orientis 
extimo festinantur, difficultatem adventantis inopiae 
frumentorum urbs verebatur aeterna, vique mina- 
cissimae plebis, famem ultimum malorum omnium 
exspectantis, subinde Tertullus vexabatur, ea tem- 
pestate praefectus, irrationabiliter plane ; nee enim 
per eum steterat quo minus tempore congruo ali- 
menta navibus veherentur, quas maris casus as- 
periores solitis ventorumque procellae reflantium. 
delatas in proximos sinus, introire portum Augusti 
discriminum magnitudine perterrebant. 2. Quo- 
circa idem saepe praefectus seditionibus agitatus, 

^ ac, Kellerbauer ; et, EBG ; V, see note 2. - diffluunt, 
C. F. W. Miiller ; fatiscunctaede fluunt (»w; from m, V^), V. 

^ Prefect of the City. 


XIX., 9, 9—10, 1-2, A.D. 359 

same way, when he had iu vested Amida for seventy- 
three days with a great force of armed men, he lost 
30,000 warriors, as was reckoned a little later by 
Discenes, a tribune and secretary, the more readily 
for this difl'ereuce : that the corpses of our men 
soon after they are slain fall apart and waste away, 
to such a degree that the face of no dead man is 
recognisable after four days, but the bodies of the 
slain Persians dry up like tree-trunks, without 
their limbs wasting or becoming moist with cor- 
ruption — a fact due to their more frugal life and the 
dry heat of their native country. 

10. Thr Roman commons rebel, fearing a scarcity of 

1. While these storms were swiftly passing one 
after the other in the extreme East, the eternal city 
was fearing the disaster of a coming shortage of 
grain, and from time to time Tertullus, who was 
prefect ^ at the time, was assailed by the violent 
threats of the commons, as they anticipated famine, 
the worst of all ills ; and this was utterly unreason- 
able, since it was no fault of his that food was not 
brought at the proper time in the ships, which 
unusually rough weather at sea and adverse gales of 
wind drove to the nearest harbours, and by the 
greatness of the danger kept them from entering 
the Port of Augustus." 2. Therefore that same 
prefect, since he had often been disquieted by up- 
risings, and the common people, in fear of imminent 

^ The hexagonal basin at Ostia built by Tr.ajan ; also 
called Partus urbis, or simply Porluts. 



ac plebe iam saeviente immanius, quoniam ^ vere- 
batur impendens exitium. ab omrii spe tueudae 
sahitis exclusus, ut aestimabat, lumultuanti acriter 
populo, sed accidentia considerare sueto prudeuter, 
obiecit parvulos filios, et lacrimans 3. " En " 
inquit " cives vestri (procul omen dii caelestes 
avertant !) eadem perlaturi vobiscum, ni fortuna 
aflPulserit laetior. Si itaque his abolilis nil triste 
accidere posse existimatis, praesto in potestate 
sunt vestra." Qua miseratione vulgus ad cle- 
mentiam ^ suapte natura proclive. lenitum conticuit, 
aequaniniiter venturam operiens sortem. 4. Mox- 
que divini arbitrio numinis, quod auxit ab incuna- 
bulis Romam, perpetuamque fore spopondit,^ dum 
Tertullus apud Ostia in aede sacrificat Castorum, 
tranquillitas mare mollivit, mutatoque in austrum 
placidum vento, velificatione plena portum naves 
ingressae, frumentis horrea referserunt. 

11. Limigantes Sarmatae. (him simulaUi pctitione 
pads deceptum imperatorem invadunt, maxima 
siiorum stragp. reprimuntur. 

1. Inter baec ita ambigua, Constantium Sirmi 
etiam tum hiberna quiete curantem, permovebant 
nuntii metuendi et graves, indicantes id quod tunc 
magnopere formidabat, Limigantes Sarmatas, quos 
expulisse paternis avitisque sedibus dominos suos 
ante monstravimus, paulatim posthabitis locis 

'■ quoniam, Clark ; qxiam, V. - clementiam. EG ; 

clemenfia, V ; clementiora. Her. '' .spopondit, E, 

Bentley, Haupt. ; spondit, V. 

ixvLi. 12, 18. 


XIX., 10, 2-4—11, 1, A.D. 359 

destruction, were now raging still more cruelly, 
being shut oft from all hope of saving his life, as he 
thought, held out his little sons to the wildly riotous 
populace, who had however been wont to take a 
sensible view of such accidents, and said with tears : 
3. " Behold your fellow citizens, who with you (but 
may the gods of heaven avert the omen !) will endure 
the same fate, unless a happier fortune shine upon 
us. If therefore you think that by the destruction 
of these no heavy calamity can befall you, here they 
are in your power.'' Through pity at this sight 
the mob, of their own nature inclined to mercy, was 
appeased and held its peace, awaiting with patience 
the fortune that should come. 4. And presently 
by the will of the divine power that gave increase 
to Rome from its cradle and promised that it should 
last forever, while Tertullus was sacrificing in the 
temple of Castor and Pollux at Ostia, a calm smoothed 
the sea, the wind changed to a gentle southern 
breeze, and the ships entered the harbour under full 
sail and again crammed the storehouses with grain. 

11. The Limigates of Sarmatia deceive the emperor' 
by (I pretended request for peace and attack 
him ; but they are repulsed ivith great slaughter. 

1. In the midst of such troubles Constantius, who 
was still enjoying his winter rest at Sirmium, was 
disturbed by fearful and serious news, informing 
him of what he then greatly dreaded, namely, that 
the Sarmatian Limigantes, who (as we have already 
pointed out) ^ had driven their masters from their 
ancestral abodes, having gradually abandoned the 



quae eis anno praeterito utiliter sunt destinata, 
ne (ut sunt versabiles) aliquid molirentur inicum,^ 
regiones confines limitibus occupasse, vagarique 
licentius genuino more (ni pellerentur,) omnia 

2. Quae superbius incitanda prope diem impera- 
tor dilato negotio credens, coacta xmdique raul- 
titudine militis ad bella promptissimi, nee dum 
adulto vera ad procintum egressus est gemina con- 
sideratione alacrior, quod expletus praedarum 
opimitate exercitus, aestate nuper emensa, similium 
spe fidenter in effectus animabitur prosperos, quod- 
que Anatolio regente tunc per Illyricum prae- 
fecturam, necessaria cuncta, vel ante terapus coacta, 
sine uUiiis dispendiis affluebant. 3. Nee enim 
dispositionibus uraquam alterius praefecturae (ut 
inter omnes constat) ad praesens Arctoae provinciae 
bonis omnibus floruerunt, correctione titubantium 
benevola et sollerti, vehiculariae rei iacturis ingenti- 
bus, quae clausere domos innumeras, et censuab 
professione speciosa fiducia relevatae ; indemnesque 
deinde et innoxii earum incolae partium, querellarum 
sopitis materiis viverent, ni postea exquisitorum 
detestanda nomina titulorum, per offerentes sus- 
cipientesque criminose in maius exaggerata, his pro- 
pugnare sibi nitentibus potestates, illis attenuatis 

^ intcum {= inaequum), Haupt. ; incon, V^ ; incum, V*. 

^ He was a Syrian from Berytus, who came to Rome 
and filled all the grades of rank up to the prefecture. He 
was noted for his energy, his eloquence, and his high 


XIX., 11, 1-3, A.D. 359 

places which for the public good had been assigned 
them the year before for fear that they (as they are 
inconstant) might attempt some wrongful act, had 
seized upon the regions bordering upon their fron- 
tiers, were ranging freely in their native fashion, and 
unless they were driven back would cause general 

2. The emperor, believing that these outrages 
would soon be pushed to greater heights if the matter 
were postponed, assembled from every quarter a 
great number of soldiers most eager for w ar and took 
the field before spring had yet fully come ; he was 
the more eager for action from two considerations : 
first, because an army glutted with the rich booty 
of the past summer, by the hope of similar gains 
would be encouraged by a confident hope of success- 
ful enterprises, and because under Anatolius,^ who 
at that time was prefect of lUyricum, all necessary 
supplies had been brought together even ahead of 
time and were still coming in without trouble to 
anyone. 3. For never under the management of 
any other prefect up to the present time, as was 
generally agreed, had the northern provinces so 
abounded in all blessings, since by his kindly and 
skilful correction of abuses they were relieved of 
the great cost of the courier-service, which had 
closed homes without number, and there was con- 
siderable hope of freedom from the income tax. And 
the dwellers in those parts might have lived without 
any grounds for complaint, w^ere it not that later 
the most hated forms of taxation that could be 
imagined, criminally amplified by both tax-payers 
and tax-collectors, since the latter strove to gain 



omnium opibus, se fore sperantibus tutos, ad usque 
proscriptiones miserorumque suspendia pervenerunt. 

4. Rem igitur emendaturus urgentem, profectus 
cum instrumentis ambitiosis, imperator (ut dictum 
est) Valeriam venit, partem quondam Pannoniae, 
sed ad honorem Valeriae Diocletiani filiae et in- 
stitutam et ita cognominatam, sub pellibusque 
exercitu difFuso per Histri fluminis margines, bar- 
baros observabat ante adventum suum amicitiae 
velamento, Pannonias furtim vastandas, invadere 
hiemis durissimo cogitantes, cum nee dum solutae 
vernis caloribus nives amnem undique pervium 
faciunt, nostrique pruinis subdivales moras difficile 

5. Confestim itaque missis ad Limigantes duobus 
tribunis cum interpretibus singulis, explorabat 
modestius percunctando, quam ob rem relictis laribus 
post pacem et foedera petentibus attributa,^ ita 
palarentur per ^ varia, limitesque contra interdicta 
pulsarent, 6. Qui vana quaedam causantes et 
irrita, pavore adigente mentiri, principem exorabant 
in veniam, obsecrantes ut simultate abolita, trans- 
misso flumine ad eum venire permitterentur, 
docturi quae sustinerent incommoda, paratique 
intra spatia orbis Romani (si id placuerit) terras 

^ adtributa, Eyssen. : adtributis, V. -per, added 

by C. F. W. Miiller, Cornelissen ; V omits. 

1 The Danube ; usually its lower course, but used also of 
the whole river. 


XIX., 11. 3-6, A.D. 359 

the protection of the governors and the former 
hoped for safety if all Avere impoverished, resulted 
finally in proscriptions and the suicide of the wretched 

4. Well, then, the emperor (as I have said), in 
order to improve the pressing situation, set out 
with splendid equipment and came to Valeria, 
once a part of Pannoiiia, but made into a province 
and named in honour of Valeria, the daughter of 
Diocletian. There, with his army encamped along 
the hanks of the river Hister,^ he watched the savages, 
who before his coming, under pretext of friendship 
but really intending secretly to devastate the 
country, were planning to enter Pannonia in the 
dead of winter, when the snows are not yet melted 
by the warmth of spring and so the river can be 
crossed everyAvhere, and when our soldiers would 
with difficulty, because of the frosts, endure life in 
the open. 

5. Then having quickly sent two tribunes to the 
Limigantes, each with an interpreter, by courteous 
questioning he inquired why it was that they had 
left the homes which had been assigned them at 
their own request after the treaty of peace, and 
were thus roaming at large and disturbing the 
frontiers, notwithstanding orders to the contrary. 
6. They gave some frivolous and unsatisfactory 
excuses, since fear forced them to lie, and begged 
for pardon, entreating the emperor to forget his 
anger and allow them to cross the river and come 
to him, in order to inform him of the difficulties 
that they were suffering. They were ready to take 
up far distant lands, but within the compass of the 



suscipere longe discretas, ut diuturno otio involuti, 
et Quietem colentes (tamquam salutarem deam) 
tributariorum onera subircnt et nomen. 

7. His post redituin tribunorum compertis, impe- 
rator exsultans, ut negotio quod rebatur iuexplicabile 
sine ullo pulvere consummando, cunctos admisit, 
aviditate plus habendi incensus, quam adulatorum 
cohors augebat, id sine modo strepentium, quod 
externis sopitis, et ubique pace composita, prole- 
tarios lucrabitur plures, et tirocinia cogere poterit 
validissima : aurum quippe gratanter provinciales 
pro ^ corporibus dabunt, quae spes rem Romanam 
aliquotiens aggravavit.^ 8. Proinde vallo prope 
Acimincum locato, celsoque aggere in speciem 
tribunalis erecto, naves vehentes quosdam legionarios 
expeditos alveum fluminis proximum ripis observare 
sunt iussae, cum Innocentio quodam agrimensore, 
huius auctore consilii, ut si barbaros tumultuare 
sensissent, aliorsum intentos post terga pervaderent 
improvisi. 9. Quae Limigantes licet properari sen- 
tirent, nihil tamen praeter preces ^ fingentes, stabant 

^ pro, added by Reinesius, Mommsen ; V omits. 
- adgravxiuit, G ; adgrauit, V ; exaggerauit, Pet. 
^ praeter preces, Val. ; praeces, V. 

^ I.e. they would rather contribute money than personal 


XIX., 11, 6-9, A.D. 359 

Roman world, if he would allow them, in order 
that wrapped in lasting repose and worshipping 
Quiet (as a saving goddess), they might submit to 
the burdens and the name of tributaries. 

7. When this was known after the return of the 
tribunes, the emperor, exulting in the accomplish- 
ment without any toil of a task which he thought 
insuperable, admitted them all, being inflamed 
with the desire for greater gain, which his crew of 
flatterers increased by constantly dinning it into 
his ears that now that foreign troubles were quieted, 
and peace made everywhere, he would gain more 
child-producing subjects and be able to muster a 
strong force of recruits ; for the provincials are 
glad to contribute gold to save their bodies,^ a hope 
which has more than once proved disastrous to the 
Roman state. "^ 8. Accordingly, having placed a 
rampart near Acimincum ^ and erected a high 
mound in the manner of a tribunal, ships carrying 
some light-armed legionaries were ordered to patrol 
the channel of the river near the banks, with one 
Innocentius, a field-measurer, who had recommended 
the plan, in order that, if they should see the savages 
beginning disorder, they might attack them in the 
rear, when their attention was turned elsewhere. 
9. But although the Limigantes knew that these 
plans were being hastened, yet they stood with 
bared heads, as if thinking of nothing save entreaties, 

^ It was in fact this hope that led the Romans to allow 
the Goths to cross the Danube, and thus brought on the 
defeat at Adrianople in 378 ; see xxxi., 4, 4, pro tnilitari 
■supplemcnto quod provinciatim annuum pendebatur, thesanris 
nccederet auri cumidufi niagnu^i. 

^ A city of Pannonia. 




incurvi, lorige alia quam quae gestu praeferebant 
et verbis altis mentibus perpensantes. 

10. Visoque imperatore ex alto suggestu. iam 
sernionem parante lenissimum, meditanteque al- 
loqui velut morigeros iam futures, quidam ex illis, 
furore percitus truci, calceo suo in tribunal contorto, 
"■ Marha marha " (quod est apud eos signum belli- 
cum) exclamavit, eumque secuta incondita multi- 
tudo, vexillo elato repente barbarico, ululans ferum, 
in ipsum principem ferebatur. 11. Qui cum ex alto 
despiciens, plena omnia discurrentis turbae cum 
missilibus vidisset, retectisque gladiis et verrutis iam 
propinquante ^ pernicie, externis mixtus et suis, 
ignotusque dux asset an miles, quia neque cunctandi 
aderat tempus, neque cessandi, equo veloci impositus, 
cursu effuso evasit. 12. Stipatores tamen pauci 
dum ignis more inundantes conabantur arcere, aut 
vulnerati interierunt, aut ponderibus superruentium 
solis afflicti, sellaque regalis cum aureo pulvinari, 
nullo vetante, direpta est. 

13. Mox autem audito, quod ad ultimum paene 

tractus exitium, in abrupto staret adhuc imperator, 

antiquissimum omnium exercitus ratus eum iuvare 

(nondum enim exemptum periculis aestimavit 

salutis) fastu fidentior, licet ob procursionem subi- 

tam semitectus, sonorum et Martium frendens, 

1 propinquante pernicie, Clark, cf . xxii. 3, 5 ; propinquam 
pernicieni, W- G ; propinquam pernicie, V. 


XIX.. 11, 9-13, A.D. 359 

but meditating deep in their hearts quite other 
things than their attitude and their words suggested. 

10. And when the emperor was seen on the high 
tribunal and was already preparing to deliver a 
most mild address, intending to speak to them as 
future obedient subjects, one of their number, 
struck with savage madness, hurling his shoe at 
the tribunal, shouted " Marha, marha " (which is 
their warcry), and the rude crowd following him 
suddenly raised a barbarian banner and with savage 
howls rushed upon the emperor himself. 11. He, 
looking down from his high place and seeing every- 
thing filled with a mob running about with missiles, 
and death already imminent from their drawn swords 
and javelins, in the midst as he was of the enemy 
and of his own men, and with nothing to indicate 
whether he was a general or a common soldier, 
since there was no time for hesitation or delay 
mounted a swift horse and galloped off at full 
speed. 12. However, a few of his attendants, while 
they were trying to keep off the savages, who poured 
upon them like a stream of fire, were either wounded 
to the death or trampled down by the mere weight 
of those who rushed over them ; and the royal 
seat with its golden cushion was seized without 

13. But when presently it was heard that the 
emperor had all but been drawn into extreme peril 
and was not yet on safe ground, the soldiers 
considered it their first duty to aid him (for they 
thought him not yet free from danger of death) ; 
so, with greater confidence because of their con- 
tempt of the enemy, although the attack was so 




barbarorum mori obstinatorum catervis scmet 
immersit. 14. Et quia virtute dedecus purgatura, 
ardens copia nostrorum erupit, iras in hostem 
perfiduni parans, obvia quaeque obtruncabat, sine 
parsimonia vivos conculcans et semineces et per- 
emptos ; et antequam exsatiaret caedibus barbaricis 
manus, acervi constipati sunt mortuorum. 15. 
Urgebantur eniin rebelles, aliis trucidatis, aliis ter- 
rore disiectis, quorum pars spam vitae cassis precibus 
usurpando multiplicatis ictibus caedebantur, postque 
deletos omnes in receptum canentibus lituis, nostri 
quoque licet rari videbantur exanimes, quos impetus 
conculcaverat vehemens, aut furori resistentes 
hostili, lateraque nudantes intecta, ordo fatalis 
absumpsit. 16. Mors tamen eminuit inter alios 
Celiac Scutariorum tribuni, qui inter confligendi 
exordia, primus omnium in medios semet ^ Sarma- 
tarum globos immisit. 

17. Post quae tarn saeva, digestis pro securitate 
limitum ^ quae rationes monebant urgentes, Con- 
stantius Sirmium redit, ferens de hoste fallaci 
vindictam, et maturatis quae necessitates temporis 
poscebant instantes, egressus exinde Constantino- 
polim petit, ut orienti iam proximus, cladibus apud 

1 se. added by G (semet, Novt'ik) before i)nmifiit ; V omits. 
- lim-itnm, Val. ; milituni, V. 


XIX., 11, 13-17, A.D. 359 

sudden that they were only partly armed, with a wild 
battlecry they plunged into the bands of the savages, 
who were regardless of their lives. 14. And so 
eagerly did our forces rush forth in their desire to 
wipe out the disgrace by valour, at the same time 
venting their wrath on the treacherous foe, that they 
butchered everything in their way, trampling 
under foot without mercy the living, as well as 
those dying or dead ; and before their hands were 
sated with slaughter of the savages, the dead lay 
piled in heaps. 15. For the rebels were completely 
overthrown, some being slain, others fleeing in terror 
in all directions ; and a part of them, who hoped 
to save their lives by vain entreaties, were cut down 
by repeated strokes. And after all had been killed 
and the trumpets were sounding the recall, some of 
our men also, though few, were found among the 
dead, either trampled under foot in the fierce attack 
or, when they resisted the fury of the enemy and 
exposed their unprotected sides, destroyed by the \ 
fatal course of destiny. 16. But conspicuous above 
the rest was the death of Cella, tribune of the 
Targeteers, who at the beginning of the fight was 
first to rush into the thick of the Sarmatian forces. 
17. After this cruel carnage Constantius, having 
made such arrangements for the safety of the fron- 
tiers as considerations of urgency recommended, 
returned to Sirmium after taking vengeance on 
a treacherous foe. Then, having quickly attended 
to what the pressing necessities of the time required, 
he set out from there and went to Constantinople, 
in order that being now nearer the Orient he might 
remedy the disaster which he had suff"ered at Amida, 



Amiflam mederetur acceptis, et redintegrato supple- 
mentis exercitu, impetus regis Persarum pari virium 
robore cohiberet, quern constabat (ni caelestis ratio 
inipensiorque repelleret cura rnultorum) Mesopo- 
tamia relicta post terga, per extenta spatia signa 

12. Laesi maiestatis multi nrcessiti atque damnati. 

1. Inter has tamen soUicitudines, vehxt ex re- 
cepto quodam antiquitus more, ad vicem bellorum 
civilium, inflabant litui quaedam colorata laesae 
crimina maiestatis, quorum exsecutor et administer, 
saepe dictus Tartareus ^ ille notarius missus est 
Paulus, qui peritus artium cruentarum, ut lanista 
ex commerciis libitinae vel ludi, ipse quoque ex 
eculeo vel carnifice quaestum fructumque captabat. 

2. Ut enim erat obstinatum fixumque eius proposi- 
tum ad laedendum, ita nee furtis abstinuit, inno- 
centibus exitialis causas affingens,^ dum in calami- 
tosis stipendiis versaretur. 

3. Materiam autem in infinitum quaestionibus 
extendendis dedit occasio vilis et parva. Oppidum 
est Abydum in Thebaidis partis situm extremo.^ 
Hie Besae dei localiter appellati, oraculum quondam 

1 dictus Tartareus, Her. {dictum, W^) ; dictandus, Val. ; 
dictaneus, V ; dictus Catena, Langen (cf. xiv. 5, 8 ; xv. 

3, 4). ^ adfingens dum, G; adfringen *** dum (from 
dum dum), V ; adfingendo, Cornelissen. ' partis situm 
extremo. Pet. ; partis dum extremo, V ; parte situm extrema, 

^ From Tartarus, " the Diabolical." He is called 
Catena in xiv. 5, 8 and xv. 3, 4. 


XIX., 11, 17—12, 1-3, A.D. 359 

ami by supplying the army there with reinforce- 
ments might with an equally strong force check 
the inroads of the Persian king ; for it was clear 
that the latter (unless the will of heaven and the 
supreme efforts of many men repelled him) would 
leave Mesopotamia behind and seek a wider field 
for his arms. 

12. Many are tried and condemned for high treason. 

1. Yet in the midst of these anxieties, as if it 
were prescribed by some ancient custom, in place of 
civil wars the trumpets sounded for alleged cases 
of high treason ; and to investigate and punish 
these there was sent that notorious state-secretary 
Paulus, often called Tartareus.^ He was skilled 
in the work of bloodshed, and just as a trainer of 
gladiators seeks profit and emolument from the 
traffic in funerals ^ and festivals, so did he from the 
rack or the executioner. 2. Therefore, as his deter- 
mination to do harm was fixed and obstinate, he 
did not refrain from secret fraud, devising fatal 
charges against innocent persons, provided only 
he might continue his pernicious traffic. 

3. Moreover, a slight and trivial occasion gave 
opportunity to extend his inquisitions indefinitely. 
There is a town called Abydum, situated in the 
remotest part of the Thebais ^ ; here the oracle of 
a god called in that place Besa in days of old re- 
vealed the future and was wont to be honoured in 

- Gladiatorial shows were given at the funerals of 
distinguished Romans, as well as at festivals. 
^ A nome, or province, of Egypt. 



I'utura pandebat, priscis circumiacentium regionuin 
caerimoniis solitum coli. 4. Et quoniam quidam 
praesentes, pars per alios desideriorum indice missa 
scriptura, supplicationibus expresse conceptis, con- 
sulta numinum sritabantur, chartulae sive ^ mem- 
branae, continentes quae petebantur, post data 
quoque responsa, interdum remanebant in fano. 
5. Ex his aliqua ad imperatorem maligne sunt missa, 
qui (ut erat angusti pectoris ^) obsurdescens in aliis 
etiam nimium seriis, in hoc titulo ima (quod aiunt) 
auricula mollior, et suspicax et minutus, acri felle 
concaluit ; statimque ad orientem ocius ire monuit 
Paulum, potestate delata, ut instar ducis rerum 
experientia clari, ad arbitrium suum audiri efficeret 
causas. 6. Datumque est negotium Modesto (etiam 
tum per orientem comiti) apto ad haec et similia. 
Hermogenes enim Ponticus ea tempestate prae- 
fectus praetorio, ut lenioris ingenii, spernebatur. 

7. Perrexit (ut praeceptum est) Paulus lunesti 
furoris et anhelitus plenus, dataque calumniae 
indulgentia plurimis,^ ducebantur ab orbe prope 
terrarum, iuxta nobiles et obscuri, quorum aliquos 
vinculorum afflixerant nexus, alios claustra poenalia 
consumpserunt. 8. Et electa est spectatrix sup- 
pliciorum feralium civitas in Palaestina Scylhopolis, 
gemina ratione visa magis omnibus opportuna, quod 

^ sive, Clark ; seu, EBG ; saevi, V. - angusti pectoris, 
G ; amjusti rectoris, V. ^ plurimis, Clark with V, corr. 

/ from r ; pluriini, ]<>'BG. 

^ So also at the teini^le of Jupiter at Baalbek. 


XIX., 12, 3-8, A.D. 359 

the ancient ceremonials of the adjacent regions. 
4. And since some in person, a part through others, 
hy sending a written list of their desires,^ inquired 
the will of the deities after definitely stating their 
requests, the papers or parchments containing their 
petitions sometimes remained in the shrine even 
after the replies had been given. 5. Some of these 
were with malicious intent sent to the emperor 
who (being narrow-minded), although deaf to other 
very serious matters, on this point was softer than 
an earlobe,^ as the proverb has it ; and being 
suspicious and pettv. he grew furiouslv angry. At 
once he admonished Paulus to proceed quickly to 
the Orient, conferring on him, as a leader renowned 
for his experience, the power of conducting trials 
according to his good pleasure. 6. A commission was 
also given to Modestus (at that very time count in the 
Orient) a man fitted for these and similar affairs. 
For Hermogenes of Pontus, at that time praetorian 
prefect, was rejected as being of too mild a temper. 
7. Off went Paulus (as he was ordered) in panting 
haste and teeming with deadly fury, and since free 
rein was given to general calumny, men were brought 
in from almost the whole world, noble and obscure 
alike ; and some of them were bowed down with 
the weight of chains, others wasted away from the 
agony of imprisonment. 8. As the theatre of torture 
and death Scythopolis was chosen, a city of Palestine 
which for two reasons seemed more suitable than 
any other : because it is more secluded, and because 
it is midway between Antioch and Alexandria, 

- Cf. Cic, Q.F. ii. 154, me . . . fore auricula infima 
scito moUiorem ; Catull. 25, 2 {mollior) imula auricilla. 



secretior est ^ et inter Antiochiam Alexandria, amque 
media, unde multi plerumque ad crimina trahebantur. 
9. Ductus est itaque inter primos Siraplicius, 
Philippi filius, ex praefecto et consule, reus hac 
gratia postulatus, quod super adipisceudo in- 
terrogasse dicebatur imperio, perque elogium princi- 
pis torqueri praeceptus, qui in his casibus nee 
peccatum aliquando pietati dederat nee erratum, 
fato quodam arcente, corpore immaculato lata ^ fuga 
damnatus est. 10. Dein Parnasius (ex praefecto 
Aegypti) homo simplicium morum, eo ^ adductus * 
periculi, ut pronuntiaretur capitis reus, itidem pulsus 
est in exsilium, saepe auditus multo antehac rettulisse, 
quod cum Patras Achaicum oppidum, ubi genitus 
habuit larem, impetrandae causa cuiusdam relin- 
queret potestatis, per quietem deducentia se habitus 
tragici figmenta viderat muita. 11. Andronicus 
postea, studiis liberalibus et claritudine carminum 
notus, in indicium introductus cum secura mente 
nidlis suspicionibus urgeretur, purgando semet ^ 
fidentius, absolutus est. 12. Demetrius itidem 
Cythras cognomento philosophus, grandaevus qui- 
dem sed ^ corpore durus et animo, sacrificasse ali- 
quotiens confutatus, infitiari non potuit, asserens 

^ est (before or after secretior), Novak, Pet. ; V omits. 
- lata, V ; G omits ; Cornelissen del. as dittography. ^ eo, 
added in NG ; V omits. * adductus, Clark, cf . xiv. 

11, 8 ; deductus, V (for which Her. cites Val. Max., viii. 
1, abs. 6). ^ semet, Bentley, Giinther ; semper et, V. 

* sed, N'^ G ; set, Hermann ; et, V. 

1 On elogium, see p. 31, note 3. 

XIX., 12, 8-12, A.D. 359 

from which cities the greater number were brought 
to meet charges. 

9. Among the first, then, to be summoned was 
SimpUcius, son of Philippus, a former prefect and 
consul, who was indicted for the reason that he had 
(as was said) inquired about gaining imperial power ; 
and by a note ^ of the emperor, who in such 
cases never condoned a fault or an error because 
of loyal service, he was ordered to be tortured: 
but, protected by some fate, he was banished to a 
stated place, ^ but with a whole skin. 10. Then \ 
Parnasius (ex-prefect of Egypt), a man of simple 
character, was brought into such peril that he was 
tried for his life, but he likewise was sent into exile ; • 
he had often been heard to say long before this, that 
when, for the purpose of gaining a certain office, he 
left Patrae, a town of Achaia where he was born and 
had his home, he had dreamt that many shadowy 
figures in tragic garb escorted him. 11. Later 
Andronicus, known for his liberal studies and the 
fame of his poems, was haled into court ; but since 
he had a clear conscience, was under no suspicion, 
and most confidently asserted his innocence, he 
was acquitted. 12. Also Demetrius, surnamed 
Cythras, a philosopher of advanced years, it is true, 
but hardy of body and mind, being charged with 
offering sacrifice ^ several times, could not deny it ; 

-According to Marcianus, Digest, xlviii. 22, 5, there 
were three kinds of exile ; exclusion from certain places 
specifically named {liberum exsilium) ; confinement to 
a designated place (lata fwja) ; banishment to an islanfl 
{ Insulae vhiculum ) . 

3 To Besa. 



propitiandi causa numinis haec a prima adulescentia 
factitassc, iion temptandi sublimiora scrutatis ; nee 
enim quemquam id noverat affectare. Diu itaque 
adhaerens eculeo, cum fiducia gravi fundatus, 
nequaquam varians eadem oraret intrepidus, Alex- 
andriam (unde oriebatur) innoxius abire permissus 

13. Et hos quidem aliosque paucos aequa sors, 
veritatis adiutrix, periculis eximit abruptis. Cri- 
minibus vero serpentibus latius, per implicatos 
nexus sine fine distentos, quidam corporibus laniatis 
exstinguebantur, alii poenis ulterioribus daranati 
sunt bonis ereptis, Paulo succentore fabularum 
crudelium, quasi e ' promptuaria cella, fallaciarum et 
nocendi species suggerente complures, cuius ex nutu 
(prope dixerim) pendebat incedentium " omnium 
salus. 14. Nam siqui remedia quartanae vel dol- 
oris alterius coUo gestaret, sive per monumentum 
transisse vesper, malivolorum argueretur indiciis, 
ut veneficus, sepulchrorumque horrores, et erran- 
tium ibidem ^ animarum ludibria colligens vana, 
pronuntiatus reus capitis interibat. 15. Et prorsus 
ita res agebatur, quasi Clarum, Dodonaeas arbores, 
et effata Delphorum olim soUemnia, in imperatoris 

^ quasi e, W, Lind. ; quas ce, V. - incedentium, 

V ; incidentiii.m, Clark, cf. xxvi. 10, 10. ' ibidem, Lind. ; 
intidem, V. 

1 A city of Ionia near Colophon, the seat of a famous 
oracle of Apollo. 


XIX., 12, 12-15, v.D. 359 

he declared, however, that he had done so from early 
youth for the purpose of" propitiating the deity, 
not of trying to reach a higher station by his ques- 
tions ; for he did not know of anyone who had such 
aspirations. Therefore, after being long kept upon 
the rack, supported by his firm confidence he fear- 
lessly made the same plea without variation ; where- 
upon he was allowed to go without further harm to 
his native city of Alexandria. 

13. These and a few others a just fate in alliance 
with truth saved from imminent danger. But as 
these charges made their way further by entangling 
snares extended endlessly, some died from the 
mangling of their bodies, others were condemned 
to further punishment and had their goods seized, 
while Paulus was the prompter of these scenes of 
cruelty, supplying as if from a storehouse many 
kinds of deception and cruelty ; and on his nod 
(I might almost say) depended the life of all who 
walk the earth. 14. For if anyone wore on his neck 
an amulet against the quartan ague or any other 
complaint, or was accused by the testimony of the 
evil-disposed of passing by a grave in the evening, 
on the ground that he was a dealer in poisons, or a 
gatherer of the horrors of tombs and the vain illusions 
of the ghosts that walk there, he was condemned' 
to capital punishment and so perished. 15. In 
fact, the matter was handled exactly as if many 
men had importuned Claros,^ the oaks of Dodona,^ 
and the once famous oracles of Delphi with regard 

* A city of Epirus, in the country of the Molossians, 
whei'e there was in an oak grove a celebrated temple and 
oracle of Zeus. 



exitium sollicitaverint niulti. 16. Unde blanditi- 
arum taetra commenta, palatina cohors exquisite 
confingens, immunem cum fore malorum com- 
munium asserebat, fatuin eius vigens semper et 
praesens in abolendis adversa conantibus eluxisse. 
vocibus magnis exclamans. 

17. Et iuquisitum in haec negotia fortius, nemo 
qui quidem recte sapiat reprehendet. Nee enim 
abnuimus salutem legitimi principis, propugnatoris 
bonorum et defensoris, unde salus quaeritur aliis, 
consociato studio muniri debere cunctorum ; cuius 
retinendae ^ causa validius, ubi raaiestas pulsata 
defenditur, a quaestionibus vel cruentis, nullam 
Corneliae leges exemere fortunam. 18. Sed exsultare 
maestis casibus efFrenate non decet, ne videantur 
licentia regi subiecti, non potestate. Imitandus 
sit TuUius, cum parcere vel laedere potuisset, ut 
ipse affirmat, ignoscendi quaerens causas, non 
puniendi occasiones, quod iudicis lenti et considerati 
est proprium. 

19. Tunc apud Daphnen, amoenum illud et am- 
bitiosum Antiocbiae suburbanum, visu relatuque 
horrendum natum est monstrum, infans ore gemiuo 
cum dentibus binis et barba, quattuorque oculis, 

^ retinendae, EN, Gardt. ; rediniendae, WBG ; redinendae 

' Oil the Cornelian Laws (Lex Cornelia maiestatis), 
see Cicero in Pisoneni, 21. They were emended and en- 
larged by Julius Caesar as the Lex lulia maiestatis. 


XIX., 12, 15-19, A.D. 359 

to the death of the emperor. 16. Therefore the 
palace band of courtiers, ingeniously fabricating . . 
shameful devices of flattery, declared that he would ! ^^ 
be immune to ordinary ills, loudly exclaiming that 
his destiny had appeared at all times powerful and 
effective in destroying those who made attempts 
against him. 

17. And that into such doings strict investigation 
was made no man of good sense will find fault. 
For we do not deny that the safety of a lawful 
prince, the protector and defender of good men, 
on whom depends the safety of others, ought to 
be safeguarded by the united diligence of all men ; 
and in order to uphold him the more strongly when 
his violated majesty is defended, the Cornelian laws ^ 
exempted no one of whatever estate from examination 
by torture, even with the shedding of blood. ^ 18. 
But it is not seemly for a prince to rejoice beyond I 
measure in such sorrowful events, lest his subjects I I 
should seem to be ruled by despotism rather than 
by lawful power. And the example of TuUy ought 
to be followed, who, when it was in his power to 
spare or to harm, as he himself tells us,^ sought 
excuses for pardoning rather than opportunities 
for punishing ; and that is the province of a mild 
and considerate official. 

19. At that same time in Daphne, that charming 
and magnificent suburb of Antioch, a portent was 
born, horrible to see and to report : an infant, / ^ 

'^ See Cod. Theod. ix., Tit. 35, in maieitatis crimine 
omnihiis aequa est condicio. 

^ A fragment of Cicero preserved only by Ammianus ; 
perhaps from the Oratio MeteUina (Cic, ad Alt. 1,13, ri). 



et brevissiinis duabus auriculis, qui partus ita dis- 
tortus praemonebat rem publicam in statum verti 
deformem. 20. Nascuntur huius modi saepe por- 
tenta, indicantia rerum variarum eventus, quae 
quoniam non expiantur, ut apud veteres publico, 
inaudita praetereunt et incognita. 

13. Lauricus comes Isaurnriim latrocinia compescit. 

1. His temporibus Isauri diu quieti post gesta 
quae superior continet textus, temptatumque Seleu- 
ciae civitatis obsidium, paulatim reviviscentes, 
ut Solent verno tempore foveis exsilire serpentes, 
saltibus degressi scrupulosis et inviis, confertique 
in cuneos densos per furta et latrocinia finitimos 
afflictabant, praetenturas militum (ut montani) 
fallentes, perque rupis et dumeta ex usu facile dis- 
currentes. 2. Ad quos vi vel ratione sedandos 
Laviricius, adiecta comitis dignitate, missus est 
rector, homo civilis prudentiae, qui minis potius 
quam acerbitate pleraque correxit, adeo ut eo diu 
provinciam obtinente, nihil accideret, quod animad- 
versione dignum aestimaretur. 


XIX.. 12, 19-20—13, 1-2, A.D. 359 

namclv, with two heads, two sets of teeth, a beard, 
four eyes and two very small ears ; and this mis- 
shapen birth foretold that the state was turning 
into a deformed condition. 20. Portents of this 
kind often see the light, as indications of the out- 
come of various affairs ; but as they are not ex- 
piated bv public rites, as they were in the time of 
our forefathers, they pass by unheard of and 

13. Count Lauricius checks the raids of the Isauriajis. 

1. In these days the Isaurians, who had long been 
quiet after the acts of which an account is given 
above ^ and the attempted siege of the city of 
Seleucia, graduallv coming to life again just as snakes 
are wont to dart forth from their holes in the spring 
time, sallying forth from their rocky and inaccessible 
mountain fastnesses, and massed together in dense 
bands, were harrving their neighbours with thefts 
and brigandage, eluding the frontier-defences of our 
soldiers by their skill as mountaineers and from ex- 
perience easily running over rocks and through 
thickets. 2. In order to quiet them by force or 
by reason, Lauricius was sent as governor with the 
added raidi of count ; being a man skilled in states- 
manship, he corrected many evils by threats rather 
than by actual severity, so that for a long time, 
while he governed the province, nothing occurred 
which was thought deserving of punishment. 

1 See xiv. 2, 1 ff. 




Abariie, a village of Mesopotamia, 
located by Ammianus in Guma- 
thena (g.c), x^^ii. 9, 2. 

Abdigidiis, xviii. 6, 12. 

Aboia, a river of itesopotamia, a 
tributary of the Euphrates, the 
Hernias or Alhauali, xiv. 3, 4. 

Aborigines, a name applied to the 
earliest inhabitants of various 
countries ; to the Celtae in 
Gaul, XV. 9, 3. 

Abydum (Abydus), a city of 
Egypt, under the native kings 
ranking next to Thebes, xix. 
12, 3, note. It was the seat of 
the palace of Meninon, and of a 
temple of Osiris, Pliny, X.n. v. 

Achaicus, -a, -um, adj. from Achaia, 
a district on the northern coast 
of the Peloponnesus : oppidum, 
xix. 12, 10. Used also of the 
whole of Greece : traclus, xv. 
8, I. 

Achilleus, the famous Greek hero, 
xix. 1, 9. 

Acilins Glabrio, M', consul in 
191 B.C. and commander against 
Antiochus. He was the first 
Roman to be honoured with a 
golden statue. His son of the 
same name dedicated a temple 
of Pietas at Rome, and placed 
the statue of his father in it, 
xiv. 6, 8. 

Acimincum (Acumincum), a city of 
Lower Pannonia, xix. 11, 8. 

Adelphius (Clodius), prefect of 
Rome under JIagneiitius in 350, 
xvi. 6, 2. 

Ad Gradus, a part of the Gulf of 
Lyons at the mouth of the 
Rhone. Crradus means " a land- 
ing-place " (Val. Max. ill. 6, 1) 
and is found in connection with 
the mouths of other rivers, 
XV. 11, 18, note. 

Adiabcno, a district of Assyria, 
Modern Hadjab, xviii. 7, 1. 

Adonis, a beautiful youth, son of 
f'inyras, king of Cyprus, beloved 
by Aphrodite. He was killed 
by a boar, but was allowed to 
spend half of each year with 
Aphrodite. His death and re- 
turn to life were celebrated at 
Alexandria and elsewhere by 
festivals (Adonia), typical of 
the death of nature in winter and 
its revival in the spring, xix. 1, 

Adramytenus (Aclramyttenus), adj. 
fiom Adramytteum (Adramyt- 
tium), a town on the river Caiciis 
in Mysia, on the road between 
the Hellespont and Pergamum, 
xiv. 11, 31 ; see Andriscus. 

Adrastea, used as another name for 
Nemesis, the goddess of retri- 
butive justice, xiv. 11, 25. 

Adrasteus pallor, xiv. 11, 22, note. 

Aedesius (Sextilius Agesilaus), xv. 
5, 4, 14. Cf. C.I.L. vi. 510. 

Aegyptia civitas, x\ii. 4, 6. 

' Historical, geographical, and mythological, as they appear in 
Vol. I. only. Additional information found in later books is given in the 
Indices to Vols. II. and III. Where nothing can be added to the informa- 
tion given in the text and the notes, usually only the reference is given. 


MM 2 


Aegyptii, the Egyptians, x\-ii. 4, 

Aegyptus, Egypt, in the time of 
Aminianus an oriental proviiKx', 
part of t he Prefect ure of t he East, 
xiv. 7, 21 ; 11, 32 ; xvii. 4, 3, 5. 
AiyvTrTO?, XVii. 4, 19, 20. 

Aelianus, a count crucified by tiic 
Persians after the talking of 
Amida, xix. 9, 2. 

Aemiliauus, see Scipio (4). 

Aethiopia, EtWopia, a country 
south of Egypt, correjspondina 
in general to modern Nubia and 
Abyssinia, but of soniewliat 
vague limits, xiv. 8, 3. 

Afri, XV. 10, 10, note. 

Africae Utus, xiv. 8, 3. 

Africanns superior, see Scipio (1). 

Africanus, governor of Pannonia 
Secunda in 354-6, xv. 3, 7 
(rector) ; xvi. 8, 3 (cotisuhiris). 

Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse 
from 361-289 B.C., xiv. 11, 30. 

Agenarichus, see Serapion. 

Agilimimdus, xvii. 12, 21. 

Agilo, xiv. 10, 8. 

Agrippina, Colonia, a city of 
Second, or Lower, Germany, 
originally the chief town of the 
Ubii, made a Roman colony by 
Claudius in a.D. ,51 and named 
from his wife Agrippina ; modeni 
Cologne, XV. 5, 1-5 ; 8, 19 ; 
xvi. 3, i ; xvii. 2, 1. 

Aiadalthes, x^'lii. 8, 10. 

.\lyvnTo<;, see Aegyptus. 

Alamanni, a tribe of the Germans, 
inhabiting Suebia and a part of 
Helvetia ; sometimes used by 
Ammianus as a designation of 
the Germans as a whole, xiv. 
10, 6 and passim. 

Alamannici pagi, xv. 4, 1. 

Albani, an Asiatic people, whose 
territory extended from Iberia 
to the Caspian Sea, allies of the 
Persians, xviii. 6, 22, note ; xix. 
2, 3. 

Albinus Tuscus, xv. 5, 4 ; see also 

Alexander the Great, the famous 
king of Macedon : his wise reply 
to his mother, xiv. 11, 22 ; tiis 
dream of an infinity of worlds, 


Alexander the Great— fort/i;'i<«rf. 
xv. 1, 4 ; how he warded off 
sleep, xvi. 5, 4 ; made Scleurus 
his heir, xiv. 8, •"). " 

Alexaudri viciis, xvii. 4, 14, note. 

Alexandria, the famous Egyptian 
city at the mouth of the Mle, 
XV. 7, 7, etc. 

.^lexandrinus nobilis, xiv. 1, 3. 

Allobroges, a tribe of Gallia Xar- 
bonensis, dwelling between the 
llhone, the Isarus (Is6re), the 
Graian Alps and the Lake of 
Geneva, xv. 12, .5. 

Alpe.s. the Alps, xiv. 6, 4, etc., 
including the Cottian (xv. 5, 29), 
Maritime (xv. 10, 9), Pennine 
(XV. 11, 16), Graian (xv. 10, 9, 
note), and Julian, formerly 
Venetic (xxi. 10, 4) ; devices for 
crossing them, xv. 10, 4. 

Alpes Graiae et Poeninae, a pro- 
vince of the diocese of Gaul in the 
Prefecture of Gaul, xv. 11, 12. 

Alplieus, tlie largest river of the 
Peloponnesus, rising in Arcadia 
and flowing tlxrough Elis into 
the Ionian Sea, xv. 4, 6. 

Amanus, a mountain range of 
southern Asia Minor, in eastern 
Cilicia, near the frontier of 
Syria, xiv. 8, 4. 

Ambiani, a Belgic tribe ; in 
Ammianus' time their capital, 
Samarobriva, was called Am- 
biani ; it was a city of Belgica 
Secunda, modern Amiens, xv. 
11, 10. 

Aniicenses, a tribe of the Sarma- 
tians, living in Dacia near the 
confluence of the Tibiscus and 
the Danube, xvii. 13, 19, note. 

Amida, a city of soutli-western 
Armenia, on the Tigris near the 
source of the river, x^•iii. 9, 2 ; 6, 
17; 8, 3; .xLx. 9, 1, 2, 9; 10, 1. 
Its siege and capture by the 
Persians, xix. 1-8. It was for- 
tified by Constantius, who wished 
it to be called Constantia, xWii. 
9, 1. 

Ammianus, see Introd., pp. ix ff. 

'AfiiJLUjv, x^•ii. 4, 20, note. 

Amphiaraus, xiv. 1, 7, note. 


Amphitlieatrum (Flavlanum), 

later known as the Colosseum, 
XV. 7, 3 ; xvi. 10, 14. 

Amudis, a fortress of Mesopotamia, 

' xviii. 6, 13. 

Anaphe, an island in the Aegean 
Sea, one of the Sporades, east 
of Thera, said by Ammianus to 
have been formed by an earth- 
quake, xvii. 7, 13. 

Anatolius, pretorian prefect in 
Jllyricum in 359, afterwards 
made master of petitions and 
then master of ofhces by Julian, 
xix. 11, 2. 

Anaxagoras, a Greek philosopher 
of the Ionian school, born at 
Clazomenae about 500 B.C. 
He was a friend of Pericles and 
Euripides. He was banished 
from Athens in 431 B.C. on a 
charge of atheism and died 
at Lainpsacus a few years later 
(circa 428 B.C.), xvii. 7, 11. 

Anaxarchus, a philosopher of 
Abdera in Thrace of the school 
of Deniocritus, hence called 
Democritius by Cicero, Tusc. 
Disp. ii. 22, 52. He accom- 
panied Alexander the Great to 
Asia, XV. 1, 4. 

Anaximander, a natural philo- 
sopher of Miletu<, circa 610-547 
B.C., xvii. 7, 12. 

Anazarbus, a city of eastern 
Cilicia, on the upper course of 
the Pyramus river, xiv. 8, 3. 

Andriscus, of Aramyttium in 
Mysia, called Pseudophilippus. 
He claimed to be Philippus, the 
.son of Perseus, king of Mace- 
donia, and waged war with the 
Komans for two years, but was 
defeated by Caecilius Metellus 
and taken prisoner in 148 B.C. 
(see Florus, i. 30, 3 ; i.e. Livy, 
Periocha 50), xiv. 11, 31. 

Andronicus, xix. 12, 11. 

Anicii, a noble family of Rome, 
xvi. 8, 13. 

Antennacum, a city of Germany, 
modern Andernach, xviii. 2, 4. 

Anthemusia, a district and city of 
Mesopotamia near the frontier 
of SjTia, not far from Edessa 

.\nthemusia — continued. 
and Batne, xiv. 3, 3. Cf. Pliny, 
N.H. V. 86, and Tacitus, Ann. 
vi. 41, who gives the name of the 
city as Anthemusias. 

Antiochia, the famous city of 
north-eastern S\Tia near the 
mouth of the Orontes, xiv. 1, 

6, 7 ; 7, 10 ; 8, 8, etc ; see 
Introd., p. tx. 

Antiochensis -e, adj. from Antio- 
chia : onlo, xiv. 7, 2 ; pkbs, 
xiv. 7, 5. 

Autiochus, King of SjTia from 223 
to 187 B.C., surnamed the Great. 
He was defeated by the Komans 
in 190 B.C., xiv. 6, 8, note. 

Antipolis, a city of Gallia Xarbonen- 
sis, a colony of Massilia ; modem 
Antibes (Antiboul in Proven- 
cal), XV. 11, 15. Supposed to 
be so named because it was 
opposite Nicaea. 

Antoniims imperator, referring to 
Marcus Ajurelius (see Marcus), 
xvi. 1, 4. 

Antoninupolis (Antoninopolis), a 
town of Mesopotamia, between 
Nisibis and Carrhae, apparently 
founded by Caracalla. It was 
rebuilt by Constantius II, when 
Caesar, xviii. 9, 1. 

Antoninus, a Roman who deserted 
to the Persians. x\-iii. 5, 1-3. 

Anzaba, a river of Mesopotamia, 
xviii. 6, 19 ; 7, 1. 

Apamia (Apamea) a city of Syria 
in the valley of the Orontes, xiv. 

Apodemius, xiv. 11, 19, note ; 
XV. 1, 2 ; 5, 8. 

■.\7r6A.\wi-, xvii. 4, 18 ff. 

ApoUinaris, governor of the pro- 
vince of Phoenicia in 354, xiv. 

7, 20. 

ApoUinaris, son of the above, 
cliief steward of the palace of 
Gallus Caesar, xiv. 7, 19. 

Aquileia, a city of Gallia Trans- 
padana, at the head of the 
Adriatic, ranked ninth in the 
Roman empire by Ansonius 
(Ordo Xob. VrHum, vs..), and 
fourth in Italy, xv. 3, 10. 

Aquilo, the north wind, xviii. 9, 2. 



Aqiiitani, the proijlc of Aquitania, 
XV. 11, 1, 2, 5, 6, etc. 

Aquitania, one of tlie four princi- 
pal divisions of Gaul, between 
the Garonne river and the 
Pyrenees, later a Konian pro- 
vince. It was extended to the 
Liger (Loire), and finally dividud 
into First and Second Aquitania 
and Novempopulana (see Noveni 
populi), XV. 11, 13 ; xvii. 8, 1 ; 
see also Aquitanica. 

Aquitauica, xv. 11, 13. Appar- 
ently a substantive, used to 
avoid the repetition of Aquitania 
just before. The cities named 
show that it included botii 
First and Second Aquitania. 
Aqnitanica is not cited for 
Ammianus in the T.L.L., nor is 
Aquitanicus as an adjective. 

Arabia, the westernmost of the 
tliree great peninsulas of southern 
Asia, made a province by Trajan, 
but given up by Hadrian. In 
the time of Animiamis the 
province of Arabia was a small 
part of eastern Asia Minor, 
xiv. 8, 13. 

Araharius, xvii. 18, 12 ff. 

Arar, a river of Gaul, a tributary of 
the Rhone, also called Sauconna ; 
modern Sadne, xv. 11, 17. 

Arbetio, Flavins, apparently a 
barbarian name. He rose from 
the grade of a common soldier 
to the rank of commander of 
the cavalry. He was consul 
witli Lollianus in 3.").5, and was 
accused of aspiring to imperial 
power, xiv. 11, 2 ; xv. 2, 4 : 
3, 2; 4, 1; 8, 17; xvi. 6, 1, etc. 

Arbor . . ., part of the name of 
a Gallic city, xvi. 2, 3, note. 

Arcadia, a district in the centre of 
the Peloponnesus, xv. 4, 6. 

Archelaus, a native of Cappadoeia, 
the ablest of Mithradates' 
generals, xvi. 12, 41. 
Arctoae provinciae, the northern 
provinces, so called from Arctos, 
the constellation of the Great 
Bear, xiv. 11, 11 ; xix. 11, 3. 
Arelate, a city on the left bank of 
the Khone near its moutli ; 


Arelate — continued. 
it was at first in the Roman 
Province of Gaul, then in Gallia 
Xarbonensis, finally in Gallia 
Viennensis ; modern Aries, 
xiv. 5, 1, etc. 
'.Vpi)?, Ares, the Greek god of war, 
with whom the Roman Mars was 
identified, xvii. 4, 18. 
Arethusa, a nymph beloved by 
the river Alpheus ; see xv. 4, 
6, note. 
Argentoratus (Argentorate), a city 
of the Vangiones in north- 
eastern Gaul, in the time of 
Ammianus in the province of 
Germania Prima ; modern Stras- 
burg, XV. 11, 8, etc. The scene 
of the defeat of the Alamanni by 
.Julian (xvi. 12). 
Argonautae, the crew of the Argo, 
who, under the lead of Jason, 
sailed in quest of the Golden 
Fleece, xiv. 8, 3. 
Arintheus (Arinthaeus), a tribune 
wlio rose to high military rank 
under Julian, xv. 4, 10. 
Aristaenetus, vicarius of tiie dio- 
cese of Pietas in Bithynia, who 
lost his life in the earthquake 
which destroyed Nicomedia in 
358, xvii. 7, 6. 
Aristotle, the famous philosopher 
(384-322 B.C.). founder of the 
Peripatetic school, xvii. 7, 11, 
note ; xviii. 3, 7. 
Armenia, a large district between 
Asia Minor and the Caspian 
Sea. Itwasdivided into Greater 
and Lesser Armenia in 190 B.C. 
lu A.D. 114 it was made a Roman 
province, but soon abandoned. 
In the fourth century First and 
Second Armenia included a 
part of Armenia Minor, xiv. 11, 
14 ; XV. 13, 4 ; xvi. 7, 5 ; xviii. 
Armenia Elinor, see Armenia. 
Artemius, deputy-prefect and then 
prefect of the city of Rome in 
3.58, xvii. 11, .5. 
Arverni, a people of Celtic Gaid, 
rivals of the Aedni for sup- 
remacy (Caesar, B.O. i. 31 ). 
Their chief town in Caesar's 


A^^■el•lli — continued. 
time was Gergovia ; later it 
was Augiistonemetuin, also called 
Arverni (xv. 11, 13), modern 
Clermont in Auvergne, which pcr- 
lictiiatc* tlie name of the people. 

Ascalon, a city of Palestine on the 
coast of .1 iidaea, modern Ascalon, 
xiv. 8, 11. 

Asdepiodotns, xv. 6, -t. 

.^scraens vates, Hesiod, born at 
Ascra in Boeotia, the father of 
tlidactic poetry; he seems to 
have flourished towards the end 
of the eighth century B.C., xiv. 

6, 8, note. 

.\sia, the Roman province, x\ii. 

7, 1, 13 ; xvlii. 6, 18. 
Asianus, an Asiatic, applied to 

Julian, x\ii. 9, 3. 
Asiatic! mores, applied to Julian, 

x\'i. 7, 6. 
Asiaticus populus, xv. 7, 9. 
Assvria, the wife of Barbatio, 

xviii. 3, 2. 
Assyria linuna, xiv. 8, fi. 
Assyrii, the people of Assyria, 
originally the whole of Meso- 
potamia : in xiv. 4, 3 referring 
to the Persian province, also 
called Adiabene. 
Athanasius. circa. A.D. 296-373, 
bishop and archbishop of Alex- 
andria, and the chief defender of 
orthodox f'hristianity against 
Arianism. He was deposed and 
reinstated several times. His 
zeal and eloquence secured the 
adoption of the Jficene creed in 
325. XV. 7, 7, 10, note. 
Athenienses, also called Attici, the 
Athenians, xix. 4, 4 ; xviii. 23, 
.5, etc. 
Atlantei, the dwellers on Mount 
,\tlas in north-western Africa, 
XV. 3, 6, note. 
Atlanticum mare, the Atlantic 

Ocean, .xvii. 7, 13. 
(Atlantis), an island, larger than 
Europe, supposed to have 
existed west of the pillars of 
Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar), 
and to have been swallowed up 
by an earthquake, xvii. 7, 13, 
note, and Plin., N.H. \i. 199. 

.\ugustudunum, a city of Lug- 
dunensis Prima, modern Autun. 
It was originally Bibracte, the 
largest and richest town of the 
Aedui, XV. 11, 11 ; xvi. 2, 1, 2. 

.\nsci, a people of Aqnitania ; the 
name is also applied to their 
principal town, Augusta Aus- 
coruin, modern Anch, xv. 11, 

Autosiodorum (Autessiodurum), a 
city of the Senones in Gallia 
Lugdunensis, modem Anxerre, 
xvi. 2, 5. 

Aventicum, a city in western Gaul, 
the chief town of the Helvetii 
(Tac, Hist. i. 68) ; modern 
Avenches. It was made a 
Roman colony in Trajan's 
time, with the name Pia Flavia 
Constans Emerita, xv. 11, 12. 

Babylon, the famous city of Baby- 
lonia, on the Euphrates, xviii. 
5, 3, note. 

Baiuobaudes, a tribune with a 
German name, xiv. 11, 14 ; xvi. 
11, 6 ; 12, 63. 

Bai)po, leader of the Promoti, 
-Xv. 4, 10, note. Afterwards 
prefect of the city of Rome. 

Barbatio, count-commander of the 
household troops of Gallus (xiv. 
11, 19, 24), later commander of 
the infantry in place of Silvanus 
(xvi. 11, 2), a calumniator of 
Julian (xvi. 11, 7) ; executed 
and succeeded bv Ursicinus 
(x\iii. 3, 4 ; 5, 5)." 

Bardi, a Gallic word meaning 
" singers ", xv. 9, 8, note ; 
cf. Lucan, i. 449. 

Barzalo (Barzala, Barsalium), a 
fortress of Armenia Minor 
(T.L.L.), located by Ammianus 
(xviii. 7, 10) in Mesopotamia, 
perhaps with reference to the 
province of his own day. 

Bassus (Iuni\is), prefect of the city 
of Rome in 358. Ammianus 
says that he died in that year, 
but an inscription (De Rossi, 
Inner. Vhr. i. 141 ; Dessau, 1286) 
gives the year as 359 ; xvii. 11. 
5, note 



Batavi, a people of Lower 
Germany, dwelling on the insula 
Batavorum, rorresponding to the 
modern province of South 
Holland. They were often em- 
ployed in the Roman armies, 
xvi. 12, 45. 

Batnae (Batne), a city of Osdroene, 
in the district of Antherausia, 
near the Euphrates. A cele- 
brated emporium, xiv. 3, 3. 

Bebase, a villa in Mesopotamia, 
xviii. 7, 9 ; 10, 1. 

Belgae. the people inhabiting the 
north-eastern division of ancient 
Gaul. The province of Belgica 
was formed in a.d. 17 and later 
divided into Prima and Secunda 
Belgica, xv. 11, 1, 3, 4. Their 
territory also included the later 
provinces of First and Second 

Belgica Prima and Secunda, see 
Belgae, xv. 11, 9, 10. 

Berytus, a city of Phoenicia, 
modern Beirut. Renowned as a 
seat of Greek learning, xiv. 8, 9. 

Besa (Besas), Bess, a god of the 
Egyptian Thebaid, xLx. 12, 3. 

Bisontii (Vesantio), a city in the 
comitry of the Seqnani, modern 
Besan^on, xv. 11, 11. 

Bithynia, a province in northern 
Asia Minor, xiv. 11, 7 ; xvii. 7, 1. 

Biturrigae, a people of Celtic Gaul, 
later included in Aquitania. The 
name is also applied to a city of 
Lugdunensis Prima, modern 
Bourge.s, xv. 11, 11. 

Blemmyae (Blemyes), a people of 
Ethiopia dwelling near the cata- 
racts of the Nile, xiv. 4, 3. 

Boeotia, the district in Central 
Greece, xvi. 12, 41 ; x^ai. 7, 13. 

Bonitus, a Frank, father of 
Silvanus, xv. 5, 33. 

Bonna, a town of the Ubii ; later 
a city of Germany on the Rhine, 
xviii. 2, 4, note. 

Bostra, the principal city of Arabia, 
situated in an oasis in the Syrian 
desert, south-west of Damascus ; 
it was made by Trajan tlie capi- 
tal of the Roman province of 
Arabia, xiv. 8, 13. 


Bregetio (Brigetio), a city of 
Lower Pannonia, on the Danube, 
xvii. 12, 21, note. 

Brlgantia (Brigantinus lacus), a 
lake in Raetia, the modern Lake 
of Constance, xv. 4, 1, 3. 

Brigantia (Brigantium, Brigantio), 
a fortress in western Raetia, 
modern Brianfon, xv. 10, 6. 

Britannia, Roman Britain, in the 
time of Ammianus consisting of 
four provinces, to which a fifth 
was added by Theodosius, xiv. 
5, 6 ; xviii. 2, 3. 

Brotomagus (Brocomagus), a city 
of the Triboci in north-eastern 
Gaul, near Strasburg. Later 
included in the pro%"ir.ce of First 
Germany ; modern Brumat, 
x\i, 2, 12. 

Bucolica, the pastoral poems of 
Virgil, x\-ii. 4, o. 

Bura (Buris), a city of Achaia, 
destroyed by an earthquake in 
373 B.C., xvii. 7, 13 ; cf. ON-id, 
Metam. xv. 293 ; Plin., S.H. ii. 
206, Helicen el Burain ginw 
Corinthius (abstulU). 

Burdigala, the chief town of the 
Bituriges Vivisci, in Aquitania, 
on the left bank of the Garonne, 
modem Bordeaux. It was the 
native town of Ausonius, who 
describes it in his Ordo Nob. 
Urbimn, xx. ; xv. 11, 13. 

Burgundii (Burgimdiones), a Ger- 
manic people, who later settled 
in eastern Gaul ; XAiii. 2, 15. 

Busan, a fortress of Mesopotamia, 
xviii. 10, 1. 

Cabyllona (Ca^illonum), a city of the 
Aedui on the western bank of the 
Ajar, later of GaUia Lugdunensis ; 
modern Chalons-sur-Saone, xiv. 

10, 3, 5 ; XV. 11, 11. 

C'aelius mons, the Caelian hill, one 
of the seven hills of Borne, 
between the Aventine and the 
EsquiUne, xvi. 18, 66. 

Caenl Gallicani, xiv. 11, 6. 

Caesarea, a city of Palestine on the 
sea-coast with a fine harbour, 
artificially constructed, xiv. 8, 

11, notes; see also Herodes. 


Caesius, xix. 9, 2. 

Callisthenes, a philosopher born 
at Olynthiis, a pupil of Aristotle, 
x%'iii. 8, 7. He was put to death 
by Alexander (Curtius, viii. 8, 

C'alyavdnus (Calycadnus), a river 
in the western part of Cilicia 
(Isauria) flowing into the Medi- 
terranean, xiv. 2, 15 ; 8, 1 ; 
cf. Strabo, xiv. 5, 4. 

Cambyses, the second king of 
Persia, who succeeded his father, 
C%Tns the Great, and reigned 
from 529 to 522 B.C., xvii. 4, 

Campana lasclvia, the wantonness 
characteristic of Campania, xiv. 
6, 25 ; cf. Gellius, i. 24, 2 and 

Campus Martius, the plain made 
by a bend of the Tiber in the 
north-western part of the city 
of Roma, xvii. 4, 12. 

Canini campi, plains in Kaetia 
Prima, xv. 4, 1, note. 

Capellacil, also called Palas, xviil. 
2, 15, note. 

Capersana, a city of SjTia on the 
Euplirates, in the neighbourhood 
of Samosata and Zeugma, xviii. 

Carrae (Carrhae), a city of north- 
we.stern Mesopotamia, notorious 
for the disastrous defeat of M. 
Crassus in 53 B.C., xviii. 7, 3. 

Carthago, the famous city of 
northern Africa, xiv. 7, 32 ; 
xvii. 4, 3. 

Cassianus, a Roman general {dux). 
in Mesopotamia and governor of 
the province, probably re- 
ferring to the province of 
Ammianus' time, xvi. 9, 2 ; 
xviii. 7, 3 ; xbc. 9, 6. 

Cassius mons (also Casius), a moun- 
tain of northern Syria near the 
upper course of the river Orontes 
and Antioch, xiv. 8, 10. 

Castorum aedes, a temple at 
Ostia, xix. 10, 4. 

Castra Constantia, also called 
Constantia, a city of Gaul at 
the mouth of the Sequana 
(Seine), xv. H, 3, note. 

Castra Herculis, a place in Ger- 
many on the lower course of the 
Rhine, perhaps modern Hervelt, 
xviii. 2, 4. 

Castra Maurorum, a place in 
Mesopotamia, xviii. 6, 9, note. 

Castra peregrina, a camp at Rome 
for non-Italian troops detached 
for special service in the city, 
especially the fruimntarii (see 
note 2, p. 98). It was estab- 
lished on the CaeUan hill, per- 
haps by Septimius Severus ; it 
contained a shrine of luppiter 
Redux, built by the soldiers 
pro salute et reditu of Alexander 
Severus and Mammaea (C.I.L. 
vi. 428) ; xvi. 12, 66. 

Castra praetoria, see Index II. 

Castricius, count-governor of 
Isauria, xiv. 2, 14. 

Cataractae Nili, the cataracts of 
the Nile in the southern part of 
Egypt, which country the river 
enters at the first cataract, near 
the island of Philae. The 
boundary of the Roman pro- 
vince was farther to the south, 
xiv. 4, 3 ; XV. 4, 2. 

Catelauni (Catalauni), a people and 
city of Belgica Secunda, or 
eastern Belgium, modern Cha- 
lons-sur-Sa6ne, xv. 11, 10. 

Catena, The Chain, a nickname of 
Paulus, q.v., xiv. 5, 8 ; xv. 3, 4. 

Cato Censorius, M. Porcius Cato. 
the elder (234-149 B.C.), xiv. 
6, 8 ; XV. 12, 4 ; xvi. 5, 2. 

Cato Uticcnsis, great-grandson of 
Cato the Censor (95-46 B.C.), 
xiv. 8, 15, note. 

Catulus, Q. Lutatius, consul in 78 
B.C., son of the victor with 
Marius over the Cimbri in 101 
B.C. ; xiv. 6, 25, note. 

Cella, xvi. 11, 6, 7 ; xix. 11, 16. 

Celse, xiv. 7, 7. 

Celtae, another name for the 
OauLs (xv. 11, 1, 2) ; the reason 
for the name, xv. 9, 3. 

Cerealis, Xeratins, maternal uncle 
of Gallus Caesar, prefect of 
Rome in 352-3 and consul in 
358, xiv. 11,27 ; xvii. 5,1. 



Chamavi, a people of Lower 
Germany at the mouth of the 
Rhine, in a country later occu- 
pied by the TJsipetes, subdned 
by Julian, xvii. 8, 5, note ; 9, 2. 
They belonged to a confederacy 
of the Franks. 

Charcha. a fortress of Babylonia, 
on the Tigris, xviii. 10, 1. 

Charietto, xvii. 10, 5. 

Chionitae, a warlike tribe, neiuli- 
boiirs of the Persians. Sapor 
made war on them (xvi. 9, 4), 
but later concluded a peace 
(xvii. 5, 1) and thev became 
his allies (xviii. 6, 22). Their 
king was Grumbates (q.v.). For 
their manner of mourning see 
xix. 1, 10. 

Chonodomarius, xvi. 18, 1, 60, 65. 

Cliristianus -a, -um, adj. ; legig 
antistes, xv. 7, 6 ; ritus, xviii. 9, 
4 ; ritus conventiculum, xv. 5, 31. 

Cibyratae, xv. 3, 3, see note. 

Cicero, JI. TuUius, the celebrated 
orator, quoted xiv. 2, 2 ; xv. 
3, 3 ; 5, 23 ; 12, 4 ; xvi. 1. 5 ; 
xix. 12, 18 

C'ilicia, a country in south-eastern 
Asia Minor, made a Roman 
province (with Cyprus) in 64 B.C. ; 
in the time of Aramianus divided 
into First and Second Cilicia and 
Isauria, xiv. 8, 1 ff. ; xviii. 6, 1. 

Ciminia, a part of Italy in the 
neighbourhood of the Ciminian 
lake (Lago di Vico) in southern 
Etnuria, near Falerii (Ci\-ita 
Castellana), xvii. 7, 13. 

Cimon, son of Miltiades and 
leader of the aristocratic party 
at Athens (flor. 489-449 B.C.). 
xvii. 11, 3. 

Cincas, a native of Thes.saly, a 
friend and minister of King 
Pyrrhus of Epirus. He was 
sent to Rome in 280 k.c. with 
proposals for peace, which the 
senate rejected on the advice of 
Appius Claudius Caecus, xvi. 10, 

Circus Maximus, the Great Circus 
at Rome, between the Palatine 
and Aventine hills, xv. 5, 34 ; 
xvi. 10, 17 ; xvii. 4, 1. 


Clarus, a city of Ionia in western 
Asia Minor near Colophon, 
containing a celebrated temple 
and oracle of Apollo, xix. 12, 1"). 

Claudias, a fortress of .Mesopotamia , 
xviii. 7, 10. 

Claudiopolls, a city of Isauria, 
foimded as a colony by the 
emperor Claudius Caesar ; por- 
ha[)s modern Mout, xiv. 8, 2. 

Claudius Caesar, emperor of Rome 
from A.D. 41 to 54, xiv. 8, 2. 

Claudius, M., because of a dis- 
graceful peace he was sur- 
rendered to the Corsicans (xiv. 
11, 32) ; rejected by them, he 
was executed in prison in 236 
B.C. ; cf. Val. Max. vi. 3, 3. 

Clematius, xiv. 1, 3. 

Cocytus, a tributary of the river 
Acheron in Epirus ; usually, a 
river of the Lower World, as in 
xiv. 11, 29. 

Colchorum regna, the realms of the 
Colchians in western Asia, south 
of the Caucasus mountains and 
on the eastern shore of the 
Black Sea, xvi. 7, 10. 

Colonia Agrippina, see Agrippina, 

Commagene, a district in the 
northern part of Syria, east of 
C'ilicia and bordering on the 
Euphrates. In the time of 
Ammianus it was called Euphra- 
tensis, xiv. 8, 7. 

Commagenum regnum, see Com- 
magene, xviii. 4, 7. 

Comum, a city of Transpadine 
Gaul at the .southern end of 
Lake Larius (Lago di Como), 
the birthplace of the two Plinys ; 
modern (!)omo, xv. 2, 8. 

Concordia, a Roman fortress in 
Germany near Argentoratus 
(Strasburg), xvi. 18, 58, note. 

Confluentes (Contlueutia), a city of 
Gaul, later of Germanla Prima, 
at the confluence of the Moselle 
with the Rhine, xvi. 3, 1, note. 

Constans, son of Constantine the 
Great, see Introd., p. xxv ; xv. 
5, 16 ; xvi. 7, 5, note. 

Constantia, see Castra Constantia. 


((instaatiiui, daughter of Constan- 
tine the Great, wife of King 
Annibaliauus and afterwards of 
Gallus Caesar, xiv. 1, 1, note 1; 
7, 4 ; 9, 3 ; 11, 6, 22. 

Constantina (Constantia, T.L.L.). 
a city of llesopotamia, wiii, 7, 
9 ; see Amida. 

Constantinopolis, Constantinople, 
formerly Byzantium, on the 
Bosporus ; it was made the 
capital of the Koman empire in 
330 : modern Istamboul, xiv. 7, 
19 ; 11, 12 ; XV. 2, 7 ; xix. 11, 

Constautinus (C. Flavius Valerius 
Aurelius Claudius), Constantine, 
surnamed the Great, a title 
which Ammiauus does not apply 
to him ; see Introd., p. xxiv ff. ; 
xiv. 11, 20, 27 ; xv. 5. 19 ; 13, 2 ; 
xvi. 7, 5 ; xvii. 4, 13. 

Constantius, luliiis, father of 
Gallus Caesar and JuUan, xiv. 
11, 27. 

Constantius II, see Introd., p. xxv 
IT., passim. 

Cora (Chora), a small town of 
Gallia Lugduuensis, modern 
Saint More, xvi. 2, 3, note. 

Corbulo, see Domitius. 

Corduene (Corduena), xviii. 6, 20, 

Corinthus, the famous Grecian city, 
xiv. 11, 30. 

Corneliae leges, xLx. 12, 17, note. 

Cornelius Gallus (C), 69-26 B.C.,. 
famous as an elegiac poet. He' 
was prefect of Kgypt under 
Augustus, but offended the 
emperor in some way and com- 
mitted suicide, xvii. 4, 5, note : 
cf. Suet., Aug. Ixvi. 1 f., vol. i. 
22.5, L.C.L. 

Corsi, xiv. 11, 32. 

Cottius, king of several Ligurian 
tribes in the Cottian Alps, which 
derived their name from him. 
He sulnnitted to Augustus, who 
made him ruler over twelve of 
the tribes with title praefediis. 
He built several roads over the 
Alps and an arch at Susa in 
honour of Augustus, xv. 10, 2 ; 
cf. XV. 10, 7. 

Crateras, a villa of the ApoUiuares 
(q.v.), xiv. 9, 8. 

Craugasius, a noble of Nisibis, who 
deserted to the Persians, xviii. 
10, 1 ; xix. 9, 3. 

Cremonensis fabrica, a manufac- 
tory of arms at Cremona in 
Cisalpine Gaul, xv. 5, 9. 

Crisaeus sinus, a gulf in Phocis in 
central Greece, taking its name 
from the town of Crisa situated 
on it. Ammianus applies the 
name to the entire Corinthian 
Gulf in xvii. 7, 13 ; see note. 
See also Bura with the quotation 
from Pliny. 

Crispus, son of Constantine the 
Great, made a Caesar, but put 
to death at Pola in 326 ; see 
Introd. p. xxv, and xiv. 11, 20. 

Croesus, king of Lydia from 560 to 
546, xv. 5, 37, note. 

Ctesiphon, xvii. 14, 1, note; 
modern Tak-i-Kesra. 

Cydnus, a river in Cilicia flowing 
south-east to Tarsus and then 
south-west into the Jlediter- 
ranean, xiv. 8, 3. 

Cyprius, -a, -um, adj. from Cyprus : 
litora, xiv. 2, 3 ; rex, xiv. 9, 6. 

Cyprus, a large island in the eastern 
part of the Mediterranean. It 
was unjustly seized by the 
Romans in 58 B.C. (xiv. 8, 14). 
It was annexed to the province 
of Cilicia, and made an imperial 
province in 27 B.C. 

Cyrus, founder of the Persian 
monarchy, xv. 9, 7 ; his wonder- 
ful memory, xvi. 5, 8. 

Damascus, the capital of Syria, a 
title disputed by Antioch : in the 
time of Ammianus it was included 
in the province of Phoenicia 
Libani, xiv. 8, 9. 

Danae, the mother of Perseus, 
wooed by Jupiter in a shower of 
gold, xiv. 8, 3. 

Danubius, see Hister. 

Danus, a slave, the victim of 
Rufinus, xvi. 8, 3. 

Daphne, a suburb of SjTlan 
Antioch, noted for its beauty, 
xLx. 12, 19. 



Datianus (Censoriiis), a native of 
Antioch, consul in 358 with 
Neratius Cerealis, xvii. 5, 1. 

Decern pagi, a district of Belgium 
in the country of the Medio- 
matrici, modern Dieuze, xvi. 2, 9. 

Decemher mensis, xv. 8, 18 ; 
xvii. 2, 2. 

Decentiaci, xviii. 9, 3, note. 

Decentius Caesar, brother of 
Magnentius and by him made 
Caesar in 351 and consul in 352. 
He was defeated by King 
Chonodomariua (xvi. 12, 5). 
Killed himself at Sens in 353, 
XV. 6, 4. 

Decii, a father and son, both named 
P. Decius Mus. The father, 
consul in 340 B.C., during the 
war with the Latins, ha\-ing 
dreamt that the general of one 
side and the army of the other 
side would perish, gave his Ufe 
for his country. His son fol- 
lowed his example at the battle 
of Sentinum in 295 B.C. : xvi. 

10, 3. 

Uelos, the centre of the Cyclades 
in the Aegean Sea, xvii. 7, 13. 

Delphidius (Attius Tuo ?), an 
orator of the time of Constantlus 

11. and Julian, xviii. 1, 4. 
Delphorum oraculum, the Delphic 

oracle, in Phocis on the slope of 
-Mt. Parnassus, xix. 12, 15. 

Demetrius Cv^hras, a philosopher 
of Alexandria, xix. 12, 12. 

Democritus, a celebrated Greek 
philosopher, a contemporarj' of 
Socrate,s, born at Abdera in 
Tlirace. He developed the 
atomic theorj', and was known 
as " the laughing philosopher," 
XV. 1, 4. A saying of his is 
quoted at xvi. 5, 1- 

Diocletianus (C. Aurelius Valerius), 
Koman emperor from 284-305. 
See Introd. p. xxiii ; xiv. 11, 10 ; 
xvi. 8, 4. 

Dionysius, the elder, tyrant of 
Syracuse from 405 to 367 B.C., 
xiv. 11, 30 : XV. 5, 37. for 
his fear of plots against his life 
see xvi. 8, 10. 

Dioscenes, xix. 9, 9. 


Dodoneae arbores, the celebrated 
oak grove of Dodona in Epirus, 
the oldest Greek oracle, dedi- 
cated to Zeus. Its importance 
was eclipsed by the oracle at 
Delplii, and it was destroyed by 
the Aetolians in 219 it.c, 
xix. 12, 15. 

Domitianus, count of the privy 
purse and later praetorian 
j)refect of the East, slain at 
Antioch, xiv. 7, 9, 16, 19 ; 11, 
17 ; XV. 3, 1. 

Domitianus, Domitian, emperor 
of Rome from a.d. 81 to 96, 
xiv. 11, 28 ; XV. 5, 35 ; xviii. 

Domitius Corbulo, Cn., a dis- 
tinguished Roman general of 
the time of Claudius and JJero. 
He committed suicide in a.d. 47, 
to avoid being put to death by 
Nero, XV. 2, 5. 

Dorienses, the Dorians, xv. 9, 3. 

Doriscus, a coast town of Thrace in 
a plain west of the river Hebrus, 
xviii. 6, 23, note. 

Dorus, xvi. 6, 2, see note. 

Druentia, a river of Gallia Xar- 
bonensis, a tributary of the 
Rhone, the modern Durance, 
XV. 10, 11. 

Dr>T)etina, daughter of King 
Mithradates of Pontus, xvi. 7, 10. 

Drysidae, the Druids, xv. 9, 4, 
note, 8, note. 

Dvnamius, xv. 5, 3-5. See note, 
"p. 132. 

Edessa, an ancient city iu the 
northern part of Mesopotamia 
in the pro\ince of Osdroene, 
where Caracalla was murdered 
in A.D. 217 ; xviii. 6, 7 ; xix. 
6, 12. 

Edessena sepulclira ; tombs at 
Edessa, xviii. 7, 7. 

Eleusis, xvii. 7, 13, note. 

Ennosigaeus, a surname of Posei- 
don (Xeptune), xvii. 7, 12, note. 

Eoae, adj. from Eos, eastern: 
partes, xvi. 10, 1 ; prortinevie, 
xvii. 5, 15. 

Epigonus, u pliilosopher from 
Lycia, xiv. 7, 18. 


Erebus, the place of darkness in 
Hades, the abode of Phito and 
Proserpuia, xvii. 7, 13. 

I'jrcctheiis, xvi. 1, 5, note. 

Knili, see AeruH. 

Ktruscae resioucs, xv. 10, II. 

Kubulus, xiv. 7, ti. 

Kuhages, xv. 9, 8, note. 

Eiinus, a native of Apaniea in 
Syria, who became tlie slave of 
Antigenes at Henna in Sicily. 
He led the revolt of the slaves in 
Sicily in 130 B.C., which was 
quelled only after a war of three 
years, in which they several 
times defeated the Koniaus ; 
xiv. 11, 33 ; cf. Floras, ii. 7, 4. 

Kuphratensis, see Comniageue. 

Euphrates, the great river of 
western Asia. Mesopotamia lies 
between it and the Tigris, xiv. 
3, 3 and passim. 

Kuplirouius, civil governor (rector) 
of the province of Mesopotamia 
in 359, in association with a 
military conmiandcr (dux), xviii. 
7, 3. 

Europaeus orbis, xvii. 7, 13. 

Eurus ventus, the east wind, 
xviii. 9, 2. 

Eurymedon, a river of Asia Minor 
flowing southward through Pi- 
sitlia and Pamphylia into the 
Mediterranean. It was the 
scene of the defeat of the 
Persians by Cimon in 466 B.C., 
xvii. 11, 3. 

Eusebia, wife of Constantius II, xv. 
2, 8 ; 8, 3 ; xvi. 10, 18 ; xvu. 7, 6. 

1. Eusebius, an orator of Emissa, 
also called Pittacas, xiv. 7, 18 ; 
9, 4-6. 

2. Eusebius, grand chamberlain 
under Constantius II, xiv. 10, .5, 
note ; 11, 2, 21 ; xviii. 4, 3, etc. 

3. Eusebius, surnamed Mattyo- 
copus, XV. 5, 4, note. 

4. Eusebius, Flavins, consul in 359 
with his brother Hypatius, xviii. 
1. 1. 

Euseni, an oriental people, neigh- 
bours of the Persians, xvi. 9, 4. 

Eustathius, a neoplatonist philo- 
sopher, sent in 358 as an envoy 
to Sapor, xvii. 5, 15, note ; 14, 1. 

Eutheri'is, head chamberlain at 
the court of JuUan ; he was a 
eunuch of high character, xvi. 7, 

Fabius Maximus AUobrogicus, Q., 
consul in 121 B.C., and victor 
over the Allobrogcs and their 
ally the king of the Arverni, 
XV. 12, 5, notes. 

Fama, Fame or Rumour, personi- 
fied, x\1ii. 6, 3 ; cf. Virg., Aen. iv. 
173 ff. ; Ovid, Metani. xii. 39 S. 

Florrntius, praetorian prefect of 
Gaul, who made trouble for 
Julian when Caesar, xvi. 12, 14 ; 
xvii. 3, 2, etc. 

Florentius, sou of Nigrinianus, xv. 
5, 12, note. 

Fonteius, M., defended by Cicero, 
in an extant speech delivered in 
59 B.C., against the charge of 
extortion and mismanagement in 
hi.s propraetorship of Gallia 
Narbonensis, xv. 12, 4. 

Fortuna, Fortune, personifted as a 
goddess, xvi. 6, 3 ; 10, 16. 

Forum Pacii, xvi. 10, 14, note. 

Forum Traiani, see x\-i. 10, 15 ff. 

Fragiledus, xvii. 12, 11. 

Franci, the Franks, a Teutonic 
people, also called Salii (xvii. 8, 
3), whose dominion extended 
over the northern part of Gaul 
and the western part of Germany. 
Many of them were attached to 
the Komau court, xv. 5, 11. 

Fulvius (Flaccus, M.), consul in 
125 B.C. Called on by the 
Massiliots to aid them against 
the Salu^^i (Salyes), a Ligurian 
tribe, he was the first of the 
Romans to wage war with the 
Gauls, XV. 12, 5. 

Galerius (Valerius Maxiniianus), at 
first, Caesar under Diocletian ; 
later, Augustus in the Orient 
(305-311) with Constantius CMo- 
rus in the West. For an anec- 
dote about him, see xiv. 11, 10. 

Galla, mother of Gallus Caesar, xiv. 
11, 27. 

Galli, the Gauls, xvii. 3, 5, etc. ; 
see Gallia. 



(rallia, (iaul, (Icscriiitiini of, xv. 
9-11; custoiiis ol till' pr'Hilc. xv. 
12; ("aWmI <iaUori< III term, xiv. 10, 
1. In the tiinc of AiuiniaiiUH the 
rrefectiire of Gaul was one of 
tlio four Kraiiil divisions of the 
empire, iiic ludiug the dioceses of 
Spain, Gaul and Britain. 
GalUae, the provinces of Gaul, xv. 

5, 2, 4. 
Galiicanus, -a, -urn, adj. from Galli : 
procinctus, xvii. 8, 1 ; xudores, 
xvii. 9, 6 ; thcsnuri. xv. 5, 36. 
Gallicus, -a, -um, adj. from Gallia : 
■mare, xv. 10, 2 ; 11, 18 ; HW/ff- 
nanimitas, xix. 6, -1. 
Gallienus (P. Liciniu.s Valerianus 
Egnatius), emperor of Home, 
253-268, xviii. 6, 3 ; xiv. 1, 9. 
Gallus Caesar, see note, p. 2, and 

Introd., p. xxvi. 
Garumna, a river of Aquitania, 
rising in the PjTenees and flow- 
mn in a north-westerly direction 
into the Atlantic (Bay of Biscay), 
XV. 11, 2. 
Gaudentius, appointed by Coastaii- 
tius to watch Julian, xvii. 9, 7, 
note ; xv. 3, 8 ; xvi. 8, 3, note. 
Gaza, an ancient city of Judaea, 
apparently the capital of the 
Philistines {Judges, xvi. 21) ; it 
was taken after an obstinate 
defence by Alexander the Great 
in 332 B.C. ; xiv. 8, 11. 
Gelani, an Oriental people, at war 
with Sapor, afterwards his allies, 
xvii. 5, 1. 
Genua, a town of Liguria, on the 
Ligusticus Sinus (Gulf of Genoa); 
modern Genoa, xv. 10, 10. 
Gerasa, a city of Coelesyria, thirty- 
five miles west of the Jordan, 
modern Gerash or Jerash. In 
the time of Ammianu.s it was 
included in the province of 
Arabia, xiv. 8, 13. 
Germania, Germany ; in the time 
of Ammianus the Eoman pro- 
vince of Germany, divided into 
First (xv. 11, 8, 17) and Second 
(xv. 11, 7), also called I'pper and 
Lower (xv. 11, 6) was on tlie 
western side of the Rhine. 
Gerontius, xiv. 5, 1. 


Geryones, a mythical kiny "' 
Spain, represented as a monster 
with three heads, or more com- 
monly with tliree bodies. He 
was a cruel tyrant and was slain 
by Herc\ile8, xv. 9, 6 ; 10, 9. 

Gordiani, a father and tliree sons, 
all havinfr the name of M. 
Antonius Gordianus. The father, 
and tlie eldest son were em- 
perors of Koine for about six 
weeks in 238, tlie second sou 
from 238 to 244, xiv. 1, 8. 

Gorgoneus vultus, referring to the 
gorgon, slain by Perseus, 
xviii. 4, 2. 

Gorgonius, xv. 2, 10. 

Gradus, see Ad (iradus. 

Graecia, xviii. 6, 18. 

Graeculus, a Greekling, said 
contemptuously of Jidian, xvii. 
9, 3, note. 

Graecus, -a, -urn, Greek : nomina, 
xiv. 8, 6; arcana, xvi. 12, 25; 
sermo, xv, 9, 2 ; as substantive, 
XV. 9, 2. 

Graii veteres ttie ancient Greeks, 
a less frequent and mostly 
poetical word for Graeci, xviii. 

5, 8 ; Oraiorum legalis. xviii. 

6, 18. 

Grenicus (Granicus), a river rising 
in Mt. Ida and fiowing into the 
Propontis, xviii. 6, 18, note. 

Grumbates, king of the C'hionitae, 
xviii. 6, 22 ; xix. 1, 7. 

Gumatheua, another name, or an 
error, for C'ommagene (.g.v.), 
xviii. 9, 2. . 

Gundomadus, a king of the Ala- 
manni in the time of Con- 
stantius II. He made peace 
with Constantius, but was 
killed by his own subjects in 357, 
xiv. 10, 1 ; xvi. 12. 17. 

Hadrianopolis, a city near Mt. 
Haemus in Thrace, the most 
important of many towns 
founded by Hadrian ; previously 
called Uscudama, xiv. 11, 15. 

Hadriauus, emperor of Kome from 
A.D. 117 to 138, xviii. 6, 18. 

Haedorum sidus, the constellation 
of the Kids, xix. 9, 1, note. 


llaemimoutaua uibs, referi'iug to 
Hiidrianopolis, which in tlie 
time of Ammianus was iu the 
jirovincp of Haeminiontiuui ; 
xiv. 11, 15. 
Haunibal, the celebrated Cartha- 
ginian general, xv. 10, 10 ; 
xviii. 5, 6 ; his march over the 
Alps, XV. 10, 11. 
Hannibalianus, a nephew of 
t'onstantine the Great, xiv. 1, 2, 
note, and Introd., p. xxv. He 
was kins of I'ontus from 335 to 
337, appointed by Constantiiis, 
in order to recover Armenia, 
which liad been overrun bj' 
the Persians. It was apparently 
he who drove the Persians from 
Armenia in 336. 
Hariobaudes, xviii. 2, 2, 7. 
Hariobaudus, brother of Macriauus, 
a king of the Germans who made 
peace with Julian, xviii. 2, 15. 
Harpalus, a satrap of Cyrus the 
Great, xv. 9, 7 ; an error for 
Harpagiis, perhaps following 
GcUius, x. 16, 4. 
Hasdrubal, the brother of Hanni- 
bal, XV. 10, 11. 
Hebrus, the principal river of 
Thrace, rising in Mt. Khodope 
and flowing in a south-easterly 
direction to Hadrianopolis, and 
then south-westerly into the 
Aegean, x\'iii. 6, 5. 
Helena, sister of Constantius IT. and 
wife of Julian, xv. 8, 18 : xvi. 
10, 18. 
Helice, a city of Achaia in the 
northern part of the Pelopon- 
nesus on the Corinthian Gulf 
(see Crisaeus sinus and cf. 
Bura), xvii. 7, 13. 
"Haio5, The Sun, as a god, xvii. 4, 

18 flf. 
Heliupolis (Heliopolis), a city of 
Lower Egypt, near the apex of 
the delta of the Nile ; on its 
site is the modern hamlet of 
Matarich, about six miles north 
of Cairo, xvii. 4, 12^. 
HeUespontus, the strait connecting 
the Aegean Sea with the Pro- 
pontis and separating Europe 
from Asia, xviii. 6, 18. 

"Hi/)aicrT09, The Greek god Heph- 
aestus, with whom the Roman 
Vulcan was identifted, xvii. 4, 22. 

Herculanus, xiv. 10, 2. 

Hercules, son of Amphytrion, xv. 
9, ; sec note 3, p. 176. 

Hercules Thebanus, also called 
antiqiiior, xv. 9, 3, note 

Hermapion, xvii. 4, 17, note. 

Hermogeues, xiv. 10, 2. 

Hermogenes Pontic us, pretorian 
prefect of the Orient iu 358-359, 
xix. 12, 6. 

Herodes, Herod the Great, king of 
the Jews from 40 to 4 B.C. In 
13 u.c. he rebuilt the city of 
Caesarea, formerly Stratonis 
Turris, on the coast of Palestine, 
in honour of .\ugustus, xiv. 8, 11. 

"Hputv, iu xvii. 4, 18. 

Hesiod, see Ascreaus vates. 

Hiaspis, see laspis. 

Hiera, an island formed by an 
earthquake, xvii. 7, 13. There 
were four or more islands of that 
name ; from the association with 
Delos it woiUd seem to be the 
one near Thera in the southern 
part of the Cydades. 

Hierapolls, a city of Chyrestice in 
Syria on the highroad between 
Antioch and Mesopotamia ; it 
was formerly called Bambyce, 
and was given the name of 
Hierapolls by Seleucus Xikator. 
Under Constantine it was the 
capital of the new province of 
Euphratensis, formerly Comma- 
gene, xiv. 7, 5 ; 8, 7. 

Hierosolymae, Jerusalem, xiv. 8, 

Hileia, a city of Mesopotamia, the 
scene of a defeat of the Romans 
by the Persians in 348, xviii. 5, 7. 
Hippias, a famous sophist of Elis 
in the north-western part of 
the Peloponnensus. He travelled 
over Greece, lecturing, teacliing, 
and displaying his skill in 
craftsmanship (see Apuleius, 
Florida, ii. 8, 1-3). His philo- 
sophical knowledge was super- 
ficial, xvi. 5, 8. 
HLspani, the people of Spain, xv. 
11, 13. 



Hispaiiia, Spain, the Roman 
province as a wliole, xiv. 5, 6, etc. 

Hister, amitlicr name for the 
Dauubiiis, x\ii. 13, 4, note. 

Homerns, Homer, cited or quoted 
in xiv. 6, 21 ; xv. 8, 17 ; xviii. 
5, 7 ; xix. 4, 6. 

Honoratus, xiv. 1, 3 ; 7, -. 

Hormida, see Ormizda. 

Horre, a small town of Meso- 
potamia, xviii. 10, 1. 

Hortarius, a king of the Alamanui 
who siurendered to JuUaii and 
remained loyal, xvi. 12, 1 ; 
xvii. 10, 5 ; xviii. 2, 2, 13, 14. 

Horti Sallustiani, the Gardens of 
Sallust on the Piurian Hill, on 
which he .spent much of the 
wealth which he had amassed in 
Numidia. They were laid out in 
47 B.C. ; later, probably in the 
time of Tiberius, they became the 
property of the emperors. They 
were sacked by the Goths under 
Alaric in 410, xvii. 4, 16. 

Hypatius, consul in 359 with his 
brother Eusebius, xviii. 1, 1. 

lacobus, xix. 9, 2. 

lanuarius mensis, xvii. 2, 2. 

lanus, Jamis, an ancient Italic 
deity ; his temple in the Roman 
forum was open in time of war 
and closed in time of peace, xvi. 
10, 1. 

laspis (Hiaspis), xviii. 5, 3. 

Iconium, xiv. 2, 1. Under Clau- 
dius it was called Claudiconium, 
and between 130 and 138, 
Colonia Aelia Hadriana Iconien- 
sium ; modern Conia. 

lUyricum, a country extending 
along the eastern side of the 
Adriatic from Epirus to Xoricum. 
In the time of Ammianus the 
prefecture of Ulyricum was one 
of the four grand divisions of the 
empire, extending southward 
from the Danube and including 
the dioceses of Dacia and Mace- 
donia, XV.' 3, 7 ; xvi. 10, 20 ; 
xvii. 3, 3 : 13, 24. 

Indl, the people of India ; in 
xiv. 3, 3, used generally, with 
Seres, for far Eastern peoples. 


Innoceutius, xvi. 12, 63. 

Innocentius, xLx. 11, 8. 

Ionium Mare, the part of the 
Mediterranean between Italy 
and Sicily, .sometimes including 
the Mare Siculum and the Mare 
Creticum, xv. 4, 6. 

lovinianus, xviii. 6, 20. 

Isaura, the capital of Isauria (g.v.), 
in ruins in the time of Ammianus, 
xiv. 8, 2. 

Isauri, the natives of Isauria (g.v.), 
xiv. 2, 1. note, 19 ; .xix. 13, 1. 

Isauria, a di.strict of Asia Minor, 
bounded by Ptirygia, Lyeaonla, 
Cihcla and Pamphylia. " In the 
third century the Isaurians 
united with the Cilieians of the 
highlands, xiv. 2, 3, 4, 13 ; 
3, 1 ; 8, 1. 

Itali, the people of Italv, xvii. 13, 

Italia, xiv. 7, 9, etc. In the time 
of Ammianus the Prefecture of 
Italy was one of the four grand 
divisions of the empire, in- 
chiding the dioceses of Africa, 
of the City of Rome, and of 

Italicu.'?, -a, -um, adj. from 
Italia : sc. reyionibus, xv. 12, 5 ; 
Iractus, xvii. 6, 1 ; as substan- 
tive, XV. 5, 24. 

ludaei, the people of Judaea, xiv. 
8, 12. 

luliaium, a city of Belgic Gaul, 
modern Juliers (JUlich) ; in the 
time of Ammianus it was in the 
province of Second (Upper) 
Germany, xvii. 2, 1. 

luUanus, Julian, emperor from 
360 to 363, son of (JuUus) 
Constantius and Basilina, xiv. 
11, 28 ; XV. 2, 7, 8 ; xv. 8. 1, 16 : 
xvi. 1, i-4 ; 5, 5 fl. ; 7, 1 ; 10, 
18, etc. 

lulius Caesar the dictator ; xv. 11, 
6 ; 12, 6. 

lulius mensis, xvi. 2, 2. 

lunius mensis, xvi. 10, 20. 

luppiter, Jupiter, xiv. 8, 3 ; (Sala- 
minius), xiv. 8, 14 ; Tarpeius, 
xvi. 10, 14. 

lustitia. Justice, personified as a 
goddess, xiv. 11, 25. 


luthimgi, a tribe associated with 
the Alamanni, apparently of 
Gothic orifiin. Their name was 
perhaps another form of 
Oothones, xvii. 6, 1. 

Izala, a mountain of northern 
Mesopotamia in the neighbour- 
hood of Nisibis, xviii. 6, 12 ; 
xix. 9, 4. 

Laeti, a tribe of the Alamanni, xvl. 


Laipso, xvi. 12, 63. 

r>ampadius, pretorian prefect in 
Italy in 355, xv. 5, 4. 

Laniogaisus, a chieftain of tlie 
Franks, called trihutm-i, xv. 5, 

Laodicia (Laodicea), a city on the 
coast of Syria, fifty miles south 
of Antioch. It was built by 
Seleucus Niliator {circa 358-230 
B.C.) and named after his 
mother ; modern Latakia, xiv. 

Laranda, a city in the southern 
part of Lycaonia, one of the 
chief seats of the Isaurian 
pirates, xiv. 2, 11. 

Latinus, xiv. 10, 8, note. 

Laumellum, a town of Transalpine 
Gaul on the road from Ticinum 
to Vercellae, xv. 8, 18. 

Lauricus, xix. 13, 2. 

Lemannus lacus, a lake in the 
western part of Gaul, now Lake 
Lernan, or the Lake of Geneva, 
XV. 11, 16. 

Lentienses, the southernmost tribe 
of the Alamanni, dwelling on 
the northern and southern 
borders of the Lake of Constance 
and north of Raetia, xv. 4, 1, 

Leontinus, xiv. 11, 14 ; xv. 7, 6. 

Libanus, a mountain of Syria, the 
Biblical Lebanon. Its name 
seems to be derived from a 
Hebrew root, " to be white," 
and it retains patches of snow 
even in summer; of. Tac, Hist. 
V. 6, Libanum, tatitos inter 
ardores opaciim fidnmqu« nivibus, 
xiv. 8, 9. 

VOL. I. 

Liberi Sarmatae, former slaves, 
who expelled their masters from 
their lands and made themselves 
free, xvii. 13, 1, 15. 

Limigantes Sarmatae, the free 
Sarmatians (Liberi Sarmatae, 
q.r.), xvii. 13; xix. 11. 

Lollianus, also called Mavortius 
(xvi. 8, 5), consul in 355, for- 
merly praetorian prefect in 
Italy, and prefect of Rome in 
342, XV. 8, 17. 

Lome, a fortress on the northern 
frontier of Mesopotamia, on 
Mt. Izala, xix. 9, 4. 

Lotophagi, the Lotus eaters of 
Homer, xiv. 6, 21. 

Lucania, a district of Italy, south- 
east of Campania, xv. 9, 7. 

Lucillianus, count-commander of 
the household troops, sent as an 
envoy to the Persian king ; 
afterwards commander of the 
cavalry and of .Tulian's fleet 
on the Euphrates, xiv. 11, 14; 
xvii. 14, 3 ; xviii. 6, 17. 

Lugdunensis, a province of Gaul, 
divided into First and Second, 
XV. 11, 3 ; 11, 11, 12, 17. 

Lugdunus (Lugdunum), a city of 
Gaul at the confluence of the 
Arar and the Rhone, modern 
Lyons, xv. 11, 11 ; xvi. 11, 4. 

Lupicinus, appointed commander 
of the cavalry in Gaul in place of 
Severus in 359, x\'iii. 2, 7, 11. 

Luscus, xiv. 7, 17. 

Lutetia, a city of Gaul on the 
Seine, modern Paris ; also called 
Lutetia Parisiorum, xv. 11, 3. 

Lutto, a count, a Frank by birth, 
xv. 6, 4. 

Lycaonia, a district of southern 
Asia Minor between Mt. Taurus 
and Galatia, and bordering on 
Isauria, Phrygia, and Cappa- 
docia, xiv. 2, 4, 8. 

Lycia, a province in south-western 
Asia Minor, xiv. 7, 18. 

Lycurgus, the celebrated Spartan 
legislator (flor. circa 800 B.C.), 
xvi. 5, 1, notes. 

Macedonia, a country north of 
Greece, made prominent by 




Macedonia — continued. 

Philip II. and Aluxaiider the 
Great ; a Roman province from 
146 B.C., at with Acliaia. 
In the fourth century it was 
divided into the provinces of 
Macedonia and Macedonia Salu- 
taris, xvii. 7, 1. 

JIaccilouici tines, xvii. 5, 5. 

Macelli fundus, a villa or fortress 
of Cappadocia, near Caesarea and 
Mt. Mazaca, xv. 2, 7, note. 

Macrianus, a king of tlie Alamanni, 
xvii. 2, 15. 

Magnentiacae legiones, xix. 5, 2 ; 
Magnentiaei, xviii. 9, 3 ; see note. 

Mugnentiana i)ars, xiv. 5, 1. 

Magnentius, Flavius Popilius, a 
German by birth, who rose under 
Constantine from the position of 
a common soldier to the rank of 
count. He was made com- 
mander of the Joviani and 
Herciiliani, troops substituted 
by Diocletian for the former 
pretorian guard ; see note 2, 
p. 3 ; xiv. 5, 6; xvi. 6, 2 ; 10, 1. 

Maharbal, commander of Hanni- 
bal's cavalry, xviii. 5, 6. 

Malarichus, xv. 5, 6. 

Mallius (Manlius) Priscus, lieu- 
tenant general of Pompey in the 
Mithradatic war, xiv. 7, 10. 

Mallobaudes, tribune of the lieavy- 
armed guard (armaturae). Be 
was a Frank by birth and after- 
wards became king of the 
Franks, xvi. 11, 21 ; xv. 5, 6. 

Mancinus, C. HostiUus, delivered to 
the Numantines tor having con- 
cluded a shameful peace with 
theminl37B.C. ; xiv. 11, 32 ; cf. 
Veil. Paterc. ii. 1 ; Flor. i. 34, 7. 

Maniciiaei, followers of Mani, the 
founder of an heretical Christian 
sect based on an old Babylonian 
religion modified by Christian 
and Persian elements. He was 
born about A.D. 215, and crucified 
in 277. His religion penetrated 
the Koman empire about 280 
and spread rapidly after 330, 
especially in Africa, xv. 13, 2. 

Maras, a deacon of the Christian 
sect, xiv. 9, 7. 


Marcellus, successor of Ursicinus 
as commander of the cavalry and 
infantry (xvi. 8, 8) ; an enemy 
and calumniator of Julian (xvi. 

4, 3 ; 7, 1 ; 8, 1) ; succeeded in 
turn by Severus, xvi. 10, 21. 

Marcius, an early Italic seer, xiv. 
1, 7, note. 

Marcus Aurelius, Roman emperor 
from A.D. 161 to 180, xiv. 4, 2 ; 
xvi. 1, 4. The mention of his 
name (Marcus) in xv. 7, 3 in 
connection with the septizonium 
of Septimius Severus is an error, 
due to the fact that the name 
Marcus appears first in the dedi- 
catory inscription (C'.I.L. vi. 
1032, 31229). 

Maride, a fortress of Mesopotamia, 
perhaps modern Mardin, xix. 9, 4. 

Marinus, xv. 3, 10-11. 

Martinus, deputy-governor {vica- 
rius) of Britain in 353-354, xiv. 

5, 7f. 

Martis statio, xv. 10, 6, note. 

Massa Veternensis, a city of Tuscia 
(Etruria) about twelve miles 
from the sea, on a hill overlooking 
the Maremma, xiv. 11, 27. 

Massilia, the famous city of south- 
ern Gaul, modern Slarseilles : 
founded by the Phocaeans (xv. 

9, 7) ; an ally of Rome xv. 11, 14. 
Matrona, an Alpine peak between 

Briancon and Cesanne ; see xv. 

10, 6, 'note. 

Matrona, a river of Gaul, a tribu- 
tary of the Sequana (Seine) ; 
modern Marne ; xv. 11, 3. 

Mattyocopus, see Eusebius (3), and 
note on, xv. 5, 4. 

Maiidio, a Frank holding the rank 
of count, XV. 6, 4. 

Mavortius, see Lolliauus. 

Maximinus (C. Julius Yerus), a 
Thracian, emperor of Rome from 
235 to 238 ; his wife, xiv. 1, 8, note. 

Medericus, a king of the Alamanni, 
xvi. 12, 25. 

Media, a country of western Asia, 
lying south and south-west of the 
Caspian sea, one of the most im- 
portant provinces of the Persian 
empire, afterwards conquered by 
the Parthians, xiv. 8, 13. 


Slediolaniira, originally tlic chief 
town of the Insubres in Cisalpine 
Gaul, between the Alps, the Po, 
and the rivers Ticinus and 
Addua ; modern Milan. Under 
the Roman empire it increased 
greatly in importance, especially 
after it was made an imperial 
residence (about A.D. 303), xiv. 
10, 16, etc. 

Mediolanum, at first the chief town 
of the Aulerci Eburovices ; later 
an important city of Lugdun- 
ensis Secunda ; modern Evreux, 
\v. H, 12. 

Mediomatrici (Mediomatricum), a 
city of Belgica Prima, on the 
Mosella ; modern Metz. The 
Mediomatrici were originally a 
Belgic people ; their chief city, 
Divodurum, was later called 
Mediomatrici, xv. 11, 9 ; xvii. 1, 2. 

Megaera, xiv. 1, 2, note. 

Meiacarire, a small town of Meso- 
potamia, xviii. 6, 16, note. 

Melas, a navigable river of Pam- 
phylia, flowing southward from 
Mt. Taurus into the Jlediter- 
ranean, xiv. 2, 9. 

Melitina (Mehtene), a town of 
Armenia Minor or eastern Cappa- 
docia ; in the fourth century the 
capital of Armenia Secunda, xix. 
8, 12. 

Menophilus, a eunuch of King 
Mithradates ; praised in xvi. 7, 
9-10 ; see note. 

Menus (Moenus, Maenus), a na\ig- 
able river of Germany, flowing 
into the Rhine not far from 
Mogontiacus (Mayence), the 
modern Main, xvii. 1, 6. 

Mercurius, the Roman god, identi- 
fied with the Greek Hermes, 
xvi, 5, .'>. 

Mercurius, a Persian, a pernicious 
informer, xv. 3, 4-5. 

Mesopotamia, the country of 
western Asia between the Euph- 
rates and Tigris rivers. It was 
annexed to the Roman empire 
by Trajan in a.d. 11-1, forming 
the three provinces of Armenia, 
Mesopotamia and Assyria. Tliese 
were given up by Hadrian, but 

Jfesopotamia — conliiniett. 

Mesopotamia was again con- 
quered by Lucius Verus. it was 
taken by the Persians from 
(ialerius, recovered later, and 
finally surrendered to Persia by 
Jovian in 363. In the time of 
Ammianus the Roman province 
was a small district in the north- 
western part of Mesopotamia, 
xiv. 3, 1, 2 ; xvii. 5, 6, 11 ; 14, 
1 ; xviii. 6, 5 ; 7, 3 ; 8, 2. 

Miltiades, the father of Cimon, 
x\ii. 11, 3. Victor at Marathon 
in 490 B.C. 

Minerva, the Roman goddess 
identified with the Greek Athena, 
xvi. 1, 5. 

Mitliradates (Mithiidates), refer- 
ring to Mithradates VI, sur- 
named the Great, king of Pontus 
from 120 to 63 B.C. He waged 
three wars with the Romans, but 
was conquered by Pompey and 
took his own life rather than fall 
into the hands of the Romans, 
xvi. 7, 9 ; 12, 41. 

Mobsuestia, a city in the eastern 
part of Cilicia on the river 
Pyramus, xiv. 8, 3. 

Mobsus (Mopsus), one of the 
Thessalian Lapithae ; he was a 
seer, and he took part in the 
expedition of the Argonauts 
(xiv. 8, 3) and the Calydonian 
hunt. He is said to have died 
in Libya from the bite of a snake, 
and to have been buried there by 
the Argonauts. 

Modestus, xix. 12, 6. 

Moesia, a region of south-western 
Europe, including modern Servia 
and Bulgaria, made a Roman 
province about A.D. 6. It was 
divided by Domitian into 
Moesia Superior and Inferior, 
later called Prima and Secunda, 
xvi, 10, 20 ; xvii. 13, 20. 

Mogontiacus (Moguntiacus), a city 
of Gaul on the Rliine, modern 
Mayence (Mainz), xv. 11, 8, etc. 

Monoecus, a stronghold and port at 
the foot of the Alps, supposed to 
have been founded by Hercules, 
modern Monaco, xv. 10, 9. 


NN 2 


Montius, xiv. 7. 12, 14, 15. 18 ; 9, 

4 ; 11, 18, etc. 
Mosa, a river of Belgium, Howiiig 

northward iuto the North Sea ; 

modern Maas (Meusc), xvii. 2, 2 ; 

Mosella, a tributary of the Rhine, 

modern Moselle." It joins the 

Rhine at Confluentes, xvi. 3, 1. 
Mursa, a town of Pannonia, the 

scene of the defeat of Magnen- 

tius ; modern Essek, xv. 5, 33, 

Musonianus, pretorian prefect in 

the Orient in 354-355, previously 

named Strategius, xv. 13, 1, 2 ; 

xvi. 9, 2 ; 10, 21 ; xvii. 5, 15. 

Nabataei, a people of Arabia 
Petraea, xiv. 8, 13. 

Narboua (Narbo Martius), a city of 
Gallia Narbonensis on the river 
Atax, twelve miles from the sea. 
It became a Roman colony and 
an important port in 118 B.C., 
XV. 11, 14. 

Xarbonensis, a province of south- 
eastern Gaul, later divided into 
First and Second, xv. 11, 6, 14 ; 
Narbonensis rector, xviii. 1, 4. 

Narsaeus, an envoy of the Persians, 
sent to Constantius in 357-8, 
xvii. 5, 2. 

Neapolis, an important city of 
Palestine, north of Jerusalem, 
modern Sichem or Schechem, 
xiv. 8, 11. 

Nebridius, Count of the Orient in 
354, xiv. 2, 20. 

Nemesis, a Greek goddess of 
reverence for law and order (cf. 
Astraea), and hence of retri- 
bution and vengeance, xiv. 11, 

Nemetae, a city of First Germany, 
modern Speyer or Spiers. Ori- 
ginally, Nemetae (Nemetes) was 
the name of a German tribe ; 
their capital, Noviomagus, was 
later called Nemetae, xv. 11, 8. 

Neptunus, the Italic god identified 
with the Greek Poseidon ; some 
of the epithets of Poseidon were 
transferred to Neptune, xvii. 
7, 12. 


Neronianiim sacculum, the time 
of Nero, emperor of Rome from 
A.D. 54 to 68; xv. 2, 5. 

Nevitta, a barbarian by birth, 
commander of a squadron of 
cavalry in 357, consul in 362 ; 
xvii. 6, 3. 

Nicaea, a city of south-eastern 
Gaul, a colony of MassUla ; 
modern Nice, XV. 11, 15. In the 
time of Ammianus it was in the 
province of Alpex Maritimae. 

Nicomedia, the chief city of Bithy- 
nia, founded by Nicomedes I. in 
264 B.C., who transferred to it 
the inhabitants of Asticum. It 
was severely damaged by an 
earthquake in 358 (xvii. 7, 1 ff.). 
It was in the diocese named 
Pietas by Constantius in honour 
of his wife Eusebia, xvii. 7, 6. 

Nilus, the Nile : Nili cataractae, 
xiv. 4, 3 ; XV. 4, 2 ; supereilia, 
xiv. 8, 5 ; alveus, xvii. 4, 

Nineve (Nineveh), a city of Adia- 
bene, a part of Assyria, on the 
river TrgrLs ; it was also called 
Ninus, and later HierapoUs, 
xviii. 7, 1 ; cf. xiv. 8, 7. 

Nisibeni, the people of Nisibis, 
xviii. 10, 1, 3. 

Nisibis, the chief city of Mygdonia, 
at the north-eastern end of Meso- 
potamia; modern Nisibin. It 
suffered many sieges, xiv. 9, 1 ; 
xviii. 6, 8, note ; xix. 9, 4, 9. 

Nohodares, a Persian grandee and 
general, xiv. 3, 1, 2 ; xviii. 6, 
16 ; 8, 3. 

Noricum, a Roman province west 
of Pannonia and south of the 
Danube. It was originally the 
land of the Norici, a Celtic race, 
anciently called the Taurisci. 
It was made a Roman province 
in 13 B.C., and later divided 
into Noricum Ripense (on the 
Danube) and Noricum Mediter- 
raneum (the southern part) ; 
each was governed by a praeses 
and both formed part of the 
diocese of lUyricum ; to-day the 
Tyrol and Bavaria, xv. 1, 2. 

Novembris mensis, xv. 8, 17. 


Novem populi, a division of Gaul, 
XV. 11, 14, note. In the fourth 
century it formed the province 
called Novenipopulana. 

Novesium, a city or fortress of 
Germany, on the Rhine ; modern 
Nuys, xviii. 2, 4. 

(Numantia), a city of Hispania 
Tarraconensis, besieged in 133 
B.C. and destroyed in the fol- 
lowing year by Scipio Africanus 
the younger, xvii. 11, 3. 

Numantini, the people of 
Xumantia, xiv. 11, 32. 

Numa Pompilius, the second king 
of Rome, xvi. 7, 4. 

Numerius, xviii. 1, 4. 

Nymphaeus, a river near Amida 
iq.v.), a tributary of the Tigri.'*, 
xviii. 9, -. 

Ocriculum, a town of Umbria on the 
via I'laniiuia, near the left bank 
of the Tiber ; modern Ocricoli, 
xvi. 10, 4. 

Octavianus, Augustus, the first 
emperor of Rome, xiv. 8, 11 ; 
XV. 10, 2 ; xvii. 4, 5, 12. His 
mausoleum is mentioned in 
xvii. 4, 16. 

Octobres idus, xiv. 5, 1. 

Odeum, xvi. 10, 14, note 5. 

Odrysae, a people of Thrace, 
dweUiug on both sides of the 
river Artiscus, a tributary of 
the Hebrus, xviii. 6, 5. 

(Olympias), daughter of Xeopto- 
lemus I, king of Epirus, and 
mother of Alexander the Great, 
xiv. 11, 22. 

Ophiusa, an earlier name of Rhodes, 
of which no less than eleven 
are recorded, xvii. 7, 13. 

Orfitus (Memniius Vitrasius Hono- 
rius), prefect of the city of 
Rome in 353-355 (xiv. 6, 1), and 
for a second time in 357-359 
(xvi. 10, 4). 

Oriens, the Orient, the Roman 
Prefecture of the East extending 
from the Euplu-ates to the Nile. 
It was divided into the dioceses 
of Egypt, the East, Pontus, 
Asia, and Tlirace, .xiv. 8. 

Orientates provinciae, see Oriens, 
.xiv. 7, 21. 

Ormizda, an exiled son of the king 
of Persia, xvi. 10, 16. 

Orontcs, a large river of Syria, 
rising in Coelesyria near Baalbek. 
It flows in a northerly direction 
to the neighbourhood of An- 
tiocli, where it turns west and 
empties into the Mediterranean, 
.xiv. 8, 10. 

Osdroene, a province in the 
northern part of Mesopotamia, 
xiv. 3, 2 ; 8, 7. 

Ostia, the port of Rome at the 
mouth of the Tiber. A temple 
of Castor and Pollux is men- 
tioned in xix. 10, 4. 

Ostiensis porta, the gate of Rome 
opening on the via Ostiensis, the 
modern Porta S. Paolo, xvii. 4, 

Pacis forum, xvi. 10, 4, note. 

Palaeae, a fortress of Isaiiria (?.c.), 
xiv. 2, 13. 

Palaestina, a district in Uu- 
southern part of Syria, xiv. 8, 
11 ; xix. 12, 8. 

Pamphylia, a country in the 
southern part of Asia Minor, 
bounded by Lycia, Pisidia, 
Cilicia, and the Mediterranean ; 
it was made a Roman province 
in the time of Augustus with 
Lycia, from which it was 
separated between 313 and 325 ; 
xiv. 2, 8 ; xvii. 11, 3. 

Pannonia, a district lying between 
the Danube on the north and 
east, Noricum on the west, and 
lUyrieum and Moesia on the 
south. It was made a province 
in A.D. 10, and later divided 
into Superior and Inferior, still 
later called Prima and Secunda, 
XV. 3, 7 ; xvi. 10, 20. Pannoniae, 
the two provinces, xvii. 12, 1, 

Pantheum, the famous temple at 
Rome, built by Agrippa in 27 
B.C., rebuilt by Hadrian in a.d. 
122, and restored by Sei)timius 
Severus in 202, xvi. 10, 14. 



Paphus, the name of two towns, 
Old and New Paphus, commonly 
referred to by the one name 
Paphus, at the south-western 
extremity of Cyprus. Both 
towns were famous for the 
worship of Venus ; modern 
Baffa, xiv. 8, H- 

Parisii, the name of a Gallic tribe, 
applied also to their fortress in 
Gaul on the Seine ; modern Paris ; 
see also Lutetia, xviii. 6, 16. 

Parnasius, mentioned in 3.58-3.'><) 
as a former prefect of EgjT)t, 
xix. 12, 10. 

Parthenium Mare (also called 
Issiacum), the eastern part of 
the Mediterranean, between 
Egypt and Cj-pms, xiv. 8, 10, 
note, where Ammianus seems to 
refer to the part of the sea 
adjacent to the Gulf of Issos in 
eastern Cilieia. 

Parthi (the Parthians), also called 
Persians, a people of Asia living 
south of the Caspian Sea, after 
A.D. 226 under the dominion of 
the Persians. In the course of 
the third century they increased 
greatly in power, and finally 
ruled the greater part of western 
Asia, xiv. 8. 13 ; xv. 1, 2. 

Parthicus, -a, -um, adj. to Parthi : 
gentes, xiv. 11, 4 ; fell't, xiv. 
7, 21 ; legio, the Fifth Legion, 
x%iii. 9, 3. 

Parthiseus, a river of Sarmatia, 
xvii. 13, i, note. 

Patrae. a city of Achaia near the 
opening of the Corinthian Gulf, 
modern Patras, xLx. 12, 10. 

(Patroclus), the friend and kins- 
man of Achilles, slain by Hector, 
xix. 1, 9. 

Patruinus, xv. 7, 5. 

(PauUna), xiv. 1, 8, note; cf. 
C.I.L. X. 5054, Dessau, 492. 

Paulus, a secretary surnamed 
Catena (q.v.). a pernicious in- 
former, xiv. 5, 6, 8 ; XV. 3, 4 ; 
called tartareus in xv. 6, 1. 
He was born in Dacia. 

Pelagia, another name for Rhodus, 
xvii. 7, 13 ; cf. Ophiusa. 


Peloponnesiacum bellum, the war 
between Athens and Sparta, and 
their respective allies, 431 to 
404 B.C., xix. 4, 4. 

Pentadius, xiv. 11, 21, 23. 

Persae, the Persians, also called 
Parthi, passim. 

Perseus, son of Jupiter and Daniie, 
said to have founded Tarsus, the 
chief city of Cilieia, xiv. 8, 3. 

Perseus, eldest son of Philip V anil 
the last king of Macedon. He 
reigned from 178 to 168, when 
he was defeated by L. Aemiliu- 
Paulus at Pydna, xiv. 11, 31. 

Petrus, surnamed Valuomeres, 
XV. 7, 4. 

Phaeaces, the Phaeaciaiis of Homer, 
a people devoted to fea.sting, 
music, and dancing. They lived 
on an island called Phaeacia, 
and also Scheria, lying in the 
extreme western part of the 
world, and identified by the 
ancients with Corcyra. the 
modern Corfu, xviii. 5, 7, note. 

Philadelphia, a city of Arabia 
Petraea, modern Amman, xiv. 
8, 13. 

Philippus (Flavins), consul in 348 
and a praetorian prefect, xix. 
12, 9. 

Philoromus, a charioteer at Rome 
in 355, xv. 7, 2. 

Philoxenus, a Greek dithyrambi<: 
poet, born in Cythera, the island 
south of Laconia, in 435 B.C. 
He spent some time at the 
court of Dionysius I, the tyrant 
of SjTacuse, but offended him 
and was put in prison. He was 
later released and went to 
Ephesus, where he died in 380 
B.C., xv. 5, 37, note. 

Phocaea, the most northern of the 
Ionian cities on the western 
coast of Asia Jlinor. After the 
Persian conquest of Ionia the 
Phocaeans left their homes and 
withdrew to their colony Aleria 
in Corsica. They are said to 
have founded Massilia (Mar- 
seilles), and Velia in Lucania, 
XV. 9, 7. 


Plioenice, Phoenida, a narrow and 
mountainous country along the 
coast of Syria, between Mount 
Libanus (Lebanon) and the Medi- 
terranean. It is described in xiv, 
8, 9. It was included in the 
Roman province of Syria about 
the middle of the first century 
B.C., and later became a separate 
province, xiv. 7, 7. Tiie province 
of Ammianus' day did not in- 
clude the whole of Phoenicia, but 
Piioenicia Libani extended east- 
ward beyond Palmyra. 
Picenses, a Sarmatian people, 
neiglibours of tlie Amicenses, 
xvii. 13, 19, note. 
Piceuum, a district of Italy, lying 
between the Adriatic on the east 
and the Umbriaus and Sabines on 
the west ; it submitted to Rome 
in 268 B.C., XV. 7, 5. 
Pictavl, later called Pictones, a 
people horderinK on the Atlantic 
soutii of the Liger (Loire), in the 
province of Aquitania in it« 
widest sense. Tlie name was 
also applied to their chief town, 
modern Poitiers, xv. 11, 13. 
Pietas, a diocese about Xicomedia 
in Bithynia, so named by Con- 
stautius IT. in honour of his 
wife Eusebia, x%'ii. 7, 6. 
Piscina publica, a region of Rome ; 

see x%ii. 4, 14, note. 
Pisidia, a region of Asia Minor, 
nortli of Lycia, Pamphylia and 
t'ilicia, and south of Phrygia 
and Lycaonia, xiv. 2, 1. 
I'itticas, a surname of Eusebiiis (1). 
Plato, the celebrated Athenian 
philosopher (429 or 427-347 
B.C.), xvi. 5, 10. 
(Plautus), the Roman comic poet 
(circa 2.54-184). xv. 13, 3, note. 
Poemenius, xv. 6, 4. 
Poeni, the Carthaginians ; pro- 
perly Phoenicians, from whom 
tlie Carthaginians were de- 
scended, xvii. 4, 3. 
Poeninae Alpes, the part of the 
Alps between the Great St. 
Bernard and the Simplon, 
XV. 10, 9 : for a reason for the 
name, see xv. 10, 10. 

Pola, a town of Istria at the head 
of the Adriatic, later a Roman 
colony named Pietas, xiv. 11, 
20 : see also Crispus. 
I'omerium, xiv. 6, 22. In tlic 
time of Ammianus the word 
commonly designates the wall 
of Aurelian, begun in 271. 
Pompei theatrum, Pompey's 
theatre at Rome, completed in 
55 B.C. The first permanent 
theatre in that city, xvi. 10, 14. 
Pompeiiis, Cn., surnamed JIagnus, 
106-48 B.C. He subdued the 
Syrian provinces, xiv. 8, 10 ; 
conquered Mitliradates, xvi. 7, 
10; was murdered in Egypt, 
xiv. 11, 32. He was ridiculed 
for frivolous reasons, xvii. 
11, 4, note. 
Pompilianum tempus, xiv. 6, 6. 
Pompilius, see Numa Pompilius. 
Ponticus, see Hermogenes. 
Pontus, a region in the nortli- 
eastern Asia Minor, along the 
coast of the Euxine (Blaclc) 
Sea. It was important in the 
history of Asia Minor from the 
fourth century to 66 B.C., when 
its king Mithradates VI was 
vanquished by Pompey. It 
was made a part of the Roman 
pro\ince of Cappadocia in a.d. 
17, and was later a separate 
province, x't'ii. 7, 1. 
Portus Augusti, the harbour at 
Ostia at the moutii of the 
Tiber, constructed by the em- 
peror Claudius and enlarged by 
Trajan, xis. 10, 1. 
Praxiteles, one of tlie greatest Greek 
sculptors of the fourth century 
(born circa 390 B.C.), especially 
famous for his C'nidian Venus 
and his Eros, and in modern 
times for his Herme